Body Functions & Life Process
body functions are the physiologic or psychological functions of body systems. The body ‘s functions are ultimately its cells ‘ functions. survival is the body ‘s most important business. Survival depends on the body ‘s uphold or restoring homeostasis, a state of proportional constancy, of its inner environment .
More than a century ago, french physiologist, Claude Bernard ( 1813-1878 ), made a remarkable observation. He noted that body cells survived in a healthy condition merely when the temperature, coerce, and chemical composition of their environment remained relatively constant. former, an american physiologist, Walter B. Cannon ( 1871-1945 ), suggested the name homeostasis for the relatively constant states maintained by the body. Homeostasis is a key parole in modern physiology. It comes from two greek words – “ homeo, ” meaning the same, and “ stasis, ” meaning standing. “ Standing or staying the lapp ” then is the literal mean of homeostasis. however, as Cannon emphasized, homeostasis does not mean something set and immobile that stays precisely the like all the fourth dimension. In his words, homeostasis “ means a condition that may vary, but which is relatively ceaseless. ”
Homeostasis depends on the body ‘s endlessly carrying on many activities. Its major activities or functions are responding to changes in the body ‘s environment, exchanging materials between the environment and cells, metabolizing foods, and integrating all of the body ‘s diverse activities .
The body ‘s ability to perform many of its functions changes gradually over the years. In cosmopolitan, the soundbox performs its functions least well at both ends of life – in infancy and in old age. During childhood, body functions gradually become more and more effective and effective. During late maturity and old age the opposite is true. They gradually become less and less effective and effective. During young adulthood, they normally operate with utmost efficiency and effectiveness.
All living organisms have certain characteristics that distinguish them from inanimate forms. The basic processes of biography include administration, metabolism, responsiveness, movements, and reproduction. In humans, who represent the most complex form of life, there are extra requirements such as growth, differentiation, respiration, digestion, and elimination. All of these processes are interrelated. No contribution of the body, from the smallest cell to a dispatch body system, works in isolation. All routine together, in polish libra, for the well being of the individual and to maintain life. Disease such as cancer and death represent a disturbance of the libra in these processes .
The follow are a brief description of the life process :
At all levels of the organizational dodge, there is a division of department of labor. Each component has its own speculate to perform in cooperation with others. even a single cell, if it loses its integrity or organization, will die .
metabolism is a broad condition that includes all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. One phase of metamorphosis is catabolism in which building complex substances are broken down into simple construct blocks and energy is released .
responsiveness or temper is concerned with detecting changes in the inner or external environments and reacting to that change. It is the act of sensing a stimulation and responding to it .
There are many types of movement within the body. On the cellular level, molecules move from one place to another. blood moves from one part of the body to another. The diaphragm moves with every breath. The ability of muscle fibers to shorten and thus to produce campaign is called contractility.
For most people, reproduction refers to the geological formation of a newly person, the parturition of a pamper. In this manner, life is transmitted from one generation to the next through reproduction of the organism. In a broader smell, reproduction besides refers to the formation of newfangled cells for the surrogate and animate of old cells vitamin a well as for growth. This is cellular reproduction. Both are all-important to the survival of the human race .
Growth refers to an increase in size either through an increase in the count of cells or through an addition in the size of each individual cell. In order for growth to occur, anabolic processes must occur at a faster rate than catabolic processes .
differentiation is a developmental process by which unspecialized cells change into specialized cells with distinctive structural and functional characteristics. Through specialization, cells develop into tissues and organs .
respiration refers to all the processes involved in the change of oxygen and carbon paper dioxide between the cells and the external environment. It includes ventilation, the diffusion of oxygen and carbon paper dioxide, and the transport of the gases in the blood. cellular breathing deals with the cell ‘s use of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide in its metabolism .
digestion is the summons of breaking down complex consume foods into bare molecules that can be absorbed into the blood and utilize by the body.
body waste is the process that removes the waste products of digestion and metabolism from the body. It gets rid of by-products that the body is ineffective to use, many of which are toxic and ill-sorted with life .
The ten-spot life sentence processes described above are not enough to ensure the survival of the individual. In accession to these processes, life depends on certain physical factors from the environment. These include water, oxygen, nutrients, heating system, and pressure.