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umbrella term for people who are not heterosexual or are not cisgender

LGBT flag from 2013 Stockholm Pride Queer is an umbrella term for people who are not heterosexual or are not cisgender. originally meaning “ foreign ” or “ particular ”, queer came to be used pejoratively against those with same-sex desires or relationships in the late nineteenth hundred. Beginning in the late 1980s, fagot activists, such as the members of Queer Nation, began to reclaim the give voice as a measuredly provocative and politically radical option to the more assimilationist branches of the LGBT community. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]

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In the twenty-first hundred, queer became increasingly used to describe a broad spectrum of non- prescriptive sexual and gender identities and politics. [ 3 ] Academic disciplines such as fagot hypothesis and gay studies share a general resistance to binarism, normativity, and a perceive lack of intersectionality, some of them lone tangentially connected to the LGBT motion. Queer arts, queer cultural groups, and queer political groups are examples of modern expressions of fagot identities. Critics of the use of the term include members of the LGBT community who associate the term more with its colloquial, derogative custom, [ 4 ] those who wish to dissociate themselves from curious radicalism, [ 5 ] and those who see it as amorphous and trendy. [ 6 ] Queer is sometimes expanded to include any non-normative sex, including cisgender queer heterosexuality, although some homosexual people who identify as thwart opinion this use of the terminus as appropriation. [ 7 ]

Origins and early use

Entering the english language in the sixteenth hundred, queer originally meant “ strange ”, “ curious ”, “ peculiar ”, or “ character ”. It might refer to something fishy or “ not quite mighty ”, or to a person with mild upset or who exhibits socially inappropriate behavior. [ 3 ] [ 8 ] The Northern English construction “ there ‘s nowt therefore thwart as tribe “, meaning “ there is nothing a strange as people ”, employs this mean. [ 9 ] Related meanings of queer include a feel of illness or something that is questionable or fishy. [ 3 ] [ 8 ] In the 1922 amusing soliloquy “ My Word, You Do Look Queer “, the word is taken to mean “ ailing ”. [ 10 ] The expression “ in Queer Street “ is used in the United Kingdom for person in fiscal trouble. Over clock time, queer acquired a issue of meanings related to sex and gender, from narrowly meaning “ homosexual or lesbian ” [ 11 ] to referring to those who are “ not heterosexual ” to referring to those who are either not heterosexual or not cisgender ( those who are LGBT+ ). [ 11 ] [ 12 ]

early dyslogistic manipulation

By the recently nineteenth century, queer was beginning to gain a intension of intimate deviation, used to refer to feminine men or men who were thought to have engaged in same-sex relationships. An early recorded usage of the word in this sense was in an 1894 letter by John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Queer was used in mainstream club by the twentieth hundred, along with fairy and faggot, as a dyslogistic term to refer to men who were perceived as aureate. This was, as historian George Chauncey notes, “ the prevailing effigy of all queers within the true mind ”. [ 15 ] Starting in the metro gay browning automatic rifle scene in the 1950s, [ 16 ] then moving more into the open in the 1960s and 1970s, the gay identity was gradually displaced by a more radicalize gay identity. At that clock gay was generally an umbrella term including lesbians, a well as gay-identified bisexuals and transsexuals ; gender-nonconformity, which had constantly been an indicator of homosexuality, [ 16 ] besides became more candid during this time. During the endonymic shifts from invert to homophile to gay, queer was normally pejoratively applied to men who were believed to engage in receptive or passive anal or oral sex with other men [ 17 ] ampere well as those who exhibited non-normative sex expressions. [ 18 ]

early twentieth century curious identity

In the recently 19th and early on twentieth centuries, queer, fairy, trade, and gay signified clear-cut social categories within the cheery male subculture. Queer was used among gay men in order to claim or self-identify with perceived prescriptive masculine status. [ 19 ] many queer-identified men at the time were, according to Chauncey, “ repelled by the manner of the fairy and his loss of manfully status, and about all were careful to distinguish themselves from such men ”, particularly because the prevailing square culture did not acknowledge such distinctions. Trade referred to square men who would engage in same-sex activeness ; Chauncey describes trade as “ the ‘normal men ‘ [ queers ] claimed to be. ” [ 15 ] In contrast to the terms used within the subculture, medical practitioners and police officers tended to use pathological terms like “ invert ”, “ pervert ”, “ pervert ”, and “ homosexual ”. [ 15 ] none of the terms, whether inside or outside of the subculture, equated to the cosmopolitan concept of a homosexual identity, which only emerged with the rise of a binary ( heterosexual/homosexual ) understand of sexual orientation in the 1930s and 1940s. As this binary became embedded into the social fabric, queer began to decline as an acceptable identity in the subculture. [ 15 ] similar to the earlier use of queer, gay was adopted among assimilationist men in the mid-20th century as a intend of asserting their prescriptive status and rejecting any associations with effeminacy. The theme that queer was a dyslogistic term became more prevailing among younger gay men following World War II. As the homosexual identity became more widely adopted in the community, some men who preferred to identify as gay began chastising older men who still referred to themselves as queer by the late 1940s :

