Cosplay, a portmanteau of “ costume play ”, is an natural process and performance art in which participants called cosplayers clothing costumes and fashion accessories to represent a specific character. [ 1 ] Cosplayers often interact to create a subculture, and a broader practice of the term “ cosplay ” applies to any costume role-playing in venues aside from the stage. Any entity that lends itself to dramatic rendition may be taken up as a submit. Favorite sources include anime, cartoons, amusing books, manga, television series, and television games. The condition is composed of the two aforementioned counterparts – costume and function gambling. Cosplay grew out of the practice of winnow costuming at science fiction conventions, beginning with Morojo ‘s “ futuristicostumes ” created for the 1st World Science Fiction Convention held in New York City in 1939. The japanese term “ cosplay ” ( コスプレ, kosupure ) was coined in 1984. A rapid growth in the act of people cosplaying as a hobby since the 1990s has made the phenomenon a significant aspect of popular acculturation in Japan, vitamin a well as in early parts of East Asia and in the western populace. Cosplay events are common features of fan conventions, and today there are many dedicate conventions and competitions, ampere well as sociable networks, websites, and other forms of media centered on cosplay activities. Cosplay is identical popular among all genders, and it is not strange to see crossplay, besides referred to as gender-bending .
etymology [edit ]
The term “ cosplay ” is a japanese blend of the english terms costume and play. [ 1 ] The term was coined by Nobuyuki Takahashi of Studio Hard [ 2 ] after he attended the 1984 World Science Fiction Convention ( Worldcon ) in Los Angeles [ 3 ] and meet costumed fans, which he late wrote about in an article for the japanese magazine My Anime. [ 2 ] Takahashi decided to coin a new parole preferably than use the existing transformation of the english term “ masquerade ” because that translates into japanese as “ an aristocratic costume ”, which did not match his experience of the Worldcon. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The neologism reflects a common japanese method acting of abbreviation in which the first base two moras of a pair of words are used to form an independent compound : ‘costume ‘ becomes kosu ( コス ) and ‘play ‘ becomes pure ( プレ ).
history [edit ]
Pre-20th hundred [edit ]
Masquerade balls were a feature of speech of the Carnival season in the fifteenth century, and involved increasingly elaborate allegorical Royal Entries, pageants, and triumphal processions celebrating marriages and other dynastic events of late medieval court life. They were extended into costumed populace festivities in Italy during the sixteenth hundred Renaissance, generally elaborate dances held for members of the amphetamine classes, which were particularly popular in Venice. Costume parties ( american english English ) or fancy apparel parties ( british English ) were democratic from the nineteenth century onwards. Costuming guides of the period, such as Samuel Miller ‘s Male Character Costumes ( 1884 ) [ 6 ] or Ardern Holt ‘s Fancy Dresses Described ( 1887 ), [ 7 ] feature largely generic costumes, whether that be period costumes, national costumes, objects or abstract concepts such as “ Autumn ” or “ night ”. Most particular costumes described therein are for historical figures although some are sourced from fiction, like The Three Musketeers or Shakespeare characters. By March 1891, a literal call by one Herbert Tibbits for what would today be described as “ cosplayers ” was advertised for an event hold from March 5–10 that class at the Royal Albert Hall in London, for the so-named Vril-Ya Bazaar and Fete based on a science fabrication novel and its characters, published two decades earlier. [ 8 ]
Fan costuming [edit ]
Mr. Skygack – an early modern costuming or cosplay outfit, Washington state, 1912 – an early modern costume or cosplay equip, Washington express, 1912 A.D. Condo ‘s science fiction amusing strip character Mr. Skygack, from Mars ( a Martian ethnographer who comically misunderstands many Earthly affairs ) is arguably the first base fictional character that people emulated by wearing costumes, as in 1908 Mr. and Mrs. William Fell of Cincinnati, Ohio are reported to have attended a masquerade at a skating rink wearing Mr. Skygack and Miss Dillpickles costumes. late, in 1910, an nameless charwoman won first prize at masquerade ball in Tacoma, Washington wearing another Skygack costume. [ 12 ] [ 13 ] The first people to wear costumes to attend a conventionality were science fiction fans Forrest J Ackerman and Myrtle R. Douglas, known in fandom as Morojo. They attended the 1939 1st World Science Fiction Convention ( Nycon or 1st Worldcon ) in the Caravan Hall, New York, USA dressed in “ futuristicostumes ”, including green cape and breeches, based on the pulp magazine artwork of Frank R. Paul and the 1936 film Things to Come, designed and created by Douglas. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
