Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults, by Household Income and Education — United States, 2011–2014

NHANES will continue to be an important source of data on disparities in fleshiness prevalence. These data will help track the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing fleshiness disparities and might inform CDC, state of matter, or local fleshiness prevention programs. analysis of data from the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( NHANES ) examining the affiliation between fleshiness and education and fleshiness and income among U.S. adults demonstrate that fleshiness prevalence patterns by income vary between women and men and by race/Hispanic origin. The preponderance of fleshiness decreased with increasing income in women ( from 45.2 % to 29.7 % ), but there was no deviation in fleshiness preponderance between the lowest ( 31.5 % ) and highest ( 32.6 % ) income groups among men. furthermore, fleshiness prevalence was lower among college graduates than among persons with less department of education for non-Hispanic white women and men, non-Hispanic black women, and spanish american women, but not for non-Hispanic asian women and men or non-Hispanic black or hispanic men. The association between fleshiness and income or educational tied is complex and differs by sexual activity, and race/non-Hispanic origin. Studies have suggested that fleshiness prevalence varies by income and educational level, although patterns might differ between high-income and low-income countries ( 13 ). previous analyses of U.S. data have shown that the prevalence of fleshiness varied by income and education, but results were not reproducible by sex and race/Hispanic origin ( 4 ). Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( NHANES ), CDC analyzed fleshiness preponderance among adults ( aged ≥20 years ) by three levels of family income, based on percentage ( ≤130 %, > 130 % to ≤350 %, and > 350 % ) of the union poverty grade ( FPL ) and individual education tied ( high gear school alumnus or less, some college, and college graduate ). During 2011–2014, the age-adjusted preponderance of fleshiness among adults was lower in the highest income group ( 31.2 % ) than the early groups ( 40.8 % [ > 130 % to ≤350 % ] and 39.0 % [ ≤130 % ] ). The age-adjusted prevalence of fleshiness among college graduates was lower ( 27.8 % ) than among those with some college ( 40.6 % ) and those who were high educate graduates or less ( 40.0 % ). The patterns were not consistent across all sexual activity and racial/Hispanic lineage subgroups. Continued advance is needed to achieve the Healthy People 2020 targets of reducing age-adjusted fleshiness preponderance to < 30.5 % and reducing disparities ( 5 ) .
NHANES is a semiannual cross-section view designed to monitor the health and nutritional condition of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population ( 6 ). The sketch consists of in-home interviews and standardize forcible examinations conducted in fluid examination centers. During the physical examination, standardize measurements of weight and height were obtained. Body mass index ( BMI ) was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by stature in meters squared. Obesity was defined as a BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The NHANES sample distribution is selected through a complex, multistage probability purpose. Participants self-reported race/Hispanic lineage, and were divided into five categories : non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic Asian, Hispanic and “ other. ” During 2011–2014, non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic Asian, and hispanic persons, among early groups, were oversampled. A entire of 308 non-Hispanic persons reporting early races or more than one race were placed in an “ early ” class, and their data were included in the overall results. The NHANES examination response rate for adults aged ≥20 years was 64.5 % in the 2011–2012 survey and 63.7 % in the 2013–2014 survey.

Household income was categorized using FPL data, which accounts for inflation and family size ( hypertext transfer protocol : //aspe.hhs.gov/prior-hhs-poverty-guidelines-and-federal-register-referencesExternal ) ; income levels were designated as ≤130 %, > 130 % to ≤350 %, and > 350 % of FPL. The dilute point for participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program is 130 % of the poverty level, and 350 % provides relatively adequate sample sizes for each of the three income groups. education was categorized deoxyadenosine monophosphate high school calibrate or less, some college, and college alumnus .
All estimates were adjusted to account for the building complex survey design, including examination sample distribution weights. Estimates were age-adjusted to the 2000 projected U.S. Census population using the age groups 20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years. confidence intervals for estimates were calculated using the Wald method acting. Differences between income and education groups were tested using a bilateral, univariate t-statistic, with statistical significance defined as a p-value of < 0.05. temporal role trends from 1999–2002 to 2011–2014 were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts and 2-year survey cycles. pregnant women ( 122 ) and participants with missing weight or acme ( 571 ) were excluded, resulting in a total sample size of 10,636 for the period 2011–2014. For estimates by FPL, an extra 851 participants were excluded because of missing FPL data, and for estimates by education, eight participants were excluded because information on education was missing.

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During 2011–2014, the age-adjusted prevalence of fleshiness was 38.3 % among women and 34.3 % among men ( table ). The preponderance of fleshiness was 34.5 % among non-Hispanic white adults, 48.1 % among non-Hispanic black adults, 11.7 % among non-Hispanic asian adults, and 42.5 % among spanish american adults .
Among women, prevalence was lower in the highest income group ( 29.7 % ) than in the middle ( 42.9 % ) and lowest ( 45.2 % ) income groups. This convention was observed among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic Asian, and hispanic women, but it was only meaning for white women. Among non-Hispanic black women, there was no deviation in fleshiness prevalence among the income groups.

Among men, the prevalence of fleshiness was lower in both the lowest ( 31.5 % ) and highest ( 32.6 % ) income groups compared with the middle-income group ( 38.5 % ). This traffic pattern was seen among both non-Hispanic white and spanish american men, although among non-Hispanic white men, the difference between the highest-income and middle-income groups was not statistically significant. Among non-Hispanic black men, fleshiness preponderance was higher in the highest income group ( 42.7 % ) than in the lowest income group ( 33.8 % ). There was no remainder in fleshiness prevalence by income among non-Hispanic asian men .
In 2011–2014, the prevalence of fleshiness was lower among women and men who were college graduates ( 27.8 % [ women ], 27.9 % [ men ] ) than among women and men with some college ( 41.2 %, 40.0 % ) and women and men who were high school graduates or less ( 45.3 %, 35.5 % ). By race/Hispanic origin, the lapp radiation pattern was seen among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and hispanic women, and besides among non-Hispanic egg white men, although the differences were not all statistically significant. Although the deviation was not statistically significant among non-Hispanic black men, fleshiness preponderance increased with educational skill. Among non-Hispanic asian women and men and hispanic men there were no differences in fleshiness prevalence by education degree .
From 1999–2002 to 2011–2014 the prevalence of fleshiness increased among women in the two lower income groups, but not among women living in households with incomes above 350 % of FPL. Obesity prevalence increased among men in all three income groups during this period ( Figure 1 ). Obesity prevalence besides increased among both women and men in all education groups except men who were college graduates ( Figure 2 ) .

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