The far-flung use of digital edit has expanded from public contented such as advertisements and magazines to private function in personal social media accounts. One deviation between social media images and images in magazines is the type of comparison targets that they contain. Thus while magazines by and large feature images of models and celebrities, social media besides features images of one ’ sulfur peers ( Hew, 2011 ). Like magazine images, Facebook images can besides be “ enhanced ” before issue. A variety of calculator programs and apps allow for endless handling of images to the point that the visualize the consultation sees does not resemble the actual photograph. Techniques such as airbrushing can remove any flaws on a boldness or body. regular people can immediately make their waists look smaller and their breasts look bigger. The increasing habit of sociable media and social network sites ( SNSs ) besides changed which components of appearance were salient during the appearance comparison process ( Fardouly, Diedrichs, Vartanian, & Halliwell, 2015 ). While traditional media focus chiefly on the soundbox, social media focus more on portrait pictures ( Haferkamp, Eimler, Papadakis, & Kruck, 2012 ). This provides opportunities for women to make face-, skin-, and hair-related comparisons ( Fardouly et al., 2015 ). In fact, in a study with female participants from a university in the United Kingdom, Fardouly et aluminum. ( 2015 ) found that Facebook exposure was associated with face-, hair-, and skin-related concerns but not weight-related body dissatisfaction. The use of sociable media has been linked to increased social comparison and diminished self-esteem. self-esteem refers to a person ’ s convinced or damaging evaluation of the self—that is, the extent to which an person views the self as worthwhile and competent ( Coopersmith, 1967 ). Vogel, Rose, Roberts, and Eckles ( 2014 ) did a analyze with undergraduate students to determine whether people who have greater vulnerability to upward social comparisons via SNSs have lower trait self-esteem. The results of their experimental cogitation revealed that people who had the most chronic photograph to Facebook ( i.e., used it most frequently ) tended to have lower trait self-esteem. furthermore, the extent of up social comparison on Facebook was greater than the extent of down social comparison, and this extent of up ( but not downward ) social comparison via Facebook significantly mediated the kinship between Facebook manipulation and trait self-esteem. Haferkamp et aluminum. ( 2012 ) further explored self-presentation on SNSs in the context of sex. Their learn found that women were more probable to use SNSs for comparing themselves with others and acquiring information, whereas men primarily used SNSs to look at other people ’ mho profiles to find friends. Thus a study by Chua and Chang ( 2016 ) with high educate girls from Singapore revealed that all participants encountered up and downward comparisons depending on the peer being observed. The girls agreed that peer comparison was “ stupid, ” “ unhealthy, ” and “ unnecessary ” and viewed it as “ not making sense. ” silent, all the participants made remarks about how peer comparison can have unhealthy consequences and lead to unhealthy behaviors, including them going back and deleting sociable media photos with few likes due to “ frustration or embarrassment ” ( Chua & Chang, 2016 ). Participants acknowledged that being visually perceived as the “ best ” on social media has become the average and the lone way to be “ pretty enough ” for peers. One ’ s number of followers is another status setter. In the Chua and Chang ( 2016 ) study, pride came with an increase in followers, and disappointment followed a decrease in followers. A girl ’ second status on-line and in her peer group was determined by likes and followers ; lower numbers could cause the peer group to experience “ anger, jealousy, insufficiency, and doubts about self-worth. ” 38 % of the girls perceived intense rival and would try to ignore likes and follows so that they could avoid paying attention to their peers ’ beauty and popularity ( Chua & Chang, 2016 ).
