Vegetable – Wikipedia

comestible plant or depart of a plant, involved in cooking
“ Veggie ” and “ Veg ” redirect hera. For the diet that abstains from animal products and consists by and large of plants, see Veganism. For a vegetarian diet, see Vegetarianism. For other uses of “ vegetable ”, see vegetable ( disambiguation ). For other uses of “ vegetable ”, see Veggie ( disambiguation ). For other uses of “ vegetable ”, see VEG
Vegetables in a grocery store in the Philippines

Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still normally used and is applied to plants jointly to refer to all edible plant topic, including the flowers, fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and seeds. An surrogate definition of the term is applied slightly randomly, much by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits, flowers, nuts, and cereal grains, but include savory fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes, flowers such as broccoli, and seeds such as pulses. in the first place, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and enroll polish in several parts of the populace, probably during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agrarian way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as clock went on, trade brought alien crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, and crops may be cultivated in protect environments in less desirable locations. China is the largest producer of vegetables, and ball-shaped deal in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their class for food, to agribusinesses with huge acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the craw is followed by grading, storing, process, and selling. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an authoritative function in human nutrition, being by and large low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. many nutritionists encourage people to consume batch of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day frequently being recommended .

etymology

The word vegetable was first gear recorded in English in the early fifteenth century. It comes from Old French, [ 1 ] and was originally applied to all plants ; the word is distillery used in this sense in biological context. [ 2 ] It derives from Medieval Latin vegetabilis “ growing, flourishing ” ( i.e. of a establish ), a semantic change from a deep Latin meaning “ to be enlivening, quickening ”. [ 1 ] The mean of “ vegetable ” as a “ plant grow for food ” was not established until the eighteenth century. [ 3 ] In 1767, the parole was specifically used to mean a “ plant cultivated for food, an edible herb or root ”. The year 1955 saw the first use of the shortened, slang term “ vegetable ”. [ 4 ] As an adjective, the parole vegetable is used in scientific and technical context with a different and much broader mean, namely of “ related to plants ” in general, comestible or not—as in vegetable matter, vegetable kingdom, vegetable origin, etc. [ 2 ]

terminology

Venn diagram shows the overlap in the terminology of “vegetables” in a culinary sense and “fruits” in the botanical sense. The accurate definition of “ vegetable ” may vary merely because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. The broadest definition is the word ‘s manipulation adjectivally to mean “ count of plant origin ”. More specifically, a vegetable may be defined as “ any plant, part of which is used for food ”, [ 5 ] a secondary intend then being “ the comestible contribution of such a plant ”. [ 5 ] A more precise definition is “ any plant part consumed for food that is not a yield or seed, but including fledged fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal ”. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Falling outside these definitions are edible fungi ( such as comestible mushrooms ) and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are often treated as vegetables. [ 8 ] In the latter-mentioned definition of “ vegetable ”, which is used in everyday terminology, the words “ fruit ” and “ vegetable ” are mutually exclusive. “ Fruit ” has a precise botanical meaning, being a partially that developed from the ovary of a bloom plant. This is well different from the word ‘s culinary think of. While peaches, plums, and oranges are “ fruit ” in both senses, many items normally called “ vegetables ”, such as eggplants, chime peppers, and tomatoes, are botanically fruits. The question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893. The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is correctly identified as, and therefore taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the duty of 1883 on imported produce. The court did acknowledge, however, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit. [ 9 ]

