Food groups and sub-groups | FAO/WHO GIFT | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Food groups and sub-groups

Why were the FAO/WHO GIFT food groups and subgroups developed?

One of the main challenges of harmonizing food consumption data is the harmonization of the gull of food items. Foods vary between countries and regions in terms of form, varieties, formulation methods and many other characteristics. It is key to maintain comparison without losing detail data about what has been consumed. The practice of a common food categorization and description system among food consumption surveys from different countries, covering different old age and sex population groups, contributes to the harmonization of dietary data globally .
The person quantitative food pulmonary tuberculosis datasets shared through FAO/WHO GIFT are coded with the FoodEx2 system. FoodEx2 is a comprehensive and flexible food classification and description system developed by the european Food Safety Authority ( EFSA ). It was first developed to be used at the European level, and was by and by scaled-up to the global level in collaboration with the Food and Agricultural Organization ( FAO ) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization ( WHO ), to enable the description and classification of food items consumed in other regions of the earth, such as insects, flowers and godforsaken foods .
The FoodEx2 classification and description system contains different hierarchies that differently aggregate person food items with alike characteristics into food groups and comprehensive food categories in a hierarchical manner. The FoodEx2 Exposure hierarchy was designed to facilitate the grouping of food items for dietary exposure calculations, which is a winder footprint in the risk assessment process in food base hit. This is the hierarchy that is normally used for coding food consumption data.

FAO worked to develop the FAO/WHO GIFT food groups and sub-groups with the bearing of developing bare and more nutrition-sensitive food grouping which would allow non-specialist users to draw the conclusions from the indicators presented in the FAO/WHO GIFT platform in an intuitive room .
The food grouping used in the FAO/WHO GIFT platform was developed based on the food groups used for Dietary Diversity Score indicators, arsenic well as those typically used in food-based dietary guidelines. The food grouping was meant to reflect the role of foods in the diet and to be intuitively understand by non-specialist users. It was besides reviewed by food composition specialists and compared with the food grouping used by the CIFOCOss, now integrated into the FOSCOLLAB chopine, to ensure maximal possible coherence with early like classifications. last, the food groups were mapped with FoodEx2 reportable terms and it was ensured that they are jointly exhaustive and mutually exclusive .
The food lists which have not been mapped with FoodEx2, can be mapped on the FAO/WHO GIFT food groups manually, based on the descriptions of the food groups presented in the list below .
It should be noted that the food group no. 18 “ Composite dishes ” has been created to temporarily accommodate data on pulmonary tuberculosis of dishes for which information on recipe disaggregation lacks. This happens typically when foods are consumed outside home, and view respondents are not able to provide the full list of ingredients including their proportions and cooking methods, and/or when a standard recipe could not be applied .
The FAO/WHO GIFT chopine prioritizes the dispersion of surveys in which recipes have been disaggregated into ingredients ; frankincense, efforts are put in place to support data providers who agree to disaggregate any shuffle dishes portray in the dataset. This approach is in accord with the recommendations from EFSA, which besides stimulates and provide confirm to european countries to collect information on recipes disaggregated into ingredients .

How are the food groups and subgroups used to compute indicators in the FAO/WHO GIFT platform?

presently, FAO/WHO GIFT provides ready-to-use indicators based on individual food consumption data in the areas of food consumption, food condom and nutriment. These indicators can be browsed by food groups, sub-groups and food items. The calculation of indicators is done by the backend engineering of the platform, by mechanically assigning each food consumed to a food group/sub-group based on its FoodEx2 code .

