22.4A: Mouth

determine OBJECTIVES

  • Describe the features of the mouth that play a role in digestion

The mouth has a kind of roles in human human body and sociology. While its primary serve is to begin the process of mechanically and chemically digesting food, the mouth is besides the begin of the alimentary canal—a larger digestive tube. Without the human mouth, expressions of the lips and terminology of the tongue and throat would be impossible .
The mouth is the first part of the alimentary canal. It receives food and moistens the food with saliva, while the food is mechanically processed ( chew ) by the dentition. The mouth is besides known as the oral cavity, and within the oral cavity sits the clapper, the delicate and hard palate, the uvula, and numerous salivary glands .
The oral mucous membrane is the mucous membrane epithelial tissue that lines the inside of the talk. This membrane maintains a damp and lubricated environment within the mouth to prepare the digestive system for the entry of food.

Reading: 22.4A: Mouth

The Mouth as a Communication and Breathing Tool

This is an illustration of the inside of a human mouth. The cheeks have been omitted in the drawing and the lips pulled back for an unobstructed view of the teeth, tongue, jaw bones, uvula, and alimentary canal.
Inside of the mouth : An exemplification of the inside of a human mouth. The buttock have been omitted in the draw and the lips pulled back for an unobstructed view of the tooth, tongue, chew the fat bones, uvula, and alimentary duct .
In addition to its elementary function as the begin of the digestive arrangement, the mouth besides plays a significant role in human communication and rest. The primary features of human voice are produced in the throat, but the tongue, lips, and yack besides work together to produce the range of sounds we see in homo language .
Air is drawn in through the mouth to the trachea and lungs, and the lips and spit form words. The lips mark the transition from the mucous membrane to the out epithelial skin that covers most of the body. Lips are signally sensitive and often serve as an baby ’ randomness second hands with which to explore the world .

Mechanical Food Breakdown by Teeth

In the digestive process, the mouth ’ second aim is to prepare food for far digestion in the stomach and the minor intestine. This process begins with the mechanical breakdown of food by the teeth, which fit into the alveolar arches. The front tooth ( incisors and canines ) are used to cut and tear food, while the dentition further back ( bicuspids and molars ) squash and grind.

Food Lubrication and Chemical Digestion By Saliva

Saliva is projected from three main pairs of salivary glands : the big parotid glands near the buttock, the submandibular glands beneath the lower jaw, and the sublingual glands beneath the tongue .
Saliva keeps the mouth damp and lubricates the food, helping the tongue form the food into a piano chew, called a bolus. The fluid of saliva besides contains several enzymes, notably lysozyme—an antibacterial agent—and amylase, which catalyzes large starch molecules into childlike sugars via hydrolysis .
This is a cross-section drawing of the head and neck in mid-sagittal view. It shows the structures of the mouth and throat. The lips, jaw, nasal cavity, palate, tongue, oral cavity, pharyhnix, epiglotis, larynx opening into pharynx, larynx, and esophagus are labeled.
Cross section of the head and neck : A cross section of the head and neck in mid-sagittal view, showing the structures of the mouth and throat .
once properly chewed and lubricated, food and drink are swallowed into the esophagus, the tube that leads to the stomach .

The Structures of the Lips and External Mouth

baby humans are born with an instinctual suck automatic, by which they know how to gain nourishment using their lips and chew. The philtrum, or bow of the lip, is the vertical rut or dip just below the nose. The nasolabial folds are the deep creases of tissue that extend from the nose to the sides of the mouth. One of the first signs of historic period on the human side is the increase in bulge of the nasolabial folds .

Key Points

  • The mouth is also known as the oral cavity. Its purpose is to mechanically break down food, moisten it with saliva, and swallow the food into the esophagus and the stomach.
  • While vocal sounds are primarily produced in the throat, the tongue, lips, and jaw are also needed to produce the range of sounds included in human language.
  • Saliva is produced by three main pairs of salivary glands: the parotid, the submandibular, and sublingual. When food is chewed and mixed with this saliva, the resulting wad is known as a bolus.

Key Terms

  • mastication: The process of physical and mechanical breakdown of food; chewing.
  • mucous membrane: A membrane that secretes mucus. It forms the lining of various body passages that communicate with the air, such as the respiratory, genitourinary, and alimentary tracts.
  • mouth: The opening of a organism through which food is ingested.
  • saliva: A clear, slightly alkaline liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous glands that consists of water, mucin, protein, and enzymes. It moistens the mouth, lubricates ingested food, and begins the breakdown of starches.
  • uvula: A soft, punching-bag-like piece of tissue that hangs at the back of the mouth and functions in closing the air passages during swallowing, in conjunction with the epiglottis of the trachea.
  • hard palate: The bony roof of the mouth, located ventrally to the soft palate.
  • alimentary canal: The organs of a human or a non-human animal through which food passes.
  • alveolar arch: The part of the upper or lower jawbones in which the teeth are set.

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