history

Before the advent of farming, humans were hunter-gatherers. They foraged for edible fruit, nuts, stems, leaves, corms, and tubers, scavenged for dead animals and hunted surviving ones for food. [ 10 ] Forest gardening in a tropical hobo camp clear is thought to be the first example of agriculture ; useful plant species were identified and encouraged to grow while undesirable species were removed. plant breeding through the choice of strains with desirable traits such as big fruit and vigorous increase soon followed. [ 11 ] While the first attest for the domestication of grasses such as pale yellow and barley has been found in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, it is likely that respective peoples around the world started growing crops in the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC. [ 12 ] Subsistence agribusiness continues to this day, with many rural farmers in Africa, Asia, South America, and elsewhere using their plots of land to produce adequate food for their families, while any excess produce is used for exchange for other goods. [ 13 ] Throughout commemorate history, the rich have been able to afford a vary diet including kernel, vegetables and fruit, but for poor people, kernel was a luxury and the food they ate was identical dense, typically comprising chiefly some basic product made from rice, rye, barley, pale yellow, millet or corn. The accession of vegetable matter provided some kind to the diet. The staple diet of the Aztecs in Central America was maize and they cultivated tomatoes, avocado, beans, peppers, pumpkins, squashes, peanuts, and amaranth seeds to supplement their tortillas and porridge. In Peru, the Incas subsisted on gamboge in the lowlands and potatoes at higher altitudes. They besides used seeds from quinoa, supplementing their diet with peppers, tomatoes, and avocado. [ 14 ] In Ancient China, rice was the raw material cultivate in the south and wheat in the north, the latter made into dumplings, noodles, and pancakes. Vegetables used to accompany these admit yams, soybeans, broad beans, turnips, form onions, and garlic. The diet of the ancient Egyptians was based on boodle, frequently contaminated with sandpaper which wore away their teeth. Meat was a luxury but pisces was more ample. These were accompanied by a range of vegetables including marrows, broad beans, lentils, onions, leeks, garlic, radishes, and lettuces. [ 14 ] The pillar of the Ancient Greek diet was bread, and this was accompanied by capricorn ‘s cheese, olives, figs, pisces, and occasionally meat. The vegetables grown include onions, garlic, cabbages, melons, and lentils. [ 15 ] In Ancient Rome, a thick porridge was made of emmer pale yellow or beans, accompanied by greens vegetables but short kernel, and fish was not esteemed. The Romans grew broad beans, peas, onions and turnips and ate the leaves of beets preferably than their roots. [ 16 ]

Some common vegetables

  1. ^ Includes both carrots and turnips .
  2. a b c d kernel of product of dry and green vegetables .

Nutrition and health

India Vegetables ( and some fruit ) for sale on a street in Guntur Vegetables play an important character in human nutrition. Most are first gear in adipose tissue and calories but are bulky and filling. [ 18 ] They supply dietary fiber and are important sources of substantive vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Particularly authoritative are the antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E. When vegetables are included in the diet, there is found to be a decrease in the incidence of cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic ailments. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Research has shown that, compared with individuals who eat less than three servings of fruits and vegetables each sidereal day, those that eat more than five servings have an approximately twenty dollar bill percentage lower gamble of developing coronary center disease or stroke. [ 22 ] The nutritional message of vegetables varies well ; some contain utilitarian amounts of protein though generally they contain fiddling fat, [ 23 ] and varying proportions of vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 ; provitamins ; dietary minerals ; and carbohydrates. however, vegetables much besides contain toxins and antinutrients which intervene with the absorption of nutrients. These include α-solanine, α-chaconine, [ 24 ] enzyme inhibitors ( of cholinesterase, protease, amylase, etc. ), cyanide and nitrile precursors, oxalic acidic, tannins and others. [ citation needed ] These toxins are natural defenses, used to ward off the insects, predators and fungi that might attack the plant. Some beans contain phytohaemagglutinin, and cassava roots contain cyanogenetic glycoside as do bamboo shoots. These toxins can be deactivated by adequate fudge. green potatoes contain glycoalkaloids and should be avoided. [ 25 ] fruit and vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables, have been implicated in about half the gastrointestinal infections caused by norovirus in the United States. These foods are normally feed sensitive and may become contaminated during their formulation by an infect food handler. Hygiene is authoritative when handling foods to be eat raw, and such products need to be properly cleaned, handled, and stored to limit contamination. [ 26 ]

Recommendations

[27] vegetable consumption per head in 2013. The USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consuming five to nine servings of fruit and vegetables day by day. [ 28 ] The total come consumed will vary according to long time and gender, and is determined based upon the standard assign sizes typically consumed, a well as general nutritional contentedness. Potatoes are not included in the count as they are chiefly providers of starch. For most vegetables and vegetable juices, one serve is half of a cup and can be eaten natural or cooked. For leafy greens, such as lettuce and spinach, a individual suffice is typically a full cup. [ 29 ] A diverseness of products should be chosen as no individual fruit or vegetable provides all the nutrients needed for health. [ 22 ] International dietary guidelines are alike to the ones established by the USDA. Japan, for model, recommends the consumption of five to six servings of vegetables daily. [ 30 ] french recommendations provide similar guidelines and set the day by day goal at five servings. [ 31 ] In India, the daily recommendation for adults is 275 grams ( 9.7 oz ) of vegetables per day. [ 19 ]