FAO/WHO GIFT nutrition-sensitive food grouping

1. Cereals and their products
1.1. rice and rice-based products | Rice, including secondary commodities and derived products such as semolina, flour, bran, popped rice, rolled grains and porridge and manufactured rice-based products such as refined rice-based flakes, noodles, bread and milk imitates, excluding manufactured rice-based snacks such as chips .
1.2. Maize and maize-based products | Maize, including secondary commodities and derived products such as semolina, milled grain, maize germ and cornmeal porridge and manufactured maize-based products such as processed maize-based flakes, maize starch and popcorn, excluding manufactured maize-based snacks such as chips .
1.3. wheat and wheat-based products | Wheat, including junior-grade commodities and derived products such as groats, semolina, flour, bran, pale yellow grain source, rolled and popped grains and porridge and manufactured wheat-based products such as refined wheat-based flakes, puff grains, pastas and breads and dough-base foods, excluding manufactured wheat-based snacks such as chips .
1.4. sorghum and sorghum-based products | Sorghum, including secondary commodities and derived products such as flour, and manufactured sorghum-based products, excluding manufactured sorghum-based snacks such as chips .
1.5. millet and millet-based products | Millet, including secondary coil commodities and derived products such as groats, flour and rolled grains, and manufactured millet-based products, excluding manufactured millet-based snacks such as chips .
1.6. early cereals, desegregate cereals or unspecified cereals and their products | Grains early than rice, gamboge, pale yellow, sorghum and millet, such as barley, buckwheat, oat, rye, spell, and so forth, and unspecified grains, their junior-grade commodities and derived products such as groats, flours, brans, flakes, popped cereals, rolled grains, porridges and others, and manufactured cereal-based products such as cereal bars, muesli, industrial quick to eat porridges, pastas and noodles, breads, starches and milk imitates, excluding manufactured cereal-based snacks such as chips .
2. Roots, tubers, plantains and their products
2.1. Potato, fresh potato and their products | Potato and sweet potato, including secondary commodities and derivatives such as starch and dried potato, excluding manufactured potato-based snacks such as potato chips, etc .
2.2. Cassava and similar roots ( excluding taro ) and their products | Cassava and exchangeable roots such as “ blue taro ” and tannias ( Xanthosoma spp. ), canna, chayote roots and konjac roots ( excluding taro – colocasia esculenta ( L. ) Schott ), including secondary commodities and derivatives, excluding manufacture snacks such as cassava chips, etc .
2.3. taro and taro-based products | Taro ( Colocasia esculenta ( L. ) Schott ), including secondary commodities and derivatives, excluding taro-based manufactured snacks such as chips, etc .
2.4. yam and yam-based products | Yam ( Dioscorea L. spp ), including secondary commodities and derivatives, excluding taro-based manufactured snacks such as chips, etc .
2.5. other and unspecified starchy roots and tubers ( excluding sugary roots and tubers ) and their products- Starchy roots and tubers other than potato and sugared potato, cassava and similar roots, taro and yam, including junior-grade commodities and derivatives, excluding manufacture snacks such as chips, etc .
2.6. plantain and plantain-based products | Plantains, including secondary commodities and derivatives, excluding plaintain-based manufacture snacks such as plantain chips, etc .
3. Pulses, seeds and nuts and their products
3.1. Pulses ( excluding soybeans ) and their products | Dry beans ( excluding soybeans ), pea, lentils, lupins and other and unspecified pulses and their sprouts, including derived and manufactured products such as can or jar legumes, hummus, etc .
3.2. soy and soy-based products | Dry soybeans and their sprouts, including derived and manufactured products such as bean curd, soy drinks, texturized soy proteins, meat imitates, milk and milk product imitates .
3.3. Nuts, seeds and their products | Nuts and seeds such as tree nuts ( almonds, cashew nuts, chestnuts, coconuts, walnuts and similar, etc. ) and oilseeds ( sesame seeds, poppy seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, linseeds, etc. ), including derived and manufactured products of them such as dry nuts, flours and powders, peanut butter, tahini glue and milk imitates .
4. milk and milk products