Ackerman late stated that he thought everyone was supposed to wear a costume at a science fiction conventionality, although only he and Douglas did. [ 16 ] Fan costuming caught on, however, and the 2nd Worldcon ( 1940 ) had both an unofficial masquerade held in Douglas ‘ room and an official masquerade as part of the program. [ 3 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] David Kyle won the masquerade wearing a Ming the Merciless costume created by Leslie Perri, while Robert A. W. Lowndes received second place with a Bar Senestro costume ( from the novel The Blind Spot by Austin Hall and Homer Eon Flint ). [ 17 ] other costumed attendees included node of honor E. E. Smith as Northwest Smith ( from C. L. Moore ‘s series of short stories ) and both Ackerman and Douglas wearing their futuristicostumes again. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] Masquerades and costume balls continued to be partially of World Science Fiction Convention tradition thereafter. [ 18 ] early Worldcon masquerade balls featured a band, dancing, food and drinks. Contestants either walked across a stage or a clear area of the dance floor. [ 18 ] Ackerman wore a “ Hunchbackerman of Notre Dame ” costume to the 3rd Worldcon ( 1941 ), which included a mask designed and created by Ray Harryhausen, but soon stopped wearing costumes to conventions. [ 16 ] Douglas wore an Akka costume ( from A. Merritt ‘s novel The Moon Pool ), the mask again made by Harryhausen, to the 3rd Worldcon and a Snake Mother costume ( another Merritt costume, from The Snake Mother ) to the fourth Worldcon ( 1946 ). [ 19 ] Terminology was however unsettled ; the 1944 edition of Jack Speer ‘s Fancyclopedia used the term costume party. [ 20 ]
Rules governing costumes became established in response to specific costumes and costuming trends. The first bare dissenter at a Worldcon fancy dress was in 1952 ; but the height of this swerve was in the 1970s and early on 1980s, with a few every year. [ 18 ] This finally led to “ No Costume is No Costume ” convention, which banned full nakedness, although partial derivative nakedness was however allowed adenine long as it was a legitimate theatrical performance of the character. [ 13 ] Mike Resnick describes the best of the nude costumes as Kris Lundi wearing a vixen costume to the 32nd Worldcon ( 1974 ) ( she received an estimable mention in the contest ). [ 18 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] Another costume that instigated a rule change was an attendant at the twentieth Worldcon ( 1962 ) whose blaster property fired a jet of real fire ; which led to fire being banned. [ 18 ] At the thirtieth WorldCon ( 1972 ), artist Scott Shaw wore a costume composed largely of peanut butter to represent his own clandestine comix character called “ The Turd ”. The peanut butter rubbed off, doing damage to piano furnishings and other peoples ‘ costumes, and then began to go sour under the heat of the unhorse. Food, abominable, and messy substances were banned as costume elements after that event. [ 18 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] Costuming ranch with the science fabrication conventions and the interaction of fandom. The earliest sleep together case of costuming at a convention in the United Kingdom was at the London Science Fiction Convention ( 1953 ) but this was only as part of a play. however, members of the Liverpool Science Fantasy Society attended the 1st Cytricon ( 1955 ), in Kettering, wearing costumes and continued to do then in subsequent years. [ 26 ] The fifteenth Worldcon ( 1957 ) brought the foremost official convention masquerade to the UK. [ 26 ] The 1960 Eastercon in London may have been the first gear British-based convention to hold an official fancy dress party as separate of its plan. [ 27 ] The joint winners were Ethel Lindsay and Ina Shorrock as two of the titular witches from the novel The Witches of Karres by James H. Schmitz. [ 28 ] Star Trek conventions began in 1969 and major conventions began in 1972 and they have featured cosplay throughout. [ 29 ] In Japan, costuming at conventions