Androgyny

combination of male and female traits
Androgyny is the combination of masculine and womanly characteristics into an ambiguous human body. Androgyny may be expressed with respect to biological sex, sex identity, or gender expression. When androgyny refers to mixed biological sex characteristics in humans, it often refers to intersex people. Regarding sex identity, androgynous individuals may refer to themselves as non-binary, genderqueer, or gender neutral, while others may identify as transgender men or women, or may be cisgender. As a shape of gender expression, androgyny can be achieved through personal groom, manner, or a certain amount of THT treatment. androgynous sex expression has waxed and waned in popularity in different cultures and throughout history .

etymology [edit ]

Androgyny as a noun came into use c. 1850, nominalizing the adjective androgynous. The adjectival use dates from the early on seventeenth hundred and is itself derived from the older French ( fourteenth Century ) and English ( c. 1550 ) term androgyne. The terms are ultimately derived from Ancient Greek : ἀνδρόγυνος, from ἀνήρ, stem ἀνδρ- ( anér, andro-, meaning valet ) and γυνή ( gunē, gyné, meaning charwoman ) through the Latin : androgynus, [ 1 ] The older bible form androgyne is even in use as a noun with an overlapping fructify of meanings.

Reading: Androgyny

history [edit ]

Androgyny among humans – expressed in terms of biological sex characteristics, sex identity, or gender formulation – is attested to from earliest history and across world cultures. In ancient Sumer, androgynous and hermaphrodite men were heavily involved in the cult of Inanna. [ 2 ] : 157–158 A fixed of priests known as gala worked in Inanna ‘s temples, where they performed elegies and lamentations. [ 2 ] : 285 Gala took female names, spoke in the eme-sal dialect, which was traditionally reserved for women, and appear to have engaged in sexual acts with men. [ 3 ] In belated Mesopotamian cultures, kurgarrū and assinnu were servants of the goddess Ishtar ( Inanna ‘s East Semitic equivalent ), who dressed in female dress and performed war dances in Ishtar ‘s temples. [ 3 ] Several Akkadian proverb seem to suggest that they may have besides engaged in sexual activity with men. [ 3 ] Gwendolyn Leick, an anthropologist know for her writings on Mesopotamia, has compared these individuals to the contemporary amerind hijra. [ 2 ] : 158–163 In one akkadian hymn, Ishtar is described as transforming men into women. [ 3 ] The second century CE Mishnah, a foundational text of Rabbinic Judaism, mentions the term androgynos 32 times. In one citation, Rabbi Meir describes the androgynos as “ a creation of its own type, which the sages could not decide whether is male or female ”. [ 4 ] The ancient Greek myth of Hermaphroditus and Salmacis, two divinities who fused into a single immortal – provided a frame of reference used in western culture for centuries. Androgyny and homosexuality are seen in Plato ‘s Symposium in a myth that, according to Plato, Aristophanes tells the audience, possibly with a amusing purpose. [ 5 ] People used to be spherical creatures, with two bodies attached back to back who cartwheeled about. There were three sexes : the male-male people who descended from the sunday, the female-female people who descended from the earth, and the male-female people who came from the daydream. This last match represented the androgynous couple. These sphere people tried to take over the gods and failed. Zeus then decided to cut them in half and had Apollo animate the resulting snub surfaces, leaving the navel as a reminder to not defy the gods again. If they did, he would cleave them in two again to hop around on one leg. This is one of the earlier written references to androgyny – and the only case in authoritative greek text that female homosexuality ( lesbianism ) is always mentioned. other early references to androgyny include astronomy, where androgyn was a name given to planets that were sometimes affectionate and sometimes cold. [ 6 ] Philosophers such as Philo of Alexandria, and early christian leaders such as Origen and Gregory of Nyssa, continued to promote the idea of androgyny as humans ‘ original and perfective department of state during recently antiquity. ” [ 7 ] In medieval Europe, the concept of androgyny played an significant role in both Christian theological debate and Alchemical theory. influential Theologians such as John of Damascus and John Scotus Eriugena continued to promote the pre-fall androgyny proposed by the early church Fathers, while other clergy expounded and debated the proper view and treatment of contemporary hermaphrodites. [ 7 ] western esotericism ’ s embrace of androgyny continued into the modern period. A 1550 anthology of Alchemical think, De Alchemia, included the influential Rosary of the Philosophers, which depicts the hallowed marriage of the masculine principle ( Sol ) with the womanly rationale ( Luna ) producing the “ Divine Androgyne, ” a representation of Alchemical Hermetic impression in dualism, transformation, and the transcendental paragon of the union of opposites. [ 8 ] The symbolism and entail of androgyny was a central preoccupancy of the german mystic Jakob Böhme and the swedish philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg. The philosophic concept of the “ Universal Androgyne ” ( or “ Universal Hermaphrodite ” ) – a perfect unite of the sexes that predated the current corrupt global and/or was the utopia of the future – besides plays a cardinal function in rosicrucian doctrine [ 9 ] [ 10 ] and in philosophic traditions such as Swedenborgianism and Theosophy. Twentieth hundred architect Claude Fayette Bragdon expressed the concept mathematically as a magic trick feather, using it as building block in many of his most note buildings. [ 11 ]

