Non-binary gender

Gender identities other than male or female
“ Enby ” and “ Non-binary ” redirect here. For the greenwich village in Estonia, see Einbi. For other uses, see Binary ( disambiguation )
Non-binary [ a ] or genderqueer is an umbrella condition for gender identities that are neither male nor female ‍—‌identities that are outside the gender binary star. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Non-binary identities fall under the transgender umbrella, since non-binary people typically identify with a sex that is different from their assigned sex, [ 3 ] though some non-binary individuals do not consider themselves transgender. [ 4 ]

Non-binary people may identify as an intermediate or separate third gender, [ 5 ] identify with more than one sex, [ 6 ] [ 7 ] no gender ( agender ), or have a fluctuate gender identity ( genderfluid ). [ 8 ] Gender identity is separate from intimate or romantic orientation course, [ 9 ] and non-binary people have a kind of sexual orientations, good as cisgender people do. [ 10 ] Being non-binary is besides not the like as being hermaphrodite ; most hermaphrodite people identify as either male or female. [ 11 ] Non-binary people as a group deviate in their gender expressions, and some may reject gender “ identities ” wholly. [ 12 ] Some non-binary people are medically treated for gender dysphoria with operation or hormones, as trans men and trans women frequently are. [ 13 ]

Terms, definitions, and identities

“ Bigender ” redirects here. For the intimate drawing card to more than one gender, see bisexual
“Mon genre est non-binaire” (“My gender is non-binary”) A non-binary pride flag at a parade in Paris recitation ( “ My gender is non-binary ” ) The condition genderqueer originated in thwart zines of the 1980s as a harbinger to the term non-binary. [ 14 ] It gained wider use in the 1990s among political activists, [ 15 ] specially Riki Anne Wilchins. [ 16 ] Wilchins used the term in a 1995 try published in the beginning topic of In Your Face to describe anyone who is sex nonconforming, and identified as genderqueer in their 1997 autobiography. [ 17 ] [ 18 ] Wilchins was besides one of the independent contributors to the anthology Genderqueer: Voices Beyond the Sexual Binary published in 2002. [ 19 ] The internet allowed the term genderqueer to spread tied further than zines, and by the 2010s the condition was introduced to the mainstream via celebrities who publicly identified under the genderqueer umbrella. [ 15 ] Genderqueer is often used to self-identify by people who challenge binary star social constructions of sex. [ 20 ] [ page needed ] In addition to being an umbrella term for non-binary gender identities, genderqueer has been used as an adjective to refer to any people who are perceived to transcend or divert from traditional distinctions of gender, careless of their sex identity. Individuals may express gender non-normatively by not conforming into the binary sex categories of “ man ” and “ woman ”. [ 21 ] The condition genderqueer has besides been applied by those describing what they see as sex ambiguity. [ 22 ] [ page needed ] Androgynous ( besides androgyne ) is frequently used as a descriptive term for people in this category. This is because the term androgyny is close associated with a blend of socially defined masculine and feminine traits. [ 23 ] [ page needed ] however, not all genderqueer people identify as androgynous. Some genderqueer people identify as a masculine woman or a feminine world or combine genderqueer with another gender choice. [ 24 ] Being non-binary is not the same as being hermaphrodite, and most hermaphrodite people identify as either male or female. [ 11 ] Some people use enby ( from the letters ‘NB ‘ ) as a short-circuit kind of non-binary. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] many references use the term transgender to include genderqueer/non-binary people. [ 12 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] This use of the parole as a broad terminus for diverse kinds of gender variation dates to at least 1992 and the issue of Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time Has Come by Leslie Feinberg. [ 15 ] In 1994, non-binary generator Kate Bornstein wrote that “ All the categories of transgender find a common ground in that they each break one or more of the rules of gender : What we have in common is that we are sex outlaws, every one of us. ” [ 29 ] The Human Rights Campaign Foundation and Gender Spectrum use the terminus gender-expansive to convey “ a wide, more elastic range of sex identity and/or expression than typically associated with the binary sex system ”. [ 30 ] Agender people ( ‘ a – ‘ meaning “ without ” ), besides called genderless, gender-free, non-gendered, or ungendered, [ 31 ] [ 32 ] are those who identify as having no sex or being without a sex identity. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] [ 35 ] Although this category includes a across-the-board image of identities which do not conform to traditional gender norms, scholar Finn Enke states that people who identify with any of these positions may not necessarily self-identify as transgender. [ 36 ] Agender people have no particular set of pronouns ; singular they is typically used, but it is not the default. [ 37 ] Neutrois and agender were two of 50 available custom genders on Facebook, which were added on 13 February 2014. [ 38 ] Agender is besides available as a gender choice on OkCupid since 17 November 2014. [ 39 ] Bigender ( besides bi-gender or dual gender ) people have two gender identities and behaviors. Identifying as bigender is typically understand to mean that one identifies as both male and female or moves between masculine gender expression and womanly gender expression, having two clear-cut sex identities simultaneously or fluctuating between them. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] [ 42 ] This is different from identifying as genderfluid, as those who identify as genderfluid may not go back and forth between any cook sex identities and may experience an integral range or spectrum of identities over clock. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] The American Psychological Association describes the bigender identity as separate of the umbrella of transgender identities. [ 45 ] Some bigender individuals express two distinct personas, which may be womanly, masculine, agender, hermaphrodite, or other sex identities ; others find that they identify as two genders simultaneously. A 1999 surveil conducted by the San Francisco Department of Public Health observed that, among the transgender community, 3 % of those who were assigned male at birth and 8 % of those who were assigned female at parentage identified as either “ a transvestic, transvestite, drag queen, or a bigendered person ”. [ 46 ] A 2016 Harris poll conducted on behalf of GLAAD found that 1 % of millennials identify as bigender. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Trigender people shift among male, female, and third base sex. [ 49 ] Demigender people identify partially or largely with one gender and at the lapp time with another sex. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] There are several subcategories of the identity. A demi-boy or demi-man, for case, identifies at least partially with being a boy or a homo ( no matter the sex and sex they were assigned at parentage ) and partially with other genders or with no other gender ( agender ). A demiflux person feels that the stable part of their identity is non-binary. [ 51 ] Pangender ( besides polygender or omnigender ) people have multiple sex identities. [ 52 ] Some may identify as all genders at the same clock. [ 53 ] Genderfluid people frequently express a hope to remain elastic about their gender identity rather than committing to a single definition. [ 54 ] They may fluctuate among differing gender expressions over their life, or express multiple aspects of assorted gender markers at the like meter. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] A genderfluid individual may besides identify as bigender, trigender, or pangender. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 56 ] Transfeminine is a terminus for any person, binary star or non-binary, who was assigned male at birth and has a predominantly feminine sex identity or presentation ; transmasculine is the equivalent term for person who was assigned female at give birth and has a predominantly masculine sex identity or presentation. [ 57 ] In a 1990 Indigenous LGBT gather in Winnipeg, the term two-spirit, which refers to third-gender or gender-variant people from autochthonal north american communities, was created “ to distinguish and distance Native American/First Nations people from non-Native peoples ”. [ 58 ]

