5 Studies on the Mediterranean Diet — Does It Really Work?

This article looks at 5 long-run controlled trials on the Mediterranean diet. All of them appear in respect, peer-reviewed journals. respective randomized control trials, which are authentic and effective methods of research, have looked at the possible benefits of this diet. This consume blueprint has started to become popular around the world as a entail to improve health and prevent disease. The chief dietary adipose tissue is excess virgin olive petroleum, and people besides consume mince amounts of bolshevik wine, fish, poultry, dairy, and eggs. meanwhile, red kernel plays only a minor part.

People around the Mediterranean have traditionally followed a diet that ’ s rich in plant-based foods, including fruits, vegetables, hale grains, breads, legumes, potatoes, nuts, and seeds. however, research shows that the incidence of heart disease seems to be lower among people living in Italy, Greece, and other countries around the Mediterranean, compared with those living in the United States. Studies suggest that diet may play a character. Heart disease is a major trouble around the universe .

The studies

Most people who joined these studies had health problems, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or a high risk of affection disease. Most of the studies looked at common health markers, such as system of weights, center disease risk factors, and markers of diabetes. Some larger studies besides looked at rates of heart attacks and death .

1. The PREDIMED Study

This large study involved 7,447 individuals with a high gamble of heart disease. For about 5 years, the participants followed one of three different diets :

  • a Mediterranean diet with added extra virgin olive oil
    (Med + Olive Oil)
  • a Mediterranean diet with added nuts (Med + Nuts)
  • a low fat diet control group

none of the diets involved reducing calories or increasing forcible action. many researchers have used data collected during PREDIMED to investigate its effect. The studies looked at the diet ’ south effect on unlike gamble factors and end points. here are 6 papers ( 1.1 to 1.6 ) from the PREDIMED analyze. 1.1 Estruch R, et al. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts. The New England Journal of Medicine, 2018. Details. In this survey, 7,447 individuals with a high hazard of heart disease followed either a Mediterranean diet with lend olive oil, a Mediterranean diet with add nuts, or a humble adipose tissue control group. The study lasted for 4.8 years. The main focus was the diet ’ mho potential effect on heart attack, solidus, and death from cardiovascular causes. Results. The hazard of combined heart attack, stroke, and death from center disease was lower by 31 % in the Med + Olive Oil group and 28 % in the Med + Nuts group. Additional details:

  • There were no statistically significant differences in
    heart attacks or stroke between the diets.
  • Dropout rates were twice as high in the control group
    (11.3%), compared with the Mediterranean diet groups (4.9%).
  • People with high blood pressure, lipid problems, or
    obesity responded better to the Mediterranean diet than the control diet.
  • There was no statistically significant difference in
    total mortality, which is the overall risk of death from all causes.

Conclusion. A Mediterranean diet with either olive oil or nuts may reduce the combine risk of stroke, heart attack, and end from heart disease. 1.2 Salas-Salvado J, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented With Nuts on Metabolic Syndrome Status . JAMA Internal Medicine, 2008. Details. Researchers analyzed data from 1,224 individuals in the PREDIMED learn after following the diet for 1 year. They looked at whether the diet helped reverse metabolic syndrome. Results. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome decreased by 6.7 % in the Med + Olive Oil group and 13.7 % in the Med + Nuts group. The results were statistically significant only for the Med + Nuts group. Conclusion. A Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts may help reverse metabolic syndrome. 1.3 Montserrat F, et al. Effect of a Traditional Mediterranean Diet on Lipoprotein Oxidation . JAMA Internal Medicine, 2007. Details. Scientists assessed 372 individuals with a senior high school risk of heart disease after following a diet in the PREDIMED study for 3 months. They looked at changes in oxidative stress markers, such as oxidized LDL ( bad ) cholesterol. Results. Levels of oxidized LDL ( bad ) cholesterol decreased in both Mediterranean diet groups but did not reach statistical significance in the low fat see group. Conclusion. People who followed the Mediterranean diet experienced reductions in oxidized LDL ( bad ) cholesterol, along with improvements in several other affection disease risk factors. 1.4 Salas-Salvado J, et al. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes With the Mediterranean Diet: Results of the PREDIMED-Reus nutrition intervention randomized trial. Diabetes Care, 2011. Details. Researchers assessed 418 people without diabetes who participated in the PREDIMED study for 4 years. They looked at their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Results. In the two Mediterranean diet groups, 10 % and 11 % of people developed diabetes, compared with 17.9 % in the low fat control group. The Mediterranean diet appeared to reduce the gamble of developing type 2 diabetes by 52 %. Conclusion. A Mediterranean diet without calorie restriction appears to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.