Symbols and iconography [edit ]

The Caduceus In the ancient and medieval worlds, androgynous people and/or hermaphrodites were represented in art by the caduceus, a scepter of transformative ability in ancient Greco-Roman mythology. The caduceus was created by Tiresias and represents his transformation into a woman by Juno in punishment for striking at mating snakes. The caduceus was late carried by Hermes / Mercury and was the basis for the astronomic symbol for the satellite Mercury and the botanic augury for hermaphroditic. That signboard is now sometimes used for transgender people. Another common androgyny picture in the chivalric and early modern time period was the Rebis, a conjoined male and female figure, much with solar and lunar motifs. still another symbol was what is today called sun cross, which united the cross ( or st ) symbol for male with the circle for female. [ 12 ] This sign is nowadays the astronomic symbol for the satellite Earth. [ 13 ]
Mercury symbol derived from the Caduceus
A Rebis from 1617
“ Rose and Cross ” Androgyne symbol
Alternate “ rose and traverse ” translation

biological [edit ]

historically, the word androgynous was applied to humans with a assortment of male and female sex characteristics, and was sometimes used synonymously with the condition hermaphrodite. [ 14 ] In some disciplines, such as botany, androgynous and hermaphroditic are silent used interchangeably. When androgyny is used to refer to forcible traits, it often refers to a person whose biological sex is difficult to discern at a glance because of their mix of male and female characteristics. Because androgyny encompasses extra meanings related to gender identity and gender formula that are distinct from biological sex, nowadays the word androgynous is rarely used to formally describe mix biological arouse characteristics in humans. [ 15 ] In modern English, the word intersex is used to more precisely identify individuals with interracial or equivocal sex characteristics. however, both hermaphrodite and non-intersex people can exhibit a assortment of male and female sex traits such as hormone levels, type of inner and external genitalia, and the appearance of junior-grade sex characteristics .

psychological [edit ]

Though definitions of androgyny change throughout the scientific residential district, it is broadly supported that androgyny represents a blend of traits associated with both maleness and femininity. In psychological study, diverse measures have been used to characterize sex, such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. [ 16 ] broadly public speaking, masculine traits are categorized as agentic and implemental, dealing with assertiveness and analytic skill. Feminine traits are categorized as communal and expressive, dealing with empathy and subjectivity. [ 17 ] androgynous individuals exhibit behavior that extends beyond what is normally associated with their given sex. [ 18 ] due to the monomania of both masculine and feminine characteristics, androgynous individuals have access to a across-the-board array of psychological competencies in regards to aroused regulation, communication styles, and situational adaptability. androgynous individuals have besides been associated with higher levels of creativity and mental health. [ 19 ] [ 20 ]