production

polish

Growing vegetables in South Africa newly vegetables from garden in Croatia Vegetables have been separate of the human diet from time immemorial. Some are staple foods but most are accessory foodstuffs, adding variety to meals with their alone flavors and at the lapp time, adding nutrients necessary for health. Some vegetables are perennials but most are annuals and biennials, normally harvested within a year of sow or planting. Whatever system is used for growing crops, polish follows a similar model ; formulation of the dirty by loosening it, removing or burying weeds, and adding organic manures or fertilisers ; sowing seeds or planting young plants ; tending the crop while it grows to reduce weed rival, operate pests, and provide sufficient water ; harvesting the crop when it is ready ; sorting, store, and marketing the crop or eating it fresh from the ground. [ 32 ] different land types courtship different crops, but in general in temperate climates, flaxen soils dry out fast but warm up quickly in the form and are desirable for early crops, while heavy clays retain moisture better and are more suitable for recently season crops. The growing season can be lengthened by the use of overcharge, cloches, plastic mulch, polytunnels, and greenhouses. [ 32 ] In hot regions, the output of vegetables is constrained by the climate, particularly the form of rain, while in moderate zones, it is constrained by the temperature and day length. [ 33 ]

Weeding cabbages in Colorado, US On a domestic scale, the nigger, fork, and hoe are the tools of choice while on commercial farms a range of mechanical equipment is available. Besides tractors, these include ploughs, harrows, drills, transplanters, cultivators, irrigation equipment, and harvesters. New techniques are changing the cultivation procedures involved in growing vegetables with calculator monitoring systems, GPS locators, and self-steer programs for driverless machines giving economic benefits. [ 33 ]

Harvesting

Harvesting beetroot in the United Kingdom When a vegetable is harvested, it is cut off from its source of water and nourishment. It continues to transpire and loses moisture as it does sol, a march most noticeable in the wilt of green leafy crops. Harvesting root vegetables when they are fully mature improves their storehouse life, but alternatively, these ancestor crops can be left in the reason and harvested over an prolong menstruation. The harvesting process should seek to minimise damage and bruise to the crop. Onions and garlic can be dried for a few days in the airfield and ancestor crops such as potatoes benefit from a shortstop maturation time period in warm, damp surroundings, during which time wounds heal and the skin thickens up and hardens. Before market or storage, grading needs to be done to remove damaged goods and choice produce according to its quality, size, ripen, and coloring material. [ 34 ]

storage

All vegetables benefit from proper post harvest caution. A large proportion of vegetables and perishable foods are lost after crop during the storage period. These losses may be arsenic high as thirty to fifty percentage in developing countries where adequate cold repositing facilities are not available. The independent causes of loss include spoilage caused by moisture, moulds, micro-organisms, and vermin. [ 35 ]
impermanent storehouse of potatoes in the Netherlands storage can be short-run or long-run. Most vegetables are perishable and short-run storage for a few days provides tractability in marketing. During storage, leafy vegetables lose moisture, and the vitamin C in them degrades quickly. A few products such as potatoes and onions have better keeping qualities and can be sold when higher prices may be available, and by extending the market season, a greater full volume of craw can be sold. If refrigerated storage is not available, the precedence for most crops is to store high-quality produce, to maintain a high humidity level, and to keep the produce in the ghost. [ 34 ] Proper post-harvest storehouse aimed at extending and ensuring ledge liveliness is best effected by efficient cold chain application. [ 36 ] cold storage is particularly useful for vegetables such as cauliflower, eggplant, boodle, radish plant, spinach, potatoes, and tomatoes, the optimum temperature depending on the type of produce. There are temperature-controlling technologies that do not require the practice of electricity such as evaporative cool. [ 6 ] storehouse of fruit and vegetables in control atmospheres with high gear levels of carbon paper dioxide or high oxygen levels can inhibit microbial growth and extend repositing liveliness. [ 37 ] The irradiation of vegetables and early agrarian produce by ionizing radiation can be used to preserve it from both microbial infection and worm damage, angstrom well as from physical deterioration. It can extend the memory life of food without perceptibly changing its properties. [ 38 ]