4.1. milk : fresh and processed ( excluding fermented milk products, cream, whey, cheese and other milk products ) | milk from cattle, equine and early mammals including secondary commodities and products derived from milk by reducing water system or/and increasing sugar contented and isolating milk protein such as evaporated, condense and powderize milk and milk protein, and manufactured products such as dairy snacks, flavoured milk, and so forth, which are not fermented milk products, cheese, cream or whey .
4.2. Fermented milk products | Fermented products of cow, sheep, capricorn or other mammal ‘s milk such as yoghurts, kefir, koumiss, dark and sour milk, including flavoured and non-flavoured products .
4.3. cream, whey and any other milk products excluding fermented milk products and cheese | Products derived from cow, sheep, butt or other mammal ‘s milk by isolating its different fractions such as skim, whey and other milk products ( excluding isolated milk fats ), including dried products such as powdered whey, cream and sour cream and isolated whey protein, and manufactured products such as season whey, cream and dark cream, etc .
4.4. tall mallow | Any kinds of tall mallow manufactured from cow, sheep, butt or early mammal ‘s milk such as corned and uncured cheese, brined cheese, ripened cheese ( cushy and heavily ), including cheese rind and including processed cheese such as spreads, etc .
5. Eggs and their products
5.1. Eggs : fresh and march | Bird eggs ( whole and their fractions : separated egg yolk or white ) such as domestic fowl eggs ( hen, duck, goose, flinch, turkey, etc. ) and other birds eggs ( gull, electromagnetic unit, rhea, ostrich and early birds ), including processed eggs such as dried eggs, and so forth, and manufactured products such as solid egg rolls .
6. fish, mollusk and their products
6.1. Freshwater pisces ( excluding offal ) : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | Freshwater pisces, meat entirely, including processed fish such as marinated, pickled, salt-preserved, canned or jarred, smoked, etc. and manufactured fish products such as fish pastes, surimi, etc., excluding dried pisces .
6.2. diadromous pisces ( excluding offal ) : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | diadromous fish, kernel only, including processed pisces such as marinated, pickled, salt-preserved, canned or jarred, smoked, etc. and manufactured fish products such as fish pastes, surimi, etc., excluding dried pisces .
6.3. Marine fish ( excluding offal ) : clean and processed ( excluding dried ) | Marine fish, meat only, including processed pisces such as marinated, pickled, salt-preserved, canned or jarred, smoked, etc. and manufactured pisces products such as fish pastes, surimi, etc., excluding dried fish .
6.4. Offal – fish and shellfish : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | Offal from all types of fish and shellfish, assorted and from unspecified sources, including processed offal such as marinated, pickled, salt-preserved, canned or jarred, smoked, etc. and manufactured offal products such as pastes, etc., excluding dried offal .
6.5. mollusk ( excluding offal ) – all types : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | Shellfish, crustaceans and molluscs, including processed mollusk such as marinated, pickled, salt-preserved, canned or jarred, smoked, etc. and manufactured shellfish products such as pastes, etc., excluding dried shellfish .
6.6. pisces and shellfish – desegregate or unspecified : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | Fish and mollusk, shuffle and of unspecified source, including processed pisces and mollusk, such as marinated, pickled, salt-preserved, canned or jarred, smoked, etc. and manufactured fish shellfish products such as pastes, etc., excluding dried fish and shellfish .
6.7. pisces and shellfish ( including offal ) – all types : dried | Dried fish and mollusk, including freshwater pisces, diadromous fish, marine pisces, shellfish and offal and unspecified generator dried pisces and shellfish, including sundried and industrially dried, and dried pisces products with add flavouring ingredients such as salt, sugar, soy sauce, etc .
7. kernel and kernel products
7.1. Offal – all types : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | Organ kernel such as liver-colored, kidney, heart, lungs, intestines, lineage and so forth, from mammals and birds, interracial and from unspecified sources, including processed and manufactured offal products, excluding dried offal .