Bem Sex-Role Inventory [edit ]

The Bem Sex-Role Inventory ( BSRI ) was constructed by the early run advocate of androgyny, Sandra Bem ( 1977 ). [ 21 ] [ better source needed ] The BSRI is one of the most widely used gender measures. Based on an individual ‘s responses to the items in the BSRI, they are classified as having one of four sex character orientations : masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated. Bem understood that both masculine and womanly characteristics could be expressed by anyone and it would determine those gender function orientations. [ 22 ] An androgynous person is an individual who has a high academic degree of both feminine ( expressive ) and masculine ( implemental ) traits. A feminine individual is ranked high on feminine ( expressive ) traits and ranked low on masculine ( instrumental ) traits. A masculine individual is ranked high on implemental traits and ranked low on expressive traits. An undifferentiated person is low on both womanly and masculine traits. [ 21 ] According to Sandra Bem, androgynous individuals are more compromising and more mentally healthy than either masculine or feminine individuals ; undifferentiated individuals are less competent. [ 21 ] More late research has debunked this estimate, at least to some extent, and Bem herself has found weaknesses in her original initiate work. immediately she prefers to work with gender outline theory. One study found that masculine and androgynous individuals had higher expectations for being able to control the outcomes of their academic efforts than feminine or undifferentiated individuals. [ 23 ]

personal Attributes Questionnaire [edit ]

The Personal Attributes Questionnaire ( PAQ ) was developed in the 70s by Janet Spence, Robert Helmreich, and Joy Stapp. This test asked subjects to complete a survey consist of three sets of scales relating to maleness, femininity, and masculinity-femininity. These scales had sets of adjectives normally associated with males, females, and both. These descriptors were chosen based on typical characteristics as rated by a population of undergraduate students. exchangeable to the BSRI, the PAQ labeled androgynous individuals as people who ranked highly in both the areas of maleness and femininity. however, Spence and Helmreich considered androgyny to be a form of high levels of maleness and femininity as opposed to a category in and of itself. [ 16 ]

Gender identity [edit ]

An individual ‘s gender identity, a personal sense of one ‘s own gender, may be described as androgynous if they feel that they have both masculine and feminine aspects. The news androgyne can refer to a person who does not fit neatly into one of the typical masculine or feminine sex roles of their company, or to a person whose sex is a mix of male and female, not necessarily half-and-half. many androgynous individuals identify as being mentally or emotionally both masculine and feminine. They may besides identify as “ gender-neutral “, “ genderqueer ”, or “ non-binary ”. [ citation needed ] A person who is androgynous may engage freely in what is seen as masculine or feminine behaviors a well as tasks. They have a balanced identity that includes the virtues of both men and women and may disassociate the undertaking with what sex they may be socially or physically assigned to. [ 24 ] People who are androgynous disregard what traits are culturally constructed specifically for males and females within a specific company, and quite focus on what demeanor is most effective within the situational circumstance. [ 24 ]

Some non-Western cultures recognize extra androgynous sex identities, called third base genders .

Gender saying [edit ]

Gender formula that includes a mix of masculine and womanly characteristics can be described as androgynous. The categories of masculine and feminine in sex saying are socially constructed, and trust on shared conceptions of clothe, demeanor, communication expressive style, and other aspects of presentation. In some cultures, androgynous sex saying has been celebrated, while in others, androgynous formula has been limited or suppressed. To say that a acculturation or relationship is androgynous is to say that it lacks rigid gender roles, or has blurred lines between gender roles. The news genderqueer is often used by androgynous individuals to refer to themselves, but the terms genderqueer and androgynous are neither equivalent nor interchangeable. [ 25 ] Genderqueer is not specific to androgynes. It may refer to any person, cisgender or transgender, whose behavior falls external conventional gender norms. furthermore, genderqueer, by merit of its ties with fagot culture, carries sociopolitical connotations that androgyny does not carry. For these reasons, some androgynes may find the label genderqueer inaccurate, inapplicable, or offensive. Androgyneity is considered by some to be a feasible option to androgyn for differentiating home ( psychological ) factors from external ( ocular ) factors. [ 26 ]