was a fan natural process from at least the 1970s, particularly after the launch of the Comiket convention in December 1975. [ 13 ] Costuming at this fourth dimension was known as kasō ( 仮装 ). [ 13 ] The first attested case of costuming at a sports fan event in Japan was at Ashinocon ( 1978 ), in Hakone, at which future skill fabrication critic Mari Kotani wore a costume based on the cover artwork for Edgar Rice Burroughs ‘ fresh A Fighting Man of Mars. [ Notes 1 ] [ 30 ] [ 31 ] In an interview Kotani states that there were about twenty costumed attendees at the convention ‘s costume party—made up of members of her Triton of the Sea fan golf club and Kansai Entertainers ( 関西芸人, Kansai Geinin ), ancestor of the Gainax zanzibar copal studio—with most attendees in ordinary clothe. [ 30 ] One of the Kansai group, an nameless friend of Yasuhiro Takeda, wore an ad lib Tusken Raider costume ( from the film Star Wars ) made from one of the host-hotel ‘s rolls of gutter newspaper. [ 32 ] Costume contests became a permanent contribution of the Nihon SF Taikai conventions from Tokon VII in 1980. possibly the first costume contest held at a comic book convention was at the 1st Academy Con held at Broadway Central Hotel, New York in August 1965. [ 33 ] Roy Thomas, future editor-in-chief of Marvel Comics but then precisely transitioning from a fanzine editor program to a professional comic book writer, attended in a Plastic Man costume. [ 33 ] The beginning Masquerade Ball held at San Diego Comic-Con was in 1974 during the conventionality ‘s 6th consequence. Voice actress June Foray was the master of ceremonies. [ 34 ] Future screech queen Brinke Stevens won first place wearing a Vampirella costume. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] Forrest J Ackerman, the godhead of Vampirella, was in attendance and posed with Stevens for photograph. They became friends and, according to Stevens “ Forry and his wife, Wendayne, soon became like my god parents. ” [ 37 ] Photographer Dan Golden saw a photograph of Stevens in the Vampirella costume while visiting Ackerman ‘s house, leading to him hiring her for a non-speaking character in her first student film, Zyzak is King ( 1980 ), and late photographing her for the top of the first issue of Femme Fatales ( 1992 ). [ 37 ] Stevens attributes these events to launching her acting career. [ 37 ] ampere early as a year after the 1975 release of The Rocky Horror Picture Show, hearing members began dressing as characters from the movie and role-playing ( although the initial bonus for dressing-up was free entree ) in often highly accurate costumes. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] Costume-Con, a conventionality dedicated to costuming, was first gear held in January 1983. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] The International Costumers Guild, in the first place known as the Greater Columbia Fantasy Costumer ‘s Guild, was launched after the 3rd Costume-Con ( 1984 or 1985 ) as a parent constitution and to support costuming. [ 40 ]
Cosplay [edit ]
Costuming had been a winnow activity in Japan from the 1970s, and it became much more democratic in the wake up of Takahashi ‘s reputation. The new term did not catch on immediately, however. It was a year or two after the article was published before it was in common habit among fans at conventions. [ 13 ] It was in the 1990s, after exposure on television receiver and in magazines, that the term and practice of cosplaying became coarse cognition in Japan. [ 13 ] The first cosplay cafés appeared in the Akihabara area of Tokyo in the late 1990s. [ 3 ] [ 42 ] A temp maid café was set up at the Tokyo Character Collection consequence in August 1998 to promote the video game Welcome to Pia Carrot 2 ( 1997 ). [ 42 ] An episodic Pia Carrot Restaurant was held at the shop Gamers in Akihabara in the years up to 2000. [ 42 ] Being linked to specific intellectual properties limited the life of these cafés, which was solved by using generic maids, leading to the beginning permanent constitution, Cure Maid Café, which opened in March 2001. [ 42 ] The first gear World Cosplay Summit was held on October 12, 2003 at the Rose Court Hotel in Nagoya, Japan, with five cosplayers invited from Germany, France and Italy. There was no contest until 2005, when the World Cosplay Championship began. The first winners were the italian team of Giorgia Vecchini, Francesca Dani and Emilia Fata Livia. Worldcon masquerade attendance peaked in the 1980s and started to fall thereafter. This drift was reversed when the concept of cosplay was re-imported from Japan .