history

In 1776, the Public Universal Friend identified as a genderless evangelist, and subsequently shunned both parentage name and gendered pronouns, [ 59 ] [ 60 ] an early exemplify of an american publicly identifying as not binary. [ 61 ] In 1781, Jens Andersson ( born circa 1760 ) was imprisoned and put on test before his marry sidereal day ; when asked about his sex, the reaction was “ Hand troer at kunde henhøre til begge Deele ” ( “ He believes he belongs to both ” ). [ 62 ] In 2012, the Intersex & Genderqueer Recognition Project was started to advocate for expanding gender options on official software documentation. [ 63 ] In 2016, James Shupe was the first person to have a non-binary sex on official documents in the United States. [ 64 ] In 2015, legislator Estefania Cortes-Vargas came out as non-binary in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta during a argue over the inclusion body of transgender rights in the peasant human rights code. [ 65 ]

Pronouns and titles

Common non-binary pronouns
Non-binary preferred pronouns chart.png
According to a 2021 survey, the five most popular pronoun sets used by non-binary people are they, he, she, none/avoid pronouns, and it.[66]
Pronoun pin badges from a 2016 art and technical school festival Some non-binary or genderqueer people use gender-neutral pronouns. In English, use of singular ‘they ‘, ‘their ‘ and ‘them ‘ is the most common ; [ 66 ] [ 67 ] non-standard pronouns – normally referred to as neopronouns [ 68 ] – such as xenon, ze, sie, colorado, and ey are sometimes used angstrom well. Some others use conventional gender-specific pronouns ‘he ‘ or ‘she ‘, alternately use ‘he ‘ and ‘she ‘, or use alone their name and do not use pronouns at all. [ 69 ] many use extra neutral language, such as the style ‘ Mx. ‘ [ 70 ]

