Ruta graveolens – Wikipedia

Species of plant
“ Rue ” redirects here. For early uses, see Rue ( disambiguation )
Ruta graveolens [ L. strong smelling rue ], normally known as rue, common rue or herb-of-grace, is a species of Ruta grow as an ornamental plant and herb. It is native to the Balkan Peninsula. It is immediately grown throughout the universe in gardens, specially for its blue leaves, and sometimes for its tolerance of hot and dry soil conditions. It is besides cultivated as a medicative herb ( celebrated in Ethiopia- its local name “ Tena adam ” /Health for Adam ), as a condiment, and to a lesser extent as an insect repellent.

etymology [edit ]

The particular name graveolens refers to the strong-smelling leaves. [ 1 ]

Uses [edit ]

traditional use [edit ]

In the ancient Roman worldly concern, the naturalists Pedanius Dioscorides and Pliny the Elder recommended that rue be combined with the poisonous shrub oleander to be drunk as an antidote to deadly snake bites. [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
illustration in the Tacuinum Sanitatis The Tacuinum Sanitatis, a medieval handbook on health, lists these properties of repent :

  • Nature: Warm and dry in the third degree.
  • Optimum: That which is grown near a fig tree.
  • Usefulness: It sharpens the eyesight and dissipates flatulence.
  • Dangers: It augments the sperm and dampens the desire for coitus.
  • Neutralization of the Dangers: With foods that multiply the sperm.

The polish petroleum of rue is an emmenagogue [ 4 ] and was cited by the Roman historian Pliny the Elder and the gynecologist Soranus as a potent abortifacient ( inducing miscarriage ). [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

Culinary use [edit ]

leaf Ruta “ Tena Adam ” in Coffee in Ethiopia Rue has a culinary practice, but since it is acrimonious and gastric discomfort may be experienced by some individuals, it is used meagerly. Although used more extensively in early times, it is not a herb that is typically found in modern cuisine. today it is largely stranger to the cosmopolitan public and most chefs, and unavailable in grocery store stores in most countries. [ 7 ] It is a component of berbere, the characteristic ethiopian spice assortment, and as such is encountered in ethiopian cuisine. besides in Ethiopia, fresh sorrow is dipped in chocolate before drinking it. It has a assortment of other culinary uses :

  • It was used extensively in ancient Near Eastern and Roman cuisine (according to Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq and Apicius).
  • Rue is used as a traditional flavouring in Greece and other Mediterranean countries.[1]
  • In Istria (a region spanning Croatia and Slovenia), and in Northern Italy, it is used to give a special flavour to grappa/raki and most of the time a little branch of the plant can be found in the bottle. This is called grappa alla ruta.
  • Seeds can be used for porridge.
  • The bitter leaf can be added to eggs, cheese, fish, or mixed with damson plums and wine to produce a meat sauce.
  • In Italy in Friuli Venezia-Giulia, the young branches of the plant are dipped in a batter, deep-fried in oil, and consumed with salt or sugar. They are also used on their own to aromatise a specific type of omelette.[8]
  • Used in Old World beers as flavouring ingredient.[9]

other [edit ]

Rue is besides grown as an cosmetic plant, both as a low hedge and so the leaves can be used in nosegays. Most cats dislike the smell of it, and it can, therefore, be used as a deterrent to them ( see besides Plectranthus caninus ). [ citation needed ] Caterpillars of some subspecies of the butterfly Papilio machaon prey on repent, adenine well as early plants. The caterpillars of Papilio xuthus besides feed promptly on it. [ 10 ] In South India, rue is recommended for home plate gardens to repel snakes ( however the potency is obscure ). Rue is besides a common ingredient in witchcraft and go make. [ clarification needed ] During the Middle Ages it was a symbol of recognition between witches. [ clarification needed ] The Catholic Church besides used a branch of rue to sprinkle holy water system on its followers : during this time it was known as the “ herb of grace ”. hasidic Jews besides were taught that rue should be placed into amulets to protect them from epidemics and plagues. [ 11 ] other Hasidim trust on the works of a celebrated Baghdadi Kabbalist Yaakov Chaim Sofer who makes mention of the plant “ ruda ” ( רודה ) as an effective device against both blacken magic and the evil eye. [ 12 ] In North West frontier province of Pakistan and in Afghanistan is even a partially of daily life. In song Rue ( Spelanai ) refer to welcome and burn seeds for bad wibes. [ clarification needed ] It is traditionally used there as an worm disgusting and room cleansing agent. [ clarification needed ]
consequence of the common rue on bark in cheery upwind

toxicity [edit ]

