Aerobic Exercise

Aerobic use refers to the type of repetitive, structure forcible action that requires the consistency ’ s metabolic system to use oxygen to produce energy. aerobic exercise :

  • Improves the capacity of the cardiovascular system to uptake and transport oxygen.
  • Can be undertaken in many different forms, with the common feature that it is achieved at a heart rate of 70–80% of a person’s age-appropriate maximum.
  • Considered the cornerstone of endurance training, characterized by moderate energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time.
  • Is any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously and is rhythmic in nature.[1]
  • Depends primarily on aerobic energy- production i.e. muscle groups activated by this type of exercise rely on aerobic metabolism (using oxygen to extract energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids).[1]
  • Examples include walking, cycling, swimming, jogging, dancing, hiking, long distance running.

Effects of aerobic exercises [edit |edit source ]

[ 2 ] Aerobic exercises chiefly shows an effect in health-related components of fitness particularly cardiovascular endurance and body writing.

Reading: Aerobic Exercise

For neuromuscular adaptation following aerobic exercises chink link. physiologic effects of aerobic exercises are explained below : [ 3 ]

  1. Heart rate: Resting HR decreases with aerobic training and is lower at any given workload. The maximum HR is unchanged.
  2. Cardiac output:Maximum CO increases, whereas resting CO is stable. Resting SV increases, with a corresponding decrease in the resting HR.
  3. Aerobic capacity: Maximal aerobic capacity or maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a measure of the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can use per unit of time during strenuous physical exertion at sea level.[4]Maximum aerobic capacity increases with aerobic training. The resting Vo2 is stable, as is the Vo2 at a given workload. The changes are specific to the trained muscles.
  4. Stroke volume: SV increases at rest and is maintained at a lower HR, resulting in a lower RPP for a given level of exertion.
  5. Myocardial oxygen capacity: Maximum Mvo2 usually does not change, but at a given workload, Mvo2 decreases with training. This reduces episodes of angina.
  6. Peripheral vascular resistance (PVR): Aerobic training reduces arterial and arteriolar tone, thereby decreasing cardiac “afterload” and PVR. The reduction in PVR results in a lower RPP and a lower Mvo2 at a given workload and at rest.

These effects helps in following benefits to the body : [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

  • Higher endurance during intense physical activity because of blood volume increase
  • Lung volume increase
  • Cardiac muscle strength
  • HDL level increase (the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL decrease reduces the risk of atherosclerosis)
  • Overcoming and enhancing mental and emotional well being
  • Increase bone density.

healthy adults should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity a workweek, or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous activeness. That does n’t have to be all at one time, though. For model, brisk walking for 30 minutes, five days a week meets the guidelines. aerobic exercise can even be done in unretentive blocks of time, such as respective walk breaks spread throughout the day. Any activity is better than none at all [ 7 ] .

standard measures [edit |edit source ]

Why perform use tests ?

  • To ensure aerobic exercise training can be safely initiated (perform a pre-participation health screening (see link)).
  • Diagnostic reasons – to identify abnormal physiologic responses,
  • Prognostic reasons – to identify adverse events
  • Therapeutic reasons – to gauge the impact of a given intervention; physical activity counselling; to design an exercise prescription.

Standard graded exercise tests are used clinically to assess a patient ’ randomness ability to tolerate increasing intensities of aerobic practice Eg :

  • Cycle ergometer
  • Bruce treadmill test (one of the most commonly used protocols in grade treadmill testing) – A maximal exercise test where the athlete works to complete exhaustion as the treadmill speed and incline is increased every three minutes. The length of time on the treadmill is the test score and can be used to estimate the VO2 max value. During the test, heart rate, blood pressure, and ratings of perceived exertion are often also collected[8].

