- certain acute and chronic diseases
- toxic exposure to environmental pollutants or certain medications
- severe dehydration
- insufficient blood flow to the kidneys
- kidney trauma
If your kidneys aren ’ thymine able to function properly, your body becomes overloaded with toxins. This can lead to kidney failure, which can be life threatening if left untreated.
Keep read as we break down everything you need to know about kidney failure, including symptoms, stages, discussion, and the typical expectation.
Types of kidney failure
Five different types of kidney failure exist. Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys abruptly stop working by rights. Chronic kidney failure occurs over time. The five types of kidney failure include :
- Acute prerenal kidney failure. Insufficient blood flow to the kidneys can cause acute prerenal kidney failure. The kidneys can’t filter toxins from the blood without enough blood flow. This type of kidney failure can usually be cured once the cause of the decreased blood flow is determined.
- Acute intrinsic kidney failure. Acute intrinsic kidney failure can result from direct trauma to the kidneys, such as physical impact or an accident. Other causes include toxin overload and ischemia, which is a lack of oxygen to the kidneys. Ischemia can be caused by severe bleeding, shock, obstruction of the renal blood vessel, and glomerulonephritis, a condition where the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys become inflamed.
- Chronic prerenal kidney failure. When there isn’t enough blood flowing to your kidneys for an extended period of time, the kidneys begin to shrink and lose the ability to function.
- Chronic intrinsic kidney failure. This happens when there’s long-term damage to the kidneys due to intrinsic kidney disease. Intrinsic kidney disease develops from a direct trauma to the kidneys, such as severe bleeding or a lack of oxygen.
- Chronic post-renal kidney failure. A long-term blockage of the urinary tract prevents urination. This causes pressure and eventual kidney damage.
Your doctor of the church can use respective tests to diagnose kidney bankruptcy. Some of the most common tests include the comply :
- Urinalysis. Your doctor may take a urine sample to test for anything unusual, including atypical protein or sugar that spills into your urine. Your doctor may also perform a urinary sediment examination to look for red and white blood cells, high levels of bacteria, and high numbers of tube shaped particles called cellular casts.
- Urine volume measurements. Measuring urine output is one of the simplest tests to help diagnose kidney failure. For example, low urinary output may suggest that kidney disease is due to a urinary blockage, which can be caused by multiple illnesses or injuries.
- Blood samples. Your doctor may order blood tests to measure substances that are filtered by your kidneys, such as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. A rapid rise in these levels may indicate acute kidney failure.
- Imaging. Tests like ultrasounds, MRIs, and CT scans provide images of your kidneys and urinary tract to identify blockages or other problems.
- Kidney tissue sample. Tissue samples are examined for unusual deposits, scarring, or infectious organisms. Your doctor will use a kidney biopsy to collect the tissue sample.
Chronic kidney disease stages
Kidney disease is classified into five stages. These range from very mild ( stage 1 ) to complete kidney failure ( stage 5 ). Symptoms and complications increase as the stages advance .
This phase is very mild. You may experience no symptoms and have no visible complications. Some kidney damage is show. It ’ s still possible to manage and slow progress by maintaining a healthy life style. This includes eating a balance diet, exercising regularly, and not using tobacco products. Maintaining a moderate burden is important, besides. If you have diabetes, it ’ randomness significant to manage your blood sugar .
stage 2 kidney disease is still considered a balmy kind, but detectable issues like protein in urine or physical price to the kidneys may be more obvious. The like life style approaches that helped in stage 1 are hush used in degree 2. It ’ mho besides a good mind to talk with your doctor about other hazard factors that could make the disease build up more quickly, such as kernel disease, inflammation, and blood disorders .
At this degree, your kidneys aren ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate working a well as they should. stage 3 kidney disease is sometimes divided into stages 3a and 3b. A lineage test that measures the amount of waste products in your body helps doctors differentiate between the two. Symptoms may become more apparent at this phase. Swelling in hands and feet, back pain, and changes to micturition frequency are likely. life style approaches may help improve symptoms. Your repair may besides consider medications to treat underlie conditions that could speed up kidney failure .
stage 4 kidney disease is considered mince to severe. The kidneys aren ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate working well, but you ’ re not in complete kidney failure even. Symptoms can include complications like anemia, high gear blood pressure, and bone disease. A healthy life style is still vital. Your doctor of the church will likely develop a treatment plan designed to slow kidney damage .
In stage 5, your kidneys are nearing or in complete failure. Symptoms of the loss of kidney affair will be discernible, such as vomiting and nausea, trouble rest, itchy peel, and more. At this stage, you ’ ll need regular dialysis or a kidney transplant. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases estimates that approximately 1 in 500 Americans is living with stage 5 kidney failure.
respective treatment options are available for kidney failure. The type of treatment you need will depend on the cause of your kidney bankruptcy angstrom well as the stage .
dialysis filters and purifies the blood using a machine. The machine performs the function of the kidneys. Depending on the type of dialysis, you may be connected to a large machine or a portable catheter bulge. Along with dialysis, you may need to follow a abject potassium, low salt diet. Dialysis doesn ’ t cure kidney failure, but it can extend your liveliness if you go to regularly scheduled treatments .
Another discussion option is a kidney transplant. A transplant kidney can work amply, so you no longer need dialysis. There ’ mho normally a long wait to receive a donor kidney that ’ s compatible with your body. If you have a living donor, the process may go more promptly. transplant operation might not be the right treatment choice for everyone. It ’ sulfur besides possible for the surgery to be unsuccessful. You must take immunosuppressant drugs after the operation to prevent your soundbox from rejecting the new kidney. These drugs have their own side effects, some of which can be unplayful.
talk with your doctor about whether you ’ re a effective candidate for a kidney transplant .