Rue extracts are mutagenic and hepatotoxic. [ 4 ] large doses can cause violent gastric pain, vomit, systemic complications, and death. [ 4 ] exposure to common repent, or herbal preparations derived from it, can cause austere phytophotodermatitis, which results in burn-like blisters on the skin. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ]

chemistry [edit ]

R. graveolens essential oil in a clear glass vial necessity oil in a clear glass phial

A series of furanoacridones and two acridone alkaloids ( arborinine and evoxanthine ) have been isolated from R. graveolens. [ 17 ] It besides contains coumarins and limonoids. [ 18 ] Cell cultures produce the coumarins umbelliferone, scopoletin, psoralen, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, rutamarin and rutacultin, and the alkaloids skimmianine, kokusaginine, 6-methoxydictamnine and edulinine. [ 19 ] The ethyl acetate excerpt of R. graveolens leaves yields two furanocoumarins, one quinoline alkaloid and four quinolone alkaloids. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] The chloroform extracts of the root, shank and flick shows the isolation of the furanocoumarin chalepensin. [ 22 ] The substantive oil of R. graveolens contains two chief constituents, undecan-2-one ( 46.8 % ) and nonan-2-one ( 18.8 % ). [ 23 ]

symbolism [edit ]

The bitter sample of its leaves led to rue being associated with the ( etymologically unrelated ) verb rue “ to regret ”. Rue is well known for its symbolic entail of regret and it has sometimes been called “ herb-of-grace ” in literary works. In mythology, [ 24 ] the basilisk, whose breath could cause plants to wilt and stones to crack, had no consequence on rue. Weasels who were bitten by the basilisk would retreat and eat rue in order to recover and return to fight .

In the bible [edit ]

Rue is mentioned in the Bible, Luke 11:42 :

“ But woe unto you, Pharisees ! For ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herb ” .

In Lithuania [edit ]

Rue is considered a national herb of Lithuania and it is the most frequently referenced herb in lithuanian folk music songs, as an impute of young girls, associated with virginity and girlhood. It was common in traditional lithuanian weddings for only virgins to wear a rue ( lithuanian : rūta ) at their wedding, a symbol to show their purity .

In Ukraine [edit ]

besides, rue is outstanding in ukrainian folklore, songs and culture. In the ukrainian folk music song “ Oi poli ruta, ruta ” ( O, repent, rue in the field ), the girl regrets losing her virginity, reproaching the lover for “ breaking the green hazel corner ”. [ 25 ] “ Chervona Ruta “ ( Червона Рута— ” Red Rue ” ) is a song, written by Volodymyr Ivasyuk, a democratic ukrainian poet and composer. Pop singer Sofia Rotaru performed the song in 1971 .

In jewish culture [edit ]

Una Matica de Ruda “ is a traditional Sephardic marry birdcall .

In English literature [edit ]

It is one of the flowers distributed by the delirious Ophelia in William Shakespeare ‘s Hamlet ( IV.5 ) :

“There’s fennel for you, and columbines:
there’s rue for you; and here’s some for me:
we may call it herb-grace o’ Sundays:
O you must wear your rue with a difference…”

It was planted by the gardener in Richard II to mark the topographic point where the Queen wept upon hearing news program of Richard ‘s capture ( III.4.104–105 ) :

“Here did she fall a tear, here in this place
I’ll set a bank of rue, sour herb of grace.”

It is besides given by the rusticated Perdita to her cloaked royal father-in-law on the occasion of a sheep-shearing ( Winter ‘s Tale, IV.4 ) :

“For you there’s rosemary and rue; these keep
Seeming and savour all the winter long.”

It is used by Michael in Milton ‘s Paradise Lost to give Adam clear up batch ( 11.414 ) :

“Then purg’d with euphrasy and rue
The visual nerve, for he had much to see.”

Rue is used by Gulliver in “ Gulliver ‘s Travels “ ( by Jonathan Swift ) when he returns to England after populate among the “ Houyhnhnms “. Gulliver can nobelium longer stand the smell of the English Yahoos ( people ), so he stuffs rue or tobacco in his nose to block out the smell .

“ I was at last bluff enough to walk the street in his ( Don Pedro ‘s ) company, but kept my nuzzle well with sorrow, or sometimes with tobacco ” .

See besides [edit ]

  • Peganum harmala, an unrelated plant also known as “Syrian rue”

References [edit ]

  • Rue (Ruta graveolens L.) page from Gernot Katzer’s Spice Pages

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