Androgyny in manner [edit ]

Throughout most of twentieth hundred Western history, social rules have restricted people ‘s dress according to sex. Trousers were traditionally a male form of dress, frowned upon for women. [ 28 ] however, during the 1800s, female spies were introduced and Vivandières wore a certain uniform with a trim over trousers. woman activists during that time would besides decide to wear trousers, for exercise Luisa Capetillo, a women ‘s rights militant and the first woman in Puerto Rico to wear trousers in public. [ 29 ]
In the 1900s, starting around World War I traditional sex roles blurred and fashion pioneers such as Paul Poiret and Coco Chanel introduced trousers to women ‘s manner. The “ flapper expressive style ” for women of this earned run average included trousers and a chic british shilling, which gave women an androgynous attend. [ 30 ] Coco Chanel, who had a love for wearing trousers herself, created trouser designs for women such as beach pajama and horse-riding attire. [ 28 ] During the 1930s, glamorous actresses such as Marlene Dietrich fascinated and shocked many with their potent desire to wear trousers and adopt the androgynous dash. Dietrich is remembered as one of the first actresses to wear trousers in a premier. [ 31 ]
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the women ‘s dismissal movement is probable to have contributed to ideas and influence fashion designers, such as Yves Saint Laurent. [ 32 ] Yves Saint Laurent designed the Le Smoking courtship and introduced it in 1966, while Helmut Newton ’ s erotized androgynous photograph of the suit made it iconic and a authoritative. [ 33 ] Elvis Presley introduced an androgynous vogue in rock ‘n’ roll. [ 34 ] His pretty face and use of center makeup much made people think he was a preferably “ effeminate ridicule ”, [ 35 ] When the Rolling Stones played London ‘s Hyde Park in 1969, Mick Jagger wore a flannel “ man ‘s dress ” designed by Michael Fish. [ 36 ] Fish was the most stylish shirt-maker in London, the inventor of the Kipper tie, and a principal trend-setter of the Peacock revolution in men ‘s fashion. [ 37 ] His universe for Mick Jagger was considered to be the prototype of the swinging 60s. [ 38 ]
In 1972, David Bowie presented his change ego Ziggy Stardust, a character that was a symbol of sexual ambiguity when he launched the album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and Spiders from Mars. [ 41 ] Marc Bolan, the other pioneer of glam rock, performed on the BBC ’ s Top of the Pops in 1971 wearing glitter and satins, with The Independent stating his appearance “ permitted a genesis of teeny-boppers to begin playing with the idea of androgyny ”. [ 42 ] The 1973 West End melodious The Rocky Horror Show besides depicted sexual fluidity. [ 43 ] Continuing into the 1980s, the lift of avant-garde fashion designers like Yohji Yamamoto, [ 44 ] challenged the social constructs around gender. They reinvigorated androgyny in fashion, addressing sex issues. This was besides reflected within pop music culture icons during the 1980s, such as Annie Lennox and Boy George. [ 40 ] [ 45 ] power dressing for women became even more outstanding within the 1980s which was previously only something done by men in order to look structure and mighty. however, during the 1980s this began to take a turn as women were entering jobs with equal roles to the men. In the article “ The Menswear Phenomenon ” by Kathleen Beckett written for Vogue in 1984 the concept of might dress is explored as women entered these jobs they had no choice but to tailor their wardrobes consequently, finally leading the ascension of power trim as a popular style for women. [ 46 ] Women begin to find through fashion they can incite men to pay more attention to the seduction of their mental art rather, than the physical attraction of their appearance. This determine in the fashion populace promptly makes its manner to the world of film, with movies like “ Working Girl ” using baron dressing women as their main subject matter. androgynous fashion made its most powerful in the 1980s debut through the work of Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo, who brought in a distinct japanese stylus that adopted distinctively sex equivocal subject. These two designers consider themselves to identical a lot a part of the avant-garde, reinvigorating Japanism. [ 47 ] Following a more anti-fashion approach and deconstructing garments, in order to move away from the more everyday aspects of current western fashion. This would end up leading a change in western fashion in the 1980s that would lead on for more gender friendly garment construction. This is because designers like Yamamoto believe that the theme of androgyny should be celebrated, as it is an indifferent direction for an individual to identify with one ‘s self and that fashion is strictly a catalyst for this. [ citation needed ] besides during the 1980s, Grace Jones, a singer and fashion model, gender-thwarted appearance in the 1980s, which startled the public. Her androgynous style inspired many and she became an androgynous expressive style icon for mod celebrities. [ 48 ] In 2016, Louis Vuitton revealed that Jaden Smith would star in their womenswear campaign. Because of events like this, sex fluidity in manner is being vigorously discussed in the media, with the concept being articulated by Lady Gaga, Ruby Rose, and in Tom Hooper ‘s film The Danish Girl. Jaden Smith and other young individuals, such as Lily-Rose Depp, have inspired the campaign with his solicitation for clothes to be non-gender particular, meaning that men can wear skirts and women can wear boxer shorts if they indeed wish. [ 49 ]