7.2. Mammals, reptiles and amphibians ( excluding offal ) : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | Mammal kernel ( excluding offal ), such as bovine, pork barrel, equine, capricorn, sheep, camelid, deer, lapin, game animals, marine mammal, kangaroo, rodents such as wop devour and fink, and so forth, and reptiles and amphibians such as snails, crocodiles, frogs, snakes, turtles, lizards, etc., including processed products such as cold meats ( cured or seasoned ), smoked meats, pre-cooked sausages, marinated meats, canned or tinned meats, and manufactured products such as meat-based spreads, gelatines, etc., excluding dried meats .
7.3. Birds ( excluding offal ) : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | Bird kernel ( excluding offal ), such as chicken, turkey, hedge, goose, pigeon, ratites, flinch, pheasant and other game birds, etc., including processed products such as cold meats ( cured or seasoned ), smoked meats, pre-cooked sausages, marinated meats, canned or tinned meats, and manufactured products such as bird meat-based spreads, excluding dried meats .
7.4. Meat – mix or unspecified : fresh and processed ( excluding dried ) | Meat, mix and of unspecified reservoir, including processed kernel such as cold meats ( cured or seasoned ), smoked meats, pre-cooked sausages, marinated meats, canned or tinned meats, and manufactured products such as dame meat-based spreads, excluding dried meats .
7.5. Meat – all types : dried | Dried meat, including mammal, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and their offal, including sundried and industrially dried, and dried meat products with add flavouring ingredients such as salt, sugar, soy sauce, etc .
8. Insects, grubs and their products
8.1. Insects and grubs | All terrestrial insects such as spiders, mites, ticks, beetles, flies, bugs, ants, and so forth, and grubs such as earthworms, including processed products such as dry insects, and manufactured products such as powder insects and grubs .
9. Vegetables and their products
9.1. leafy vegetables : fresh | Leafy vegetables such as boodle, rocket salad, mustard leaves, bay leaves, spinach and similar, chard and alike, felon, cabbage and brussels sprouts, kale, other leafy brassica and ferns, and seaweeds such as alga and prokaryotes organisms, consumed fresh and after basic family process such as fudge, excluding dry, pickle and early ways of preserve .
9.2. scandalmongering and orange vegetables : fresh | Food group not in use
9.3. Vegetables ( excluding leafy vegetables and including fresh legumes ) : fresh | Non leafy vegetables such as sprouts ( excluding legume sprouts ), shoots, flowering brassica ( broccoli, cauliflower and like ), bulb vegetables ( clean garlic, onions and alike ), stems and stalks eaten as vegetables ( asparagus, leek, bamboo, palm hearts and like ) clean legumes seeds besides eaten with pods, flowers used as vegetables, fruiting vegetables ( okra, cucumbers, tomato and similar ), roots and tubers ( excluding starchy roots and tubers included under the “ roots and tubers ” group and sugar roots and tubers ) ( carrot, radishes and similar ), fungi, and mosses and lichens, consumed fresh and after basic family processing such as cooking, excluding dry, pickle and other ways of save .
9.4. Vegetables – all types : dried | Dried vegetables, leafy vegetables and early vegetables, excluding starchy and sugary roots and tubers, including sundried and industrially dry vegetables .
9.5. Vegetables – all types, mix and unspecified : processed ( excluding dried ) | Processed ( excluding dried ) leafy and other vegetables, excluding starchy and sugary roots and tubers, including canned and jar vegetables, concentrates such as tomato condense, pickled, salted, marinated and fermented vegetables, manufactured vegetable products such as vegetable pastes, dairy and kernel imitates ( excluding soy-based imitates ) .
9.6. Vegetables – desegregate and unspecified : fresh | Vegetables, interracial and of unspecified source, consumed fresh and after basic family process such as fudge, excluding dry, pickle and early ways of save .
10. Fruits and their products
10.1. chicken and orange fruits : bracing | Food group not in use
10.2. Fruits : fresh | Fruits such as citrus fruits ( oranges, limes and similar ), pome fruits ( apples, quinces, loquats and others ), stone fruits ( apricots, cherries and alike ), berries and minor fruits ( grapes, strawberries and similar ), and other fruits ( table olives, figs, litchi, etc. ), consumed fresh and after basic family process such as cooking, excluding dry, pickle, candying, etc..