preservation

The objective of preserving vegetables is to extend their handiness for pulmonary tuberculosis or marketing purposes. The draw a bead on is to harvest the food at its maximal state of palatability and nutritional rate, and preserve these qualities for an widen period. The main causes of deterioration in vegetables after they are gathered are the actions of naturally-occurring enzymes and the spoilage caused by micro-organisms. [ 39 ] Canning and freezing are the most normally used techniques, and vegetables preserved by these methods are by and large similar in nutritional value to comparable fresh products with regards to carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals. and dietary fiber. [ 40 ]
bean field and canning factory, New Jersey, US Canning is a process during which the enzymes in vegetables are deactivated and the microorganism present killed by heat. The sealed can excludes breeze from the grocery to prevent subsequent deterioration. The lowest necessary heat and the minimum work time are used in order to prevent the mechanical breakdown of the intersection and to preserve the relish a far as is possible. The can is then able to be stored at ambient temperatures for a hanker period. [ 39 ] Freezing vegetables and maintaining their temperature at below −10 °C ( 14 °F ) will prevent their spoilage for a short time period, whereas a temperature of −18 °C ( 0 °F ) is required for longer-term storage. The enzyme action will merely be inhibited, and blanch of appropriately sized prepared vegetables before freezing mitigates this and prevents off-flavors developing. not all micro-organisms will be killed at these temperatures and after thawing the vegetables should be used promptly because otherwise, any microbe present may proliferate. [ 41 ]
Sun-drying tomatoes in Greece traditionally, sun dry has been used for some products such as tomatoes, mushrooms, and beans, spreading the produce on racks and turning the craw at intervals. This method suffers from respective disadvantages including lack of control over drying rates, spoil when dry is decelerate, contaminant by crap, wetting by rain, and attack by rodents, birds, and insects. These disadvantages can be alleviated by using solar powered driers. [ 35 ] The dried grow must be prevented from reabsorbing moisture during repositing. [ 39 ] high levels of both boodle and salt can preserve food by preventing micro-organisms from growing. green beans can be salted by layering the pods with strategic arms limitation talks, but this method acting of preservation is unsuited to most vegetables. Marrows, beetroot, carrot, and some other vegetables can be boiled with boodle to create jams. [ 39 ] Vinegar is wide used in food preservation ; a sufficient concentration of acetic acidic prevents the development of destructive micro-organisms, a fact made use of in the formulation of pickles, chutneys and relishes. [ 39 ] Fermentation is another method of preserving vegetables for late use. Sauerkraut is made from chop boodle and relies on lactic acerb bacteria which produce compounds that are inhibitory to the growth of other microorganism. [ 6 ]

peak producers

vegetable shop in India Vegetables in a supermarket in the United States In 2010, China was the largest vegetable producing state, with over half the world ‘s production. India, the United States, Turkey, Iran, and Egypt were the future largest producers. China had the highest area of land devoted to vegetable product, while the highest average yields were obtained in Spain and the Republic of Korea. [ 42 ]

Country Area cultivated
thousand hectares
(2,500 acres)
Yield
thousand kg/ha
(890 lb/acre)
Production
thousand tonnes
(1,100 short tons)
China 23,458 230 539,993
India 7,256 138 100,045
United States 1,120 318 35,609
Turkey 1,090 238 25,901
Iran 767 261 19,995
Egypt 755 251 19,487
Italy 537 265 14,201
Russia 759 175 13,283
Spain 348 364 12,679
Mexico 681 184 12,515
Nigeria 1844 64 11,830
Brazil 500 225 11,233
Japan 407 264 10,746
Indonesia 1082 90 9,780
South Korea 268 364 9,757
Vietnam 818 110 8,976
Ukraine 551 162 8,911
Uzbekistan 220 342 7,529
Philippines 718 88 6,299
France 245 227 5,572
Total world 55,598 188 1,044,380

Standards

The International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) sets international standards to ensure that products and services are dependable, authentic, and of good quality. There are a number of ISO standards regarding fruits and vegetables. [ 43 ] ISO 1991-1:1982 lists the botanical names of sixty-one species of plants used as vegetables along with the common names of the vegetables in English, French, and Russian. [ 44 ] ISO 67.080.20 covers the storage and transport of vegetables and their deduce products. [ 45 ]

See besides

References

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