In calling themselves gay, a new coevals of men insisted on the right to name themselves, to claim their status as men, and to reject the “ effeminate ” styles of the older genesis. [ … ] Younger men found it easier to forget the origins of cheery in the camp kid of the very queen whom they wished to reject. [ 15 ] : 19-20

reclamation

General

Queer resistance streamer at a border Beginning in the former 1980s, the label queer began to be reclaimed from its dyslogistic habit as a inert or positive self-identifier by LGBT people. [ 3 ] An early example of this custom by the LGBT community was by an constitution called Queer Nation, which was formed in March 1990 and circulated an anonymous flier at the New York Gay Pride Parade in June 1990 titled “ Queers Read This ”. [ 1 ] The aviator included a passing explaining their borrowing of the label fagot :

Ah, do we actually have to use that password ? It ‘s disturb. Every gay person has his or her own take on it. For some it means foreign and eccentric and kind of cryptic [ … ] And for others “ queer ” conjures up those terribly memories of adolescent suffering [ … ] Well, yes, “ cheery ” is bang-up. It has its place. But when a lot of lesbians and gay men wake up in the dawn we feel angry and disgusted, not gay. So we ‘ve chosen to call ourselves thwart. Using “ queer ” is a way of reminding us how we are perceived by the respite of the world. [ 1 ]

fagot people, particularly thwart people of color, began to reclaim queer in reaction to a perceived switch in the gay community toward broad conservatism, catalyzed by Andrew Sullivan ‘s 1989 part in The New Republic, titled Here Comes the Groom: The Conservative Case for Gay Marriage. [ 20 ] The thwart motion rejected causes viewed as assimilationist, such as marriage, military inclusion and borrowing. [ 2 ] This radical position and rejection of U.S. Imperialism [ 2 ] continued the tradition of earlier lesbian and Gay anti-war activism, and solidarity with a variety of leftist movements, such as seen in the positions taken at the first two National Marches on Washington in 1979 and 1987, the radical aim legal action of groups like ACT UP, and the diachronic importance of events like the Stonewall riots. The root Queer groups following in this tradition of LGBT activism contrasted firm with, “ the holy place three of marriage, military service and adoption [ which had ] become the central preoccupation of a cheery campaign centered more on obtaining straight prerogative than challenging power. ” [ 2 ] Commentators noted that it was precisely these “ revolt queers ” ( who were now being pushed aside ) who had made it safe for the assimilationists to now have the option of assimilation. [ 2 ]

other usage

The terminus may be capitalized when referring to an identity or community, rather than as an objective fact describing a person ‘s desires, in a construction like to the capitalized practice of Deaf. [ 21 ] The ‘Q ‘ in extend versions of the LGBT acronym, such as LGBTQIA+, [ 22 ] is most much considered an abbreviation of thwart. It can besides stand for questioning. [ 23 ]

criticism

reclamation and use of the terminus queer is not uncontroversial ; several people and organizations, both LGBT and non-LGBT, object to some or all uses of the bible for assorted reasons. [ 24 ] Some LGBT people dislike the practice of queer as an umbrella terminus because they associate it with this political radicalism ; they say that debate use of the epithet queer by political radicals has, in their see, played a role in dividing the LGBT community by political opinion, classify, sex, age, and other factors. The controversy about the word besides marks a social and political separate in the LGBT community between those ( including civil-rights activists ) who perceive themselves as “ normal ” and who wish to be seen as ordinary members of society and those who see themselves as discriminate, confrontational and not part of the ordinary social order. [ 5 ] other LGBT people disapprove of reclaiming or using queer because they consider it offensive, derisive or self-deprecating because use by heterosexuals as a dyslogistic continues to this day, [ 4 ] and some LGBT people avoid queer because they perceive it as faddish slang, or alternatively as academic slang. [ 6 ]

setting

Intersex and curious identities

Scholars and activists have proposed different ways in which thwart identities apply or do not apply to intersex people. Sociologist Morgan Holmes and bioethicists Morgan Carpenter and Katrina Karkazis have documenting a heteronormativity in aesculapian rationales for the surgical standardization of infants and children born with atypical sex development, and Holmes and Carpenter have described hermaphrodite bodies as queer bodies. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] In “ What Can Queer Theory Do for Intersex ? ” Iain Morland contrasts queer “ hedonic activism ” with an experience of insentient post-surgical hermaphrodite bodies to claim that “ homosexuality is characterized by the sensory interrelation of pleasure and shame ”. [ 29 ] Emi Koyama describes a move away from a queer identity exemplary within the hermaphrodite apparent motion :

such tactic [ of reclaiming labels ] was obviously influenced by curious identity politics of the 1980s and 90s that were embodied by such groups as Queer Nation and lesbian Avengers. But unfortunately, hermaphrodite activists promptly discovered that the hermaphrodite apparent motion could not succeed under this model. For one thing, there were army for the liberation of rwanda fewer hermaphrodite people compared to the big and visible presence of LGBT people in most urban centers. For another, activists soon realized that most hermaphrodite individuals were not matter to in building hermaphrodite communities or culture ; what they sought were master psychological support to live ordinary lives as ordinary men and women and not the borrowing of fresh, misinform identity. … To make it worse, the word “ hermaphrodite ” began to attract individuals who are not inevitably intersex, but feel that they might be, because they are thwart or trans. … fortunately, the hermaphrodite campaign did not rely entirely on curious identity model for its strategies. [ 30 ]