10.3. Fruits : dried | Dried fruits of any kind, including sundries and industrially dried, excluding candied fruits .
10.4. Fruits : processed ( excluding dried and candied ) | Processed ( excluding dried, candied and fermented ) fruits, including canned and jarred, pickled, preserved in vinegar brine, etc .
11. Fats and oils
11.1. vegetable fatten and oil ( excluding crimson palm oil ) | Oils, butters and margarines derived from fruits such as olives, seeds such as sunflower, rape seed, soy bean, and so forth, and other plants such as palms ( excluding bolshevik palm ) .
11.2. red decoration anoint | Oil derived from the derived from the mesocarp ( red pulp ) of the fruit of the petroleum decoration, chiefly the african vegetable oil palm Elaeis guineensis, unrefined, red coloured, with senior high school content of β-carotene. | Food group not in practice
11.3. Animal fat and anoint | Lards, tallows, fats, butters and oils of animal beginning .
12. Sweets and sugars
12.1. Dough-based sweets | Sweets made predominantly with dough, such as bakery and pastry products, ( fried and baked odoriferous doughs, laminated dough, cakes, cookies, biscuit, crackers, waffles, etc. ), which may besides contain non-cereal components such as creams, fillings and toppings .
12.2. Chocolate-based sweets | Sweets made predominantly with cocoa or cocoa, such as respective types of cocoa, pralines, chocolate spreads and sauces, and so forth, which may contain besides other ingredients .
12.3. yield and nut-based sweets | Sweets made predominately from fruits or nuts, finally vegetables, where these ingredients are processed with sugar ( candied or chocolate-coated fruits, jams, marmalades, fruit jellies etc. ), which may contain besides other ingredients .
12.4. early sweets | Any early sweets which are not made predominantly from boodle, chocolate, fruits, nuts or dairy such as candies, jellies and angelic bars, desserts and angelic dessert sauces and toppings, etc .
12.5. Sugars | Sugars such as mono- and di-saccharides ( sucrose, lactose, galactose, etc. ), syrups ( molasses and alike ), maltodextrins ( maltodextrin, dextrin, polydextrose ), honey and others ( polyols, polyfructoses, etc. ) .
12.6. dairy or dairy imitate based sweets | Sweets made predominantly from dairy or dairy imitates such as custards, puddings, ice rink cream, milkshakes, dairy snacks etc, which may contain besides other ingredients .
13. Spices and condiments
13.1. Herbs and spices | Herbs such as aromatic and dry herb and flowers used as spices, and so forth, and spices such as bud, sow, yield, root and rhizome spices, etc..
13.2. Condiments | Condiments, sauces and relishes such as soy sauce, seasoning mixes, flavor extracts, vinegars, salsa, pesto, chutneys, etc .
14. Beverages
14.1. alcoholic drinks | alcoholic drinks such as beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages ( liquors, unsweetened spirits, mix drinks such as cocktails, punch, sangaree, etc., fermented fruit and their products ) .
14.2. Drinking water | Drinking water including wiretap, well, and filtered tap water, and unconstipated drink bottled water including mineral urine, season water system and fortify urine .
14.3. Tea, herbal tea, coffee bean and cocoa | Coffee including coffee bean imitate beverages, coffee beans, coffee-beverage readiness powder and early coffee imitate ingredients and teas, and herb tea teas and infusions, including the ingredients for training of such infusions : leaves, flowers, roots, cocoa beans, angstrom well as powders based on teas, infusions and cocoa .
14.4. clear broth | Food group not in use
14.5. soft drinks | soft drinks including carbonated water-based season drinks such as cola-type drinks, flavoured delicate drinks, easy drinks with yield capacity below 25 %, and early easy drinks such as functional drinks and drink mixes .
14.6. yield and vegetable drinks | Drinks which contain 25-99 % of fruit or vegetable juice, such as fruit nectars ( containing minimum 25-50 % of fruit ), smoothies, and yield vegetable juice concentrates, extracts and powders .
14.7. 100 % fruit and vegetable juices | Fruit and vegetable juices which does not contain any other ingredients than the named reference .
15. Foods for particular nutritional uses
15.1. Infant rule and ready-to-eat meals for infants and young children | Foods for infants and young children such as baby and follow on formula, ready to eat meals for baby and young children, processed grain -based foods, herbal beverages, infusions and juices and nectars for this group of population and special foods for children emergence .
15.2. Foods for weight decrease | Foods for weight reduction including entire daily diet and single meal replacements for burden reduction .
15.3. Foods for sporting people | Foods for sporting people including carbohydrate-rich department of energy food products, carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, protein and protein components, micronutrients supplements and carnitine and carnitine-based supplement for sports people .
15.4. Foods for medical purposes | Dietary foods for extra checkup purposes including nutritionally complete and incomplete formula, recipe for metabolic disorders and oral rehydration products .