Practice of cosplay [edit ]
Cosplay costumes vary greatly and can range from simple themed clothing to highly detail costumes. It is by and large considered different from Halloween and Mardi Gras costume wear, as the purpose is to replicate a specific character, rather than to reflect the culture and symbolism of a vacation event. As such, when in costume, some cosplayers frequently seek to adopt the involve, idiosyncrasy, and body language of the characters they portray ( with “ out of character ” breaks ). The characters chosen to be cosplayed may be sourced from any movie, television receiver series, book, comic book, video game, music band, anime, or manga. Some cosplayers even choose to cosplay an original character of their own design or a fusion of different genres ( for example, a steampunk adaptation of a character ), and it is a part of the ethos of cosplay that anybody can be anything, as with genderbending, crossplay, or drag, a cosplayer playing a fictional character of another ethnicity, or a hijabi portray Captain America. [ 43 ] [ 44 ]
Costumes [edit ]
Monogatari series cosplayers at Nippombashi Street Festa 2014 series cosplayers at Nippombashi Street Festa 2014 Cosplayers obtain their apparel through many different methods. Manufacturers produce and sell packaged outfits for use in cosplay, with varying levels of timbre. These costumes are frequently sold on-line, but besides can be purchased from dealers at conventions. japanese manufacturers of cosplay costumes reported a profit of 35 billion yen in 2008. [ 45 ] A phone number of individuals besides work on commission, creating custom costumes, props, or wigs designed and fitted to the person. other cosplayers, who prefer to create their own costumes, still provide a market for person elements, and versatile raw materials, such as unstyled wigs, hair dye, fabric and sewing notions, liquid latex paint, body paint, costume jewelry, and property weapons. Cosplay represents an act of embodiment. Cosplay has been close linked to the display of self, [ 46 ] so far cosplayers ‘ ability to perform is limited by their physical features. The accuracy of a cosplay is judged based on the ability to accurately represent a character through the body, and individual cosplayers frequently are faced by their own “ bodily limits ” [ 47 ] such as horizontal surface of attractiveness, body size, and disability [ 48 ] that much restrict and confine how accurate the cosplay is perceived to be. Authenticity is measured by a cosplayer ‘s individual ability to translate on-screen manifestation to the cosplay itself. Some have argued that cosplay can never be a true representation of the quality ; alternatively, it can merely be read through the body, and that true shape of a character is judged based on nearness to the original quality form. [ 49 ] Cosplaying can besides help some of those with self-esteem problems. [ 50 ] [ 51 ] many cosplayers create their own outfits, referencing images of the characters in the process. In the creation of the outfits, much time is given to detail and qualities, thus the skill of a cosplayer may be measured by how difficult the details of the equip are and how well they have been replicated. Because of the trouble of replicating some details and materials, cosplayers much educate themselves in crafting specialties such as textiles, sculpture, confront rouge, fiberglass, fashion plan, carpentry, and other uses of materials in the effort to render the look and texture of a costume accurately. [ 52 ] Cosplayers often wear wigs in junction with their kit to further improve the resemblance to the character. This is specially necessary for zanzibar copal and manga or video-game characters who frequently have artificially colored and uniquely styled hair. Simpler outfits may be compensated for their miss of complexity by paying care to corporeal choice and overall high timbre. To look more like the characters they are portraying, cosplayers might besides engage in versatile forms of body change. Cosplayers may opt to change their skin coloring material utilizing makeup to more simulate the raceway of the quality they are adopting. [ 53 ] Contact lenses that match the semblance of their character ‘s eyes are a park form of this, specially in the character of characters with particularly unique eyes as part of their trademark spirit. Contact lenses that make the pupil spirit enlarged to visually echo the bombastic eyes of zanzibar copal and manga characters are besides used. [ 54 ] Another shape of torso modification in which cosplayers engage is to copy any tattoo or special markings their character might have. Temporary tattoo, permanent marker, body paint, and in rare cases, permanent tattoo, are all methods used by cosplayers to achieve the desire look. Permanent and impermanent hair dye, spray-in hair color, and specialize extreme style products are all used by some cosplayers whose natural hair can achieve the hope hairdo. It is besides banal for them to shave off their eyebrows to gain a more accurate search. Some anime and video game characters have weapons or other accessories that are hard to replicate, and conventions have nonindulgent rules regarding those weapons, but most cosplayers engage in some combination of methods to obtain all the items necessity for their costumes ; for exercise, they may mission a prop up weapon, sew their own invest, buy fictional character jewelry from a cosplay accessory manufacturer, or buy a couple of off-the-rack shoes, and modify them to match the craved look .