1.5 Estruch R, et al. Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors . Annals of Internal medicine, 2006. Details. Scientists analyzed data for 772 participants in the PREDIMED study with regards to cardiovascular risk factors. They had been following the diet for 3 months. Results. Those on a Mediterranean diet saw improvements in assorted cardiovascular gamble factors. These included blood boodle levels, blood imperativeness, the proportion of sum to HDL ( effective ) cholesterol, and levels of C-reactive protein ( CRP ), a marker of ignition and diverse diseases. Some more details:

  • Blood sugar: fell by 0.30–0.39
    mmol/L in the Mediterranean diet groups
  • Systolic blood pressure: fell by 5.9 mmHG and
    7.1 mmHG in the two Mediterranean diet groups
  • Total to HDL (good)
    cholesterol ratio:
    fell by 0.38 and 0.26 in the two Mediterranean diet
    groups, compared with the low fat group
  • C-reactive protein: fell by 0.54 mg/L in
    the Med + Olive Oil group, but did not change in the other groups

Conclusion. Compared with a humble fatten diet, a Mediterranean diet appears to improve assorted risk factors for center disease. 1.6 Ferre GM, et al. Frequency of nut consumption and mortality risk in the PREDIMED nutrition intervention trial . BMC Medicine, 2013. Details. Scientists evaluated 7,216 participants in the PREDIMED study after 5 years. Results. After 5 years, a full of 323 people had died, with 81 deaths from center disease and 130 deaths from cancer. Those who consumed nuts appeared to have a 16–­63 % lower risk of death during the discipline menstruation. Conclusion. Consuming nuts as separate of a Mediterranean diet may significantly reduce the risk of death. 2. De Lorgeril M, et al. Mediterranean Diet, Traditional Risk Factors, and the Rate of Cardiovascular Complications After Myocardial Infarction: Final Report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. [13] Circulation, 1999. Details. This study enrolled 605 middle-aged males and females who had had a affection attack. For 4 years, they consumed either a Mediterranean-type diet ( supplemented with an omega-3-rich margarine ) or Western-type diet. Results. After 4 years, those who followed the Mediterranean diet were 72 % less likely to have experienced a heart attack or died from affection disease. Conclusion. A Mediterranean diet with omega-3 fatty acid supplements may help prevent a duplicate heart attack in people who have had a kernel fire. 3. Esposito K, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on Endothelial Dysfunction and Markers of Vascular Inflammation in the Metabolic Syndrome . The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004. Details. In this study, 180 people with metabolic syndrome followed either a Mediterranean diet or low fatten diet for 2.5 years. Results. At the end of the survey, 44 % of patients in the Mediterranean diet group still had metabolic syndrome, compared with 86 % in the operate group. The Mediterranean diet group besides showed improvements in early gamble factors. Some more details:

  • Weight loss. Body weight decreased
    by 8.8 pounds (4 kg) in the Mediterranean diet group, compared with 2.6
    pounds (1.2 kg) in the low fat control group.
  • Endothelial function
    score.

    This improved in the Mediterranean diet group but remained stable in the
    low fat control group.
  • Other markers. Inflammatory markers
    (hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-7, and IL-18) and insulin resistance decreased significantly
    in the Mediterranean diet group.

Conclusion. A Mediterranean diet appears to help reduce metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular gamble factors. 4. Shai I, et al. Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet . The New England Journal of Medicine, 2008. Details. In this report, 322 people with fleshiness followed either a calorie-restricted first gear fat diet, calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet, or an unrestricted low carb diet. Results. The abject fatten group lost 6.4 pounds ( 2.9 kilogram ), the humble carb group lost 10.3 pounds ( 4.7 kilogram ), and the Mediterranean diet group lost 9.7 pounds ( 4.4 kilogram ). In those with diabetes, blood glucose and insulin levels improved on the Mediterranean diet, compared with the humble fat diet. Conclusion. A Mediterranean diet may be more effective than a low fatten diet for weight loss and do diabetes. 5. Esposito K, et al. Effects of a Mediterranean-Style Diet on the Need for Antihyperglycemic Drug Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes [18] . Annals of Internal Medicine, 2009. Details. In this cogitation, 215 people with corpulence who had recently received a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes followed either a humble carb Mediterranean diet or a moo adipose tissue diet for 4 years. Results. After 4 years, 44 % of the Mediterranean diet group and 70 % of the gloomy fat diet group needed treatment with medication. The Mediterranean diet group had more favorable changes in glycemic control and heart disease risk factors. Conclusion. A low carb Mediterranean diet may delay or prevent the necessitate for drug therapy in people who are newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

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