Haferkamp and Kramer ( 2011 ) investigated the effects of on-line profiles on SNSs in two studies. The beginning report found that participants had a more negative soundbox image after being shown profile pictures of physically attractive individuals than those who had been shown profile pictures of less physically attractive individuals. The moment survey found that male participants who were shown profiles of more successful men reported a higher perceive discrepancy between their current career condition and their ideal career status when compared with male participants who were shown profiles of less successful individuals. social media are ocular and consequently most comparisons are in terms of physical appearance. Rutledge, Gillmor, and Gillen ( 2013 ) found that Facebook is more appealing to those who are concerned with their appearance, because it allows them to construct the visualize that they wish to portray to the populace. Chou and Edge ( 2012 ), however, examined the affect of using social media on people ’ sulfur perceptions of others ’ lives. They found that those who used Facebook longer thought that others were happier and had better lives. This is due to handiness heuristic. People make judgments about others based on other-generated descriptions, which can include comments left on person ’ s social media explanation ( Walther, Van Der Heide, & Kim, 2008 ). This phenomenon might be coarse on social media where users may not know all of their friends closely. Instagram. Instagram has a fortune of features that might encourage social comparisons. First, unlike early social media outlets that are more text based ( for example, Twitter ), Instagram focuses alone on images. The two most coarse types of images shared on Instagram are selfies and photos of friends ( Hu, Manikonda, & Kambhampati, 2014 ; Ridgway & Clayton, 2016 ). These types of posts can explicitly communicate beauty, but they besides encourage social comparisons. Studies have examined social comparison processes on Instagram. Hendrickse, Arpan, Clayton, and Ridgway ( 2017 ) found that individuals who engaged in more appearance-related comparisons on Instagram reported experiencing a more intense drive toward leanness and greater consistency dissatisfaction. Ahadzadeh, Pahlevan Sharif, and Ong ( 2017 ) besides found that Instagram use was negatively associated with consistency satisfaction for college students, particularly those with lower levels of self-esteem. A view of female undergraduate students revealed that acute exposure to fitspiration images on Instagram led to increased body dissatisfaction and decreased self-esteem ( Tiggemann & Zaccardo, 2015 ). A popular swerve that has emerged on the Internet in recent years is “ fitspiration. ” Fitspiration ( a shading of the words “ fitness ” and “ inspiration ” ) arose as an antidote to the swerve of “ thinspiration ” ( a shading of “ thinness ” and “ divine guidance ” ) ( Ghaznavi & Taylor, 2015 ). Fitspiration consists of images and messages that purport to motivate people to exercise and pursue a healthier life style ( Abena, 2013 ), with a goal to encourage force and female authorization ( Tiggemann & Zaccardo, 2015 ). however, studies have suggested that, just like thinspiration, fitspiration besides promotes a homogeneous body condition ( tall, lean, toned, and “ absolutely proportioned ” ), frequently contains guilt-inducing messages, and emphasizes dieting and restrictive eat ( Boepple, Ata, Rum, & Thompson, 2016 ; Tiggemann & Zaccardo, 2016 ). Most, if not all, previous studies have looked at appearance-related social comparisons. Sheldon and Wiegand ( 2018 ), however, did a study to explore how female college students use social media to compare themselves not only in terms of physical appearance but besides school achiever, eating habits, exercise habits, happiness, news, and popularity ( see Table 4.2 ) .
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|In terms of school success||3.06||1.15|
|In terms of eating habits||2.68||1.27|
|In terms of exercise habits||2.99||1.20|
|In terms of happiness||3.06||1.12|
|In terms of intelligence||2.78||1.20|
|In terms of physical appearance||3.46||1.14|
|In terms of popularity||2.70||1.27|
|In terms of body weight||3.14||1.32|
|In terms of muscle tone||2.94||1.34|
eminence : Bold is the highest mean. From Sheldon, P., & Wiegand, A. ( 2018 ). Comparing ourselves to friends on social media : The role of body respect and Instagram gratifications. In : newspaper presented at the Alabama Communication Association conference. Sheldon and Wiegand ( 2018 ) found that women who compare themselves to early women on social media tend to have a lower body esteem ( see Table 4.3 ) .
|Comparison to Friends on Social Media||BMI||Body Esteem|
|In terms of school success||0.11||−.20**|
|In terms of eating habits||0.04||−.31**|
|In terms of exercise habits||0.08||−.33**|
|In terms of happiness||−0.03||−.26**|
|In terms of intelligence||−0.11||−.26**|
|In terms of physical appearance||.16*||−.52**|
|In terms of popularity||−0.03||−.27**|
|In terms of body weight||.27**||−.52**|
|In terms of muscle tone||−0.01||−.23**|
notice : p stands for significance : *p < .05 ; **p < .01. Comparisons to female friends besides influenced how women used Instagram. Thus comparison in terms of popularity was the lone comparison class significantly related to the phone number of Instagram followers—indicating again that Instagram is all about self-promotion. Another study ( Marcus, 2015 ) found that, unlike other SNSs, Instagram is based more on one ’ s personal identity than their relational identity. Marcus ( 2015 ) analyzed the images that five individuals, ages 22–25, posted on Instagram and concluded that Instagram exists for people to self-promote—and, unlike Facebook, it does not focus on social relationships as much. The study by Sheldon and Wiegand ( 2018 ) besides found a positive relationship between socially interacting on Instagram and comparison in terms of popularity, forcible appearance, body system of weights, and muscle timbre. This reaffirms the coarse belief that Instagram is all about self-promotion and looks. prior theories on the psychological development of emerging adults state that new adults tend to explore self-identity by seeking continuous approval from peers during the serve ( Arnett, 2004 ). This reflects the tenets of social comparison theory. In summation, those who make comparisons in terms of popularity, forcible appearance, body slant, and brawn tone besides engage in more frequent editing of their Instagram posts ( Sheldon & Wiegand, 2018 ). This reveals how much effort one is putting into making indisputable they look american samoa adept as their friends and are american samoa popular as them. It besides reflects the tenets of social comparison theory .