presentation [edit ]
Cosplay may be presented in a number of ways and places. A subset of cosplay culture is centered on sex appeal, with cosplayers specifically choosing characters known for their attraction or revealing costumes. however, wearing a unwrap costume can be a medium issue while appearing in populace. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] People appearing naked at american science fabrication fandom conventions during the 1970s were so common, a “ no costume is no costume ” rule was introduced. [ 58 ] Some conventions throughout the United States, such as Phoenix Comicon [ 59 ] ( immediately known as Phoenix Fan Fusion ) and Penny Arcade Expo, [ 60 ] have besides issued rules upon which they reserve the right to ask attendees to leave or change their costumes if deemed to be inappropriate to a family-friendly environment or something of a alike nature .
Conventions [edit ]
A crowd including many cosplayers at Comiket 84 in 2013 The most popular shape of presenting a cosplay publicly is by wearing it to a fan convention. multiple conventions dedicated to anime and manga, comics, television shows, video games, skill fabrication, and fantasy may be found all around the earth. Cosplay-centered conventions include Cosplay Mania in the Philippines and EOY Cosplay Festival in Singapore. The unmarried largest event featuring cosplay is the semiannual doujinshi market, comic Market ( Comiket ), held in Japan during summer and winter. Comiket attracts hundreds of thousands of manga and anime fans, where thousands of cosplayers congregate on the roof of the exhibition center. In North America, the highest-attended fan conventions featuring cosplayers are the San Diego Comic-Con and New York Comic Con held in the United States, and the anime-specific Anime North in Toronto, Otakon held in Baltimore MD and Anime Expo held in Los Angeles. Europe ‘s largest event is Japan Expo held in Paris, while the London MCM Expo and the London Super Comic Convention are the most noteworthy in the UK. Supanova Pop Culture Expo is Australia ‘s biggest event.
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Star Trek conventions have featured cosplay for many decades. These include Destination Star Trek, a UK convention, and Star Trek Las Vegas, a US convention. In unlike amusing fair, “ thematic Areas ” are set up where cosplayers can take photos in an environment that follows that of the game or liveliness product from which they are taken. sometimes the cosplayers are character of the area, playing the character of staff with the tax of entertaining the other visitors. Some examples are the thematic areas dedicated to Star Wars or to Fallout. The areas are set up by not for profit associations of fans, but in some major fairs it is possible to visit areas set up immediately by the developers of the video games or the producers of the zanzibar copal .