These tests help to identify the standard measures for cardiovascular fitness and exercise capacity. [ 9 ]

  • Maximal aerobic power or maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): It is a measure of the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can use per unit of time during strenuous physical exertion at sea level.Maximal aerobic power is typically expressed in absolute power as L/min or normalized for body weight as mL · kg−1 · min−1.It is convenient to express oxygen uptake in multiples of sitting/resting requirements.
  • Peak metabolic equivalents (MET): One metabolic equivalent (MET) is a unit of sitting/resting oxygen uptake (≈3.5 mL of O2 per kilogram of body weight per minute [mL · kg−1 · min−1]). METs are a useful, convenient, and standarized way to describe the absolute intensity of a variety of physical activities. Light physical activity is defined as requiring 3 METs, moderate as 3–6 METs, and vigorous as 6 METs. [9] V̇o2 max is influenced by age, sex, exercise habits, heredity, and cardiovascular clinical status.[10]

American College of Sports and Medicine ( ACSM ), 2014 has prescribed aerobic exercises based on FITT ( frequency, volume, time, type ) in different conditions and age groups. [ 9 ] Cardiovascular Disease/ Risk factors and Aerobic Exercise cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs ) are the act one lawsuit of death globally, taking an estimated 17.9 million lives each year. Out of many cardiovascular diseases, heart attack and stroke being the most common cause of death. life style modification is the first note of treatment suggested by WHO and American heart association which includes diet and exercise. [ 11 ] Supervised cardiac reclamation protocols are there to guide the treatment. A randomized controlled trial done in 2019, has shown benefits of combined trail ( aerobic 30 minutes/session plus resistance 30 minutes/session ) 3 days/week for 8 week quite than aerobic exercise and strength use alone. aggregate train provided significant reductions in peripheral ( -4 mmHg ) and central diastolic BP ( -4 mmHg ), addition in CRF ( 4.9 ml/kg/min ), increase in upper ( 4 kilogram ) and lower ( 11 kilogram ) body military capability, and increase in lean body multitude ( 0.8 kilogram ). [ 12 ]

Diabetes and Aerobic Exercise Supervised exercise interventions improve glycated hemoglobin ( A1C ), triglycerides ( TG ), and cholesterol ( 9 ) in people with type 2 diabetes. Both aerobic and resistance exercise are beneficial, and it is optimum to do both types of exercise. At least 150 minutes per workweek of aerobic exercise and at least 2 sessions per workweek of resistance exercise are recommended. [ 13 ] It is very crucial to maintain the dose of insulin and time of exercise and besides carbohydrate consumption during and after exercise to prevent post-exercise hypoglycemia. For detail please have a expect at this guideline. [ 13 ] Chronic pain and Aerobic Exercises Aerobic exercise programs have shown physiologic, psychological, and articular benefits in patients with chronic diseases ( for example, arthritis, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia ). Aerobic use stimulates the handout of endorphins that relieve pain by inhibiting the pain pathways. It makes the patient more active, reducing the fear of moving ( kinesiophobia ) and increasing assurance. A systematic review protocol published in 2019 has shown the effect of aerobic exercise and chronic non- specific broken back annoyance. Aerobic exercise with a duration of 15 to 60 continuous minutes and intensity of 60 to 90 % of the maximal heart rate had shown significant improvement. Mental health and Aerobic Exercise: In the systematic review and meta-analysis done in 2019 across 11 eligible trials ( 13 comparisons ) involving 455 patients, aerobic exercise delivered for an average of 45 minutes, at moderate intensity, three times/week, for 9.2 weeks and showed a importantly large overall antidepressant consequence. [ 14 ] Pregnancy and Aerobics: low impact aerobic exercises are the key to physiological arsenic well as psychological wellbeing during pregnancy. regular, low-impact aerobic exercise during pregnancy will help to strengthen center and lungs, to tone muscles, ease pregnancy aches and pains and allows a better night ‘s sleep. alternatively it will help to cope with the demands of pregnancy and parturition. [ 15 ] A Cochrane systemic review has shown that regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy appears to improve ( or uphold ) physical fitness. [ 16 ]

A meta-analysis of 9 RCTs that included 2059 women with an elementary, singleton pregnancy with normal body bulk index showed that women who were assigned randomly to aerobic exercise had like incidence of PTB, lower incidences of GDM, GHTN disorders, cesarean delivery pitch, and a higher rate of vaginal rescue. [ 17 ] Risk of Fall in Elderly and Aerobics: As the long time advances there are diverse physiologic changes occur in the body, therefore muscleman force reduces more in lower extremity than the upper extremity, increases the hazard of fall in geriatric population. Aerobic exercises has shown improvement in counterweight and gait. [ 18 ]

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