Clitoromegaly

“ Pseudo-phallus ” redirects here. For penis-like appendages in female non-human animals, see Pseudo-penis. For the pipefish genus, see Pseudophallus medical circumstanceClitoromegalyClitoromegaly2.jpgA woman with clitoromegalySpecialtyGynaecology Edit this on Wikidata
Clitoromegaly ( or macroclitoris [ 1 ] ) is an abnormal enlargement of the clitoris that is by and large congenital or acquired, though intentionally induced clitoris expansion as a imprint of female genital body modification is achieved through assorted uses of anabolic steroids, including testosterone . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Clitoromegaly is not the like as normal expansion of the clitoris seen during sexual foreplay .

presentation [edit ]

The different grade of genital ambiguity is normally measured by the Prader classification, [ 6 ] which ranges, in ascending order of masculinization, from 1 : female external genitalia with clitoromegaly through 5 : pseudo-phallus looking like normal male external genitalia. [ 7 ]

Reading: Clitoromegaly

Causes [edit ]

Clitoromegaly is a rare condition and can be either present by birth or acquired later in life. If portray at parentage, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be one of the causes, since in this condition the adrenal gland gland of the female fetus produces extra androgens and the newborn child has equivocal genitalia which are not clearly male or female. In meaning women who received norethisterone during pregnancy, masculinization of the fetus occurs, resulting in hypertrophy of the clitoris ; [ 8 ] however, this is rarely seen nowadays due to use of safe progestogens. It can besides be caused by the autosomal recessive allele congenital perturb known as Fraser syndrome. [ 9 ] In acquired clitoromegaly, the chief cause is endocrine hormonal asymmetry affecting the adult charwoman, including polycystic ovarian syndrome ( PCOS ) [ 10 ] and hyperthecosis. Acquired clitoromegaly may besides be caused by pathologies affecting the ovaries and other hormone glands. These pathologies may include virulent ( such as arrhenoblastoma ) and neurofibromatosic tumors. [ 11 ] Another campaign is clitoral cysts. [ 12 ] sometimes there may be no obvious clinical or hormonal reason. [ 2 ] female bodybuilders and athletes who use androgens, primarily to enhance mesomorphic increase, forte and appearance ( see Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport ), may besides experience distinctly discernible enlargement of the clitoris and increases in libido. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] For transgender men taking testosterone as part of transgender hormone therapy ( female-to-male ) masculinization of the clitoris may be a craved effect. Women who use testosterone for remedy reasons ( treating depleted libido, averting osteoporosis, as part of an anti-depressant regimen, etc. ) experience some expansion of the clitoris, although the dosages warranted for these conditions are much lower. Pseudoclitoromegaly or pseudohypertrophy of the clitoris “ has been reported in little girls due to masturbation : manipulations of the skin of prepuce leads to repeated mechanical injury, which expands the prepuce and labium minora, therefore imitating true clitoral expansion ”. [ 2 ]

anatomy [edit ]

In Atlas of Human Sex Anatomy ( 1949 ) by Robert Latou Dickinson, the typical clitoris is defined as having a crosswise width of 3 to 4 millimeter ( 0.12 – 0.16 inches ) and a lengthways width of 4 to 5 millimeter ( 0.16 – 0.20 inches ). [ 15 ] On the other hand, in obstetrics and gynecology checkup literature, a frequent definition of clitoromegaly is when there is a clitoral index ( product of lengthways and crosswise widths ) of greater than 35 mm2 ( 0.05 inches2 ), which is about twice the size given above for an average sized clitoral hood. [ 16 ]

Human rights concerns [edit ]

early surgical decrease of clitoromegaly via full or partial clitoridectomy is controversial, and hermaphrodite women exposed to such treatment have spoken of their loss of physical sensation, and personnel casualty of autonomy. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] In late years, human rights institutions have criticized early surgical management of such characteristics. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ]

In 2013, it was disclosed in a checkup daybook that four nameless elect female athletes from developing countries were subjected to gonadectomies and partial clitoridectomies after testosterone testing revealed that they had an hermaphrodite condition. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] In April 2016, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on health, Dainius Pūras, condemned this treatment as a form of female genital mutilation “ in the absence of symptoms or health issues warranting those procedures. ” [ 24 ]

See besides [edit ]

  • Pseudo-penis, an enlarged clitoris or other penis-like structure that is normally present in some mammal, bird, and insect species

References [edit ]

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