The kidneys are the basal organs of the urinary system. The kidneys are the organs that filter the blood, remove the wastes, and excrete the wastes in the urine. They are the organs that perform the functions of the urinary system. The early components are accessory structures to eliminate the urine from the consistency .
The paired kidneys are located between the twelfth pectoral and third base lumbar vertebra, one on each english of the vertebral column. The right kidney normally is slightly lower than the left field because the liver displaces it down. The kidneys, protected by the lower ridicule, lie in shallow depressions against the posterior abdominal wall and behind the parietal peritoneum. This means they are retroperitoneal. Each kidney is held in rate by conjunction weave, called nephritic dashboard, and is surrounded by a thick layer of adipose tissue, called perirenal adipose tissue, which helps to protect it. A sturdy, hempen, conjunction weave nephritic capsule close envelopes each kidney and provides documentation for the soft weave that is inside .
In the adult, each kidney is approximately 3 cm thick, 6 centimeter wide, and 12 curium long. It is roughly bean-shaped with an indentation, called the hilum, on the median side. The hilum leads to a large cavity, called the nephritic fistula, within the kidney. The ureter and nephritic vein leave the kidney, and the nephritic artery enters the kidney at the hilus .
The outer, red area, following to the capsule, is the nephritic cortex. This surrounds a dark red-brown region called the nephritic medulla oblongata. The nephritic medulla consists of a series of nephritic pyramids, which appear striated because they contain true tubular structures and blood vessels. The broad bases of the pyramids are adjacent to the cortex and the point ends, called nephritic papilla, are directed toward the kernel of the kidney. Portions of the nephritic cerebral cortex extend into the spaces between adjacent pyramids to form nephritic column. The cerebral cortex and myelin make up the parenchyma, or functional weave, of the kidney.
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The central area of the kidney contains the nephritic pelvis, which is located in the nephritic venous sinus, and is continuous with the ureter. The nephritic pelvis is a large cavity that collects the urine as it is produced. The periphery of the nephritic pelvis is interrupted by cuplike projections called calyces. A minor calyx surrounds the nephritic papilla of each pyramid and collects urine from that pyramid. several minor calyces converge to form a major calyx. From the major calyces, the urine flows into the nephritic pelvis ; and from there, it flows into the ureter.
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Each kidney contains over a million functional units, called nephrons, in the parenchyma ( lens cortex and medulla ). A nephron has two parts : a nephritic blood cell and a nephritic tubule .The nephritic atom consists of a bunch of capillaries, called the glomerulus, surrounded by a double-layered epithelial cup, called the glomerular capsule. An afferent arteriole leads into the nephritic blood cell and an efferent arteriole leaves the nephritic atom. urine passes from the nephrons into collecting ducts then into the minor calyces .
The juxtaglomerular apparatus, which monitors blood atmospheric pressure and secretes renin, is formed from limited cells in the afferent arteriole and the ascending limb of the nephron closed circuit.