Legal recognition

many non-binary/genderqueer people use the gender they were given at birth to conduct casual clientele, as many institutions and forms of identification – such as passports and driver ‘s licenses – merely accept, in the common sense of recorded recognition, binary sex identities. however, with the increasing acceptance of non-binary gender identities and the ascend in wide social recognition, this is slowly switch, as a greater number of governments and institutions recognize and allow non-binary identities. [ 2 ] multiple countries legally recognize non-binary or third sex classifications. Some non-Western societies have hanker recognized transgender people as a third base sex, though this may not ( or may only recently ) [ 71 ] include dinner dress legal recognition. In western societies, Australia may have been the first nation to legally recognize a classification of sex outside of ‘male ‘ and ‘female ‘ on legal documentation, following the recognition of Alex MacFarlane ‘s hermaphrodite status in 2003. [ 72 ] The wide legal recognition of non-binary people – following the recognition of hermaphrodite people in 2003 – in australian law followed between 2010 and 2014, with legal action taken against the New South Wales Government Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages by transgender activist Norrie May-Welby to recognize Norrie ‘s legal gender identity as ‘non-specific ‘. India ‘s Supreme Court formally recognized transgender and non-binary people as a discrete third base sex in 2014, following legal military action taken by transgender militant Laxmi Narayan Tripathi. [ 73 ] In July 2021, Argentina incorporated non-binary sex in its national ID wag, becoming the first nation in South America to legally recognize non-binary gender on all official documentation ; non-binary people in the country will have the option to renew their ID with the letter ‘X ‘ under gender. [ 74 ] [ 75 ] While the United States does not federally recognize a non-binary gender, in 2016 Oregon became the beginning state to recognize a non-binary sex identity. [ 76 ] Following Oregon, in 2017 California passed an act allowing citizens to identify as ‘non-binary ‘ on official documents. [ 76 ] As of 2019, eight states have passed acts that allow ‘non-binary ‘ or ‘X ‘ designations on certain identify documents. [ 76 ] One of the chief arguments against the inclusion body of a third sex identifier in the U.S. is that it would make jurisprudence enforcement and surveillance hard, however countries that have formally recognized a third sex marker have not reported these issues. [ 76 ] In the United States there are no denotative laws to protect non-binary people from discrimination, however it is illegal for an employer to require employees to conform to sex stereotypes. [ 77 ]

discrimination

diverse countries throughout history have criminalized transgender and non-binary gender identities. [ 78 ] [ better source needed ] In the United States, the majority of respondents to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey chose “ A sex not listed here ”. The “ not listed here ” respondents were nine percentage-points ( 33 percentage ) more likely to report forgoing healthcare due to fear of discrimination than the general sample ( 36 percentage compared to 27 percentage ). Ninety percentage reported experiencing anti-trans bias at oeuvre, and 43 percentage reported having attempted suicide. [ 79 ] The majority of reported discrimination faced by non-binary individuals often includes neglect, incredulity, condescending interactions, and disrespect. [ 76 ] People who are non-binary are besides frequently viewed as partake in function of a tendency and are thus deemed insincere or attention-seeking. As an collection, erasure is often a large form of discrimination faced by non-binary individuals. [ 76 ] Misgendering is besides a problem that many individuals face, be it intentional or unintentional. In the shell of designed misgendering, transphobia is a drive effect. besides, the use of they/them pronouns is lumped into the larger, controversial, topic of safe spaces and political correctness, [ 80 ] causing push back, and intentional misgendering from some individuals .

Symbols and observances

many flags have been used in non-binary and genderqueer communities to represent respective identities. There are distinct non-binary and genderqueer pride flags. The genderqueer pride sag was designed in 2011 by Marilyn Roxie. Lavender represents androgyny or homosexuality, white represents agender identity, and green represents those whose identities which are defined outside the binary. [ 83 ] [ 84 ] [ 85 ] The non-binary pride flag was created in 2014 by Kye Rowan. [ 86 ] yellow represents people whose gender exists outside the binary star, purple represents those whose sex is a mix of – or between – male and female, black represents people who have no gender, and white represents those who embrace many or all genders. [ 87 ] Genderfluid people, who besides fall under the genderqueer umbrella, have their own flag as well. Pink represents femininity, white represents miss of gender, purple represents desegregate gender or androgyny, black represents all other genders, and blasphemous represents maleness. [ 84 ] [ 88 ] Agender people, who besides sometimes identify as genderqueer, have their own flag. This flag uses blacken and white stripes to represent an absence of sex, and a green stripe to represent non-binary genders. [ 89 ] International Non-Binary People ‘s Day is celebrated on 14 July. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ]

population figures

According to a 2021 study by the Williams Institute, an estimated 1.2 million Americans identify as non-binary, making up 11 % of the LGBTQ adult population in the United States. [ 96 ] A 2019 view of the Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ population in the Canadian city of Hamilton, Ontario, called Mapping the Void: Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ Experiences in Hamilton showed that 19 % of the 906 respondents identified as non-binary. [ 97 ] A 2017 sketch of canadian LGBT+ people called LGBT+ Realities Survey found that 4 % of the 1,897 respondents identified as non-binary transgender and 1 % identified as non-binary outside of the transgender umbrella. [ 98 ] According to The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, 35 % of the closely 28,000 transgender respondents to the anonymous on-line surveil identified as non-binary. [ 99 ] [ 100 ] A 2011 review conducted by the Equality and Human Rights Commission in the UK found that 0.4 % of the 10,039 respondents identified as non-binary. It does not allow inference about the share of non-binary people in the whole population, since the view sample was not inevitably representative. The function of the survey was to test if respondents are volition to answer questions about their transsexual condition. [ 101 ] :4-5

See besides

Notes

  1. ^nonbinary. The term enby, from the abbreviation ‘NB’, is also used.[1] besides spelled. The term, from the abbreviation ‘NB ‘, is besides used .

References

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