Alternatives [edit ]

An alternate to androgyny is gender-role transcendence : the position that person competence should be conceptualized on a personal footing preferably than on the footing of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny. [ 50 ] In agenderism, the class of people into women and men ( in the psychic sense ), is considered erroneous and artificial. [ 51 ] Agendered individuals are those who reject sex label in conception of self-identity and other matters. [ 52 ] [ 53 ] [ 54 ] [ 55 ] They see their subjectivity through the term person rather of woman or man. [ 52 ] : p.16 According to E. O. Wright, genderless people can have traits, behaviors and dispositions that correspond to what is presently viewed as feminine and masculine, and the mix of these would vary across persons. however, it does n’t suggest that everyone would be androgynous in their identities and practices in the absence of gendered relations. What disappears in the idea of genderlessness is any expectation that some characteristics and dispositions are rigorously attributed to a person of any biological sex. [ 56 ]

contemporaneous trends [edit ]

[58][59] south korean pop star G-Dragon is much noted for his androgynous looks Androgyny has been gaining more bulge in popular culture in the early twenty-first hundred. [ 60 ] Both the fashion industry [ 61 ] and popular culture have accepted and even popularised the “ androgynous ” count, with respective current celebrities being hailed as creative trendsetters. The originate of the metrosexual in the first ten of the 2000s has besides been described as a relate phenomenon associated with this tendency. traditional sex stereotypes have been challenged and reset in holocene years dating back to the 1960s, the hippie campaign and flower power. Artists in film such as Leonardo DiCaprio sported the “ skinny ” look in the 1990s, a departure from traditional maleness which resulted in a fad known as “ Leo Mania ”. [ 62 ] Musical stars such as Brett Anderson of the british band Suede, Marilyn Manson and the band Placebo have used clothe and makeup to create an androgyny culture throughout the 1990s and the beginning decade of the 2000s. [ 63 ] While the 1990s unwind and fashion developed an affinity for unisex clothes there was a ascent of designers who favored that look, like Helmut Lang, Giorgio Armani and Pierre Cardin, the trends in fashion hit the public mainstream in the 2000s ( ten ) that featured men sporting different hair’s-breadth styles : long hair, hairdyes, hair highlights. [ citation needed ] Men in catalogues started wearing jewelry, make up, ocular kei, couturier stubble. These styles have become a significant mainstream drift of the twenty-first century, both in the western earth and in Asia. [ 64 ] japanese and korean cultures have featured the androgynous look as a positive assign in company, as depicted in both K-pop, J-pop, [ 65 ] in zanzibar copal and manga, [ 66 ] american samoa well as the fashion industry. [ 67 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

  • The dictionary definition of androgyny at Wiktionary

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