Minimizing your intake of alcohol and making certain dietary changes may help prevent your kidney bankruptcy from progressing to a more severe disease .
Lowering alcohol intake
If you have kidney failure and drink alcohol, your kidneys will be forced to work harder than they already do. Alcohol doesn ’ metric ton metabolize out of your system, so you ’ ll feel its effects until you receive dialysis to filter it out of your blood. Beer, ale, and wine besides contain large amounts of phosphorous. dangerous heart issues and tied death are possible if your kidneys are unable to filter it out. however, most difficult liquor doesn ’ metric ton carry the same risk. If you have kidney failure or late stagecoach kidney disease, your doctor may recommend you limit how frequently you drink alcohol. For some people, wholly eliminating alcohol from the diet may be best .
There ’ s no specific diet for people with kidney failure. The guidelines for what you eat will frequently depend on the phase of kidney disease you have and your overall health. Some recommendations might include :
- Limiting sodium and potassium. Keep track of how much of these two nutrients you’re taking in. Aim to eat less than 2,000 milligrams per day of both sodium (salt) and potassium.
- Limiting phosphorus. Like sodium and potassium, it’s good to keep a cap on the amount of phosphorus you eat in a day. Based on a 2019 review, try to stay below 1,000 milligrams.
- Following protein guidelines. In early and moderate kidney disease, you might want to cut back on protein consumption. In end stage kidney failure, however, you may eat more protein, depending on your doctor’s recommendations.
Beyond these cosmopolitan guidelines, your doctor may besides ask you to avoid certain foods if you have kidney disease.
Diabetes and kidney failure
Without management, eminent lineage boodle can damage your kidneys. The damage can worsen over time. Diabetic kidney disease, or kidney damage caused by type 1 or type 2 diabetes, can ’ triiodothyronine be reversed. Managing your blood sugar and blood pressure may help prevent or limit kidney damage. Taking medications as prescribed by your sophisticate is crucial, besides. If you have diabetes, your doctor will likely perform regular screenings to monitor for kidney failure. Your hazard for diabetic kidney disease increases the longer you live with diabetes. Diabetes is the most common causal agent of kidney failure. About one-third of adults with diabetes have kidney disease, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Kidney failure life expectancy
It ’ s not possible to know precisely how long a person with kidney failure will live. Every person with kidney failure is different. In general, the National Kidney Foundation says that a person on dialysis can expect to live for an average of 5 to 10 years american samoa long as they follow their treatment. Some people live for more than 20 or 30 years. Factors that can play a character in biography anticipation include your :
- stage of kidney disease
- other coexisting conditions
once you reach end degree kidney failure, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant to live. Missing even one dialysis discussion can decrease your life anticipation.
Kidney failure can lead to versatile complications, such as :
- Anemia. When your kidneys aren’t working properly, your body may not be able to properly create red blood cells. Anemia is the medical term for a low red blood cell count.
- Bone weakness. Damage to your kidneys can disrupt the balance of minerals in your body such as phosphorus and calcium. This imbalance can lead to weakened bones.
- Fluid retention. If your kidneys aren’t able to adequately filter water out of your blood, you may be at risk of developing fluid retention, especially in your lower body.
- Heart disease. Heart disease can lead to kidney failure, or kidney failure can lead to heart disease. According to a 2018 study, heart disease is the most common cause of death in people on dialysis.
- Hyperkalemia. Kidney failure can lead to hyperkalemia, or elevated potassium levels. In extreme cases, hyperkalemia can lead to heart failure.
- Metabolic acidosis. Disrupted kidney function can lead to metabolic acidosis, meaning your bodily fluids contain too much acid. Metabolic acidosis can cause complications such as kidney stones or bone disease.
- Secondary complications. Many people with kidney failure develop secondary complications such as:
- liver failure
- fluid buildup in lungs
- nerve damage
- skin infections
Kidney failure prevention
You can take steps to lower your risk of kidney failure. Follow directions when taking nonprescription medications. Taking doses that are excessively high, even of common drugs like aspirin, can create high toxin levels in a short circuit come of time. This can overload your kidneys. many kidney or urinary tract conditions lead to kidney failure when they ’ re not properly managed. You can besides help lower your risk of kidney bankruptcy by :
- maintaining a healthy lifestyle
- taking prescribed medications as directed and not taking more medication than is safe
- keeping conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, well managed and following your doctor’s advice
If you have any concerns about your kidney health, don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate hesitate to reach out to your doctor .
Kidney failure prognosis and outlook
The prognosis, or mentality, for people with kidney failure varies widely depending on several factors. These include :
- the underlying cause
- how well that underlying cause is managed
- any complicating factors, like high blood pressure or diabetes
- stage of kidney disease at diagnosis
Proper treatment and healthy life style changes may be able to improve your expectation. Eating a balance diet, cutting back on kidney-damaging foods, lowering your alcohol consumption, and treating any underlying issues may help protect your health and extend your liveliness .
The bottom line
Kidney bankruptcy can develop abruptly or due to long-run damage. There are many potential causes of kidney failure, including diabetes, high rake blackmail, exposure to high levels of medicine, extreme dehydration, kidney trauma, or other factors. Kidney disease is classified into five stages. These compass from very mild to complete kidney failure. Symptoms and complications increase as the stages progress.
If you have kidney failure, you can work with your doctor to determine the best treatment options for your condition.