photography [edit ]
professional photographers working with Mileena cosplayer for a saturation identify studio apartment photoshoot at Space City Con 2014 in the United States The appearance of cosplayers at public events makes them a popular draw for photographers. [ 61 ] As this became apparent in the former 1980s, a new version of cosplay developed in which cosplayers attended events chiefly for the aim of modeling their characters for still photography rather than engaging in continuous function play. Rules of etiquette were developed to minimize awkward situations involving boundaries. Cosplayers pose for photographers and photographers do not press them for personal contact data or private sessions, follow them out of the area, or take photos without permission. The rules allow the collaborative kinship between photographers and cosplayers to continue with the least inconvenience to each other. [ 62 ] Some cosplayers choose to have a professional photographer take high timbre images of them in their costumes posing as the character. Cosplayers and photographers frequently exhibit their employment on-line and sometimes sell their images. [ 61 ]
Competitions [edit ]
As the popularity of cosplay has grown, many conventions have come to feature a contest surrounding cosplay that may be the independent feature of the convention. Contestants present their cosplay, and often to be judged for an award, the cosplay must be self-made. The contestants may choose to perform a skit, which may consist of a inadequate performed script or dance with optional accompanying audio, video recording, or images shown on a screen overhead. other contestants may just choose to pose as their characters. Often, contestants are briefly interviewed on stage by a overcome of ceremonies. The audience is given a find to take photos of the cosplayers. Cosplayers may compete solo or in a group. Awards are presented, and these awards may vary greatly. Generally, a best cosplayer prize, a best group award, and runner-up prizes are given. Awards may besides go to the best skit and a count of cosplay skill subcategories, such as master cut, chief weapon-maker, chief armorer, and so forth. The most well-known cosplay contest event is the World Cosplay Summit, selecting cosplayers from 40 countries to compete in the final round in Nagoya, Japan. Some early international events include european Cosplay Gathering ( finals taking place at Japan Expo in Paris, France ), [ 63 ] EuroCosplay ( finals taking home at London MCM Comic Con ), [ 64 ] and the Nordic Cosplay Championship ( finals taking place at NärCon in Linköping, Sweden ). [ 65 ]
coarse Cosplay Judging Criteria [edit ]
This table contains a list of the most common cosplay competition judging criteria, as seen from World Cosplay Summit, [ 66 ] Cyprus Comic Con, [ 67 ] and ReplayFX. [ 68 ]
Resemblance to the original character in terms of appearance.
- Hair color/styling
- Stage props
Quality and details of the costume and props.
- How well the costume is made
- Maneuverability/functionality of the costume
- Quality of materials
- Level of detail
- Amount of effort
- Percentage of costume that is handmade
Likeliness in terms of character portrayal and performance.
- Talking with iconic phrases and tones of the character
- Facial expressions
- Interaction with other characters
- Faithfulness to the story
Stage presence and connection with the audience.
- Eye contact
- Making full usage of the stage space
- Engaging with the audience
Gender issues [edit ]
Portraying a fictional character of the opposite arouse is called crossplay. The practicality of crossplay and cross-dress stems in function from the abundance in manga of male characters with finespun and reasonably androgynous features. such characters, known as bishōnen ( fall. “ reasonably son ” ), [ 69 ] are asian equivalent of the elfin son original represented in western tradition by figures such as Peter Pan and Ariel. [ 70 ]
male to female cosplayers may experience issues when trying to portray a female character because it is hard to maintain the sexualize femininity of a character. male cosplayers may besides be subjected to discrimination, [ 71 ] including homophobic comments and being touched without permission. This affects men possibly even more much than it affects women, despite inappropriate contact already being a problem for women who cosplay, [ 72 ] as is “ slut-shaming “. [ 73 ] Animegao kigurumi players, a niche group in the region of cosplay, are often male cosplayers who use zentai and stylize masks to represent female zanzibar copal characters. These cosplayers wholly hide their real features so the original appearance of their characters may be reproduced vitamin a literally as possible, and to display all the abstractions and stylizations such as outsize eyes and bantam mouths frequently seen in japanese cartoon artwork. [ 74 ] This does not mean that only males perform animegao or that masks are only female .