Queer heterosexuality

Queer is sometimes expanded to include any non-normative sex, [ 31 ] including ( cisgender ) “ fagot heterosexuality ”. This has been criticized by some LGBT people, who argue that queer can only be reclaimed by those it has been used to oppress : “ For person who is homosexual and curious, a straight person identifying as gay can feel like choosing to appropriate the dependable bits, the cultural and political cachet, the clothes and the fathom of gay acculturation, without the laugh orgy of gay-bashing, adolescent shame, adult shame, shame-shame, and the internalize homophobia of populate gay experience. ” [ 7 ]

academia

In academia, the term queer and the related verb queering broadly indicate the study of literature, discourse, academic fields, and other social and cultural areas from a non-heteronormative perspective. It frequently means studying a subject against the grain from the position of gender studies. Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual predilection and gender identity normally focusing on LGBT people and cultures. primitively centered on LGBT history and literary theory, the field has expanded to include the academic study of issues raised in biota, sociology, anthropology, history of science, philosophy, psychology, sexology, political skill, ethics, and other fields by an examination of the identity, lives, history, and perception of curious people. Organizations such as the Irish Queer Archive attack to collect and preserve history related to queer studies. Queer theory is a field of post-structuralist critical theory that emerged in the early on 1990s out of the fields of thwart studies and women ‘s studies. Applications of fagot theory include queer theology and thwart teaching. Queer theorists, including Rod Ferguson, Jasbir Puar, Lisa Duggan, and Chong-suk Han, critique the mainstream gay political motion as allied with neoliberal and imperialistic agendas, including gay tourism, gay and trans military inclusion body, and state- and church-sanctioned marriages for monogamous gay couples. Puar, a queer theorist of color, coined the condition homonationalism, which refers to the advance of american exceptionalism, patriotism, white domination, and patriarchy within the gay community catalyzed in reply to the September 11 attacks. [ 32 ] Many studies have acknowledged the problems that lie within the traditional theory and process of social studies, and so choose to utilise a thwart theoretical access rather. One such report was conducted in Melbourne in 2016 by Roffee and Waling. By using thwart and feminist theories and approaches the researchers were better equipped to cater for the needs, and be accommodating for the vulnerabilities, of the LGBTIQ participants of the study. In this encase, it was a specifically post-modern curious hypothesis that enabled the researchers to approach the discipline with a fair position, acknowledging all the varieties of narratives and experiences within the LGBTIQ community. [ 33 ]

culture and politics

several LGBT social movements around the world use the identifier queer, such as the Queer Cyprus Association in Cyprus and the Queer Youth Network in the United Kingdom. In India, pride parades include Queer Azaadi Mumbai and the Delhi Queer Pride Parade. The use of queer and Q is besides widespread in Australia, including national rede and corroborate service Qlife [ 34 ] and QNews. other social movements exist as offshoots of thwart culture or combinations of queer identity with early views. Adherents of curious patriotism defend the notion that the LGBT community forms a distinct people due to their singular culture and customs. Queercore ( originally homocore ) is a cultural and social bowel movement that began in the mid-1980s as an outgrowth of punk rocker expressed in a do-it-yourself manner through zines, music, spell, art and film. The term fagot migration is used to describe the apparent motion of LGBTQ people around the world much to escape discrimination or ill treatment ascribable to their orientation or gender expression. Organizations such as the irani Railroad for Queer Refugees and Rainbow Railroad try to assist individuals in such relocations. [ 35 ]

artwork

The label queer is often applied to art movements, particularly cinema. New Queer Cinema was a movement in queer-themed autonomous filmmaking in the early 1990s. Modern curious film festivals include the Melbourne Queer Film Festival and Mardi Gras Film Festival ( run by Queer Screen ) in Australia, the Mumbai Queer Film Festival in India, the Asian Queer Film Festival in Japan, and Queersicht in Switzerland. chinese film director Cui Zi’en titled his 2008 documentary about homosexuality in China Queer China, which premiered at the 2009 Beijing Queer Film Festival after previous attempts to hold a queer movie festival were shut down by the politics. [ 36 ] Multidisciplinary queer arts festivals include the Outburst Queer Arts Festival Belfast in Northern Ireland, [ 37 ] the Queer Arts Festival in Canada, [ 38 ] and the National Queer Arts Festival in the United States. [ 39 ]

television shows that use queer in their titles include the UK series Queer as Folk [ 40 ] and its American-Canadian remake of the like mention, Queer Eye, [ 41 ] and the cartoon Queer Duck. [ 42 ]

See besides

References

Citations

General bibliography

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