16. food supplements and alike
16.1. food supplements and exchangeable | Food supplements and exchangeable preparations such as vitamin and mineral supplements, protein and amino-acid supplements, enzyme and coenzyme formulations and natural supplements such as bee-produced, herbal, algae-based, yeast-based probiotic or prebiotic and early formulations .
17. food additives
17.1. Sweeteners and flavourings | Sweeteners and flavourings such as table-top sweeteners, essences and extracts and artificial sweeteners ( e.g. aspartame, cloying ) .
17.2. Colorants | Colorants including natural and artificial food colours .
17.3. early food additives | early food additives such as preservatives, gelling agents, acidic, etc .
17.4. Home-preparation aids | Home planning aids such as preparations for raising and flavouring home-made bakery, gelling home-made food, season and early process aids .
17.5. Ingredients for food fortification/enrichment and supplements | Ingredients for food fortification/enrichment and supplements such as vitamins, chemical elements ( microelements ), dietary character, phytochemicals, caffeine, etc .
17.6. Microbiological or enzymatic ingredients | Microbiological or enzymatic ingredients such as starter cultures, yeast cultures, enzymes for food manufacture and moulds or micro-fungal cultures .
18. composite dishes
18.1. Meat-based dishes | composite dishes, excluding soups, which chief ingredient is kernel, such as kernel or offal stews, kernel bum, moussaka, etc .
18.2. fish and seafood-based dishes | complex dishes, excluding soups, which main component is pisces or other seafood, such as fish and seafood stwes, salads, cakes, etc .
18.3. Egg-based dishes | composite dishes, excluding soups, which main ingredient is egg, such as omelet with different ingredients, etc .
18.4. Potato-based dishes | composite dishes, excluding soups, which main ingredient is potato, such as baked potato pies, potato salads, potato croquettes and respective meals with potatos and meat, tall mallow, vegetable or other component additions .
18.5. Legume-based dishes | composite dishes, excluding soups, which main ingredients are legumes or legume-based products such as bean curd, such as legume or bean curd salads, legume stews with legumes and kernel, tall mallow, vegetable or other ingredient additions .
18.6. Vegetable-based dishes | composite dishes, excluding soups, which independent ingredient is vegetables such as vegetable steweds and creams, vegetable soufflé, etc. | Vegetable-based dishes include besides mushroom-based dishes .
18.7. Bread-based dishes and finger foods | Composite dishes, excluding soups, which main ingredient is bread, such as pizza and stuffed bread, sandwiches, hamburgers | Bread-based dishes includes besides finger foods which are based on boodle .
18.8. pasta and noodle-based dishes | complex dishes, excluding soups, which main component is pasta or noodles such as farce pasta or pasta or noodles with sauce typically containing meat, cheese, vegetable or early component additions, etc .
18.9. Rice-based dishes | composite dishes, excluding soups, which main component is rice, such as rice with sauce typically containing meat, cheese, vegetable or other ingredient additions, but besides dishes such as paella, rice pudding, milk rice, etc .
18.10. savory pies and tarts | Composite dishes, with diverse ingredients served in a form of pies or tarts such as quishe, typically containing eggs and kernel, cheese, vegetable or other ingredients .
18.11. Soups | Soups including home-made soups and dry mixtures, typically containing vegetable, kernel, legumes or early ingredients, such as kernel and vegetable soups, gazpacho, fruit soup, dairy or egg soups, etc .
18.12. Salad-based dishes | complex dishes, which main ingredients are fresh vegetables, typically containing other ingredients such as kernel, grains, legumes, cheese, vegetable oil, etc .
19. savory snacks
19.1. Crisps and curls | Fried or baked savory chips prepared based on tubers or cereals such as potato chips or corn chips .
19.2. other snacks | other savory snacks prepared based on tubers or cereals .

Definitions :
· Processed foods – foods which undergone some sort of march which partially changed their nature in sexual intercourse to their form as bracing foods .
· Secondary commodity – the lowest level of processing. Includes dried plant and animal origin foods, milled grains and milk that has undergo a simpleton action leading to the removal of certain ingredients such as water, milk adipose tissue etc.

· Derived Products – assorted intermediate products in the manufacture of comestible food products, such as isolate fractions of animal source products ( animal fatness, milk fractions, etc. ), and plant beginning foods ( grain mill fractions, oils, juices, plant butter, molasses ) and meat, fish and seafood after simple march such as boil, freeze, etc .
· Manufactured products : multi and individual ingredient processed foods which are normally pre-packed and ready for consumption without cook and which are typically prepare out of deduce products of plant or animal beginning .

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