Harassment issues [edit ]
“ Cosplay Is not Consent ” sign at the 2014 New York Comic Con. “ Cosplay Is not Consent ”, a movement started in 2013 by Rochelle Keyhan, Erin Filson, and Anna Kegler, brought to the mainstream, the issue of sexual harassment in the convention attending cosplay community. [ 75 ] [ 76 ] Harassment of cosplayers include photography without permission, verbal pervert, touching, and groping. Harassment is not limited to women in provocative outfits as male cosplayers talked about being bullied for not fitting certain costume and characters. Starting in 2014, New York Comic Con placed large signs at the capture stating that “ Cosplay is not accept ”. Attendees were reminded to ask permission for photos and respect the person ‘s right to say no. [ 77 ] The campaign against sexual harassment against cosplayers has continued to gain momentum and awareness since being publicized. traditional mainstream news program media like Mercury News and Los Angeles Times have reported on the subject, bringing awareness of intimate harassment to those outside of the cosplay community. [ 78 ] [ 79 ]
Ethnicity issues [edit ]
As cosplay has entered more mainstream media, ethnicity becomes a controversial period. Cosplayers of unlike clamber color than the character are frequently ridiculed for not being ‘accurate ‘ or ‘faithful ‘. [ 80 ] many cosplayers feel as if anyone can cosplay any character, but it become complicated when cosplayers are not respectful of the character ‘s ethnicity. [ 81 ] Issues such as blackface, brownface, and yellowface are still controversial since a large separate of the cosplay community see these as separate problems, or plainly an acceptable part of cosplay. ethnicity remains a polarize subject today, as discussion continues in person and on-line .
Cosplay models [edit ]
Cosplay has influenced the ad diligence, in which cosplayers are much used for consequence knead previously assigned to means models. [ 61 ] Some cosplayers have frankincense transformed their avocation into profitable, professional careers. [ 82 ] [ 83 ] [ 84 ] Japan ‘s entertainment industry has been home to the professional cosplayers since the rise of Comiket and Tokyo Game Show. [ 61 ] The phenomenon is most apparent in Japan but exists to some degree in other countries as well. professional cosplayers who profit from their art may experience problems related to copyright misdemeanor. [ 85 ] A cosplay model, besides known as a cosplay idol, cosplays costumes for zanzibar copal and manga or television game companies. estimable cosplayers are viewed as fictional characters in the flesh, in a lot the lapp way that film actors come to be identified in the public take care with specific roles. Cosplayers have modeled for print magazines like Cosmode and a successful cosplay model can become the brand ambassador for companies like Cospa. Some cosplay models can achieve significant recognition. While there are many significant cosplay models, Yaya Han, for exercise, was described as having emerged “ as a well-recognized figure both within and outside cosplay circuits ”. [ 83 ] Along with Jessica Nigri, who used her recognition in cosplay to gain other opportunities such as voice act and getting her own documentary on Rooster Teeth .
Cosplay by area or region [edit ]
Cosplay in Japan [edit ]
Cosplayers in Japan used to refer to themselves as reiyā ( レイヤー ), pronounced “ layer ”. Currently in Japan, cosplayers are more normally called kosupure ( コスプレ ), pronounced “ ko-su-pray, ” as reiyā is more frequently used to describe layers ( i.e. hair, clothes, etc. ). [ 86 ] Words like cunning ( kawaii ( 可愛い ) ) and cool ( kakko ī ( かっこ いい ) ) were much used to describe these changes, [ further explanation needed ] expressions that were tied with notions of femininity and masculinity. [ 87 ] Those who photograph players are called cameko, short for camera kozō or camera boy. originally, the cameko gave prints of their photos to players as gifts. Increased interest in cosplay events, both on the separate of photographers and cosplayers will to model for them, has led to formalization of procedures at events such as Comiket. Photography takes place within a indicate area removed from the parade hallway. In Japan, costumes are broadly not welcome outside of conventions or other designated areas. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] Since 1998, Tokyo ‘s Akihabara district contains a number of cosplay restaurants, catering to devoted anime and cosplay fans, where the waitresses at such cafés dress as television game or anime characters ; maid cafés are particularly popular. In Japan, Tokyo ‘s Harajuku district is the favored cozy gathering put to engage in cosplay in public. Events in Akihabara besides draw many cosplayers. Ishoku-hada ( 異色肌 ) is a shape of japanese cosplay where the players use body paint to make their bark semblance match that of the character they are playing. This allows them to represent anime or video game characters with non-human clamber colors. [ 88 ] A 2014 survey for the Comic Market convention in Japan noted that approximately 75 % of cosplayers attending the event are female. [ 89 ]
Cosplay in other asian countries [edit ]
Cosplay is common in many East asian countries. For case, it is a major part of the Comic World conventions taking place regularly in South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan. [ 90 ] Historically, the practice of dressing up as characters from works of fabrication can be traced angstrom far as the seventeenth century late Ming Dynasty China. [ 91 ]
Cosplay in western countries [edit ]
western cosplay ‘s origins are based primarily in skill fabrication and fantasy fandoms. It is besides more common for western cosplayers to recreate characters from live-action series than it is for japanese cosplayers. westerly costumers besides include subcultures of hobbyists who participate in Renaissance faires, live action role-playing games, and diachronic reenactments. competition at science fabrication conventions typically include the masquerade ( where costumes are presented on phase and judged formally ) and hallway costumes [ 92 ] ( where roving judges may give out awards for outstanding craft or presentation ). [ 93 ] The increasing popularity of japanese animation outside of Asia during the former 2000s led to an increase in american english and other western cosplayers who portray manga and zanzibar copal characters. Anime conventions have become more numerous in the West in the previous ten, now competing with skill fabrication, comic reserve and historic conferences in attendance. At these gatherings, cosplayers, like their japanese counterparts, suffer to show off their bring, be photographed, and compete in costume contests. [ 94 ] Convention attendees besides just a much dress up as western comedian book or inspire characters, or as characters from movies and video recording games. Differences in taste still exist across cultures : some costumes that are worn without hesitation by japanese cosplayers tend to be avoided by western cosplayers, such as outfits that evoke Nazi uniforms. Some western cosplayers have besides encountered questions of authenticity when playing characters of canonically unlike racial backgrounds, [ 95 ] [ 96 ] and people can be insensitive to cosplayers playing as characters who are canonically of other bark color. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] western cosplayers of anime characters may besides be subjected to particular jeer. [ 99 ] In contrast to Japan, the wear of costumes in public is more accept in the United States and other westerly countries. These countries have a longer custom of Halloween costumes, fan costume and other such activities. As a resultant role, for example, costumed conventionality attendees can much be seen at local restaurants and eateries, beyond the boundaries of the convention or event. [ 4 ] [ 5 ]
Media [edit ]
Magazines and books [edit ]
Japan is home to two specially popular cosplay magazines, Cosmode ( コスモード ) and ASCII Media Works ‘ Dengeki Layers ( 電撃Layers ). [ 100 ] Cosmode has the largest parcel in the market and an English-language digital edition. [ 101 ] Another magazine, aimed at a broader, global audience is CosplayGen. [ 102 ] In the United States, Cosplay Culture began publication in February 2015. [ 103 ] early magazines include CosplayZine featuring cosplayers from all over the world since October 2015, [ 104 ] and Cosplay Realm Magazine which was started in April 2017. [ 105 ] There are many books on the subjugate of cosplay deoxyadenosine monophosphate well. [ 106 ]
Documentaries and reality shows [edit ]
other media [edit ]
- Cosplay Complex, a 2002 anime miniseries.
- Downtown no Gaki no Tsukai ya Arahende!!, a Japanese TV variety show that includes the Cosplay Bus Tour series segment.
- Super Cosplay War Ultra, a 2004 freeware fighting game.
- A large number of erotic and pornographic films featuring cosplaying actresses; many of such films come from the Japanese company TMA.
Cosplay groups and organizations [edit ]
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
- Triton of the Sea) due to its visual similarity and because Kotani was known as a member of the TRITON fan club. Mari Kotani ‘s costume has sometimes been misreported as a Triton costume ( from the manga ) due to its ocular similarity and because Kotani was known as a member of the TRITON fan club .
References [edit ]
- Cosplay at Curlie
External video  A cinéma vérité view of participants in the 2017 [[Japan Ultra}]]