Polycystic kidney disease – Symptoms and causes


Polycystic kidney

Polycystic kidney compared with normal kidney

Polycystic kidney

A healthy kidney ( left ) eliminates godforsaken from the blood and maintains the body ‘s chemical balance. With polycystic kidney disease ( correct ), fluid-filled sauk called cysts develop in the kidneys. The kidneys grow larger and gradually lose the ability to serve as they should .
Polycystic kidney disease ( PKD ) is an inherit disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys, causing your kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous round pouch containing fluent. The cysts vary in size, and they can grow very boastfully. Having many cysts or big cysts can damage your kidneys.

Polycystic kidney disease can besides cause cysts to develop in your liver and elsewhere in your soundbox. The disease can cause unplayful complications, including high blood imperativeness and kidney bankruptcy .
PKD varies greatly in its severity, and some complications are preventable. life style changes and treatments might help reduce damage to your kidneys from complications .


Polycystic kidney disease symptoms can include :

  • High blood pressure
  • Back or side pain
  • Blood in your urine
  • A feeling of fullness in your abdomen
  • Increased size of your abdomen due to enlarged kidneys
  • Headaches
  • Kidney stones
  • Kidney failure
  • Urinary tract or kidney infections

When to see a doctor

It ‘s not rare for people to have polycystic kidney disease for years without knowing it .
If you develop some of the signs and symptoms of polycystic kidney disease, see your doctor. If you have a first-degree relative — parent, sibling or child — with polycystic kidney disease, see your doctor to discuss screening for this disorder .


Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern

Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern

Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern

In an autosomal dominant disorder, the mutate gene is a dominant gene located on one of the nonsex chromosomes ( autosomes ). You need only one mutated gene to be affected by this character of disorder. A person with an autosomal prevailing disorder — in this case, the father — has a 50 % opportunity of having an affect child with one mutated gene ( prevailing gene ) and a 50 % probability of having an unaffected child with two normal genes ( recessive genes ) .

Autosomal recessive inheritance pattern

Autosomal recessive inheritance pattern

Autosomal recessive inheritance pattern

To have an autosomal recessive allele disorder, you inherit two mutated genes, one from each parent. These disorders are normally passed on by two carriers. Their health is rarely affect, but they have one mutated gene ( recessive allele gene ) and one normal gene ( dominant allele gene ) for the discipline. Two carriers have a 25 % luck of having an insensible child with two normal genes ( exit ), a 50 % prospect of having an unmoved child who besides is a aircraft carrier ( in-between ), and a 25 % luck of having an affected child with two recessionary genes ( right ) .
Abnormal genes cause polycystic kidney disease, which means that in most cases, the disease runs in families. sometimes, a genic mutant occurs on its own ( ad-lib ), indeed that neither rear has a imitate of the mutate gene.

The two main types of polycystic kidney disease, caused by different familial flaws, are :

  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Signs and symptoms of ADPKD frequently develop between the ages of 30 and 40. In the past, this type was called pornographic polycystic kidney disease, but children can develop the disorder .
    only one parent needs to have the disease for it to pass to the children. If one parent has ADPKD, each child has a 50 % opportunity of getting the disease. This form accounts for most of the cases of polycystic kidney disease .
  • Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). This type is far less common than is ADPKD. The signs and symptoms frequently appear concisely after birth. sometimes, symptoms do n’t appear until subsequently in childhood or during adolescence .
    Both parents must have abnormal genes to pass on this form of the disease. If both parents carry a gene for this disorder, each child has a 25 % prospect of getting the disease .


Complications associated with polycystic kidney disease include :

  • High blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure is a common complication of polycystic kidney disease. Untreated, high blood pressure can cause further damage to your kidneys and increase your risk of heart disease and strokes.
  • Loss of kidney function. Progressive loss of kidney routine is one of the most good complications of polycystic kidney disease. closely half of those with the disease have kidney failure by age 60 .
    PKD can interfere with the ability of your kidneys to keep wastes from building to toxic levels, a condition called uremia. As the disease worsens, end-stage kidney ( nephritic ) disease may result, necessitating ongoing kidney dialysis or a graft to prolong your biography .
  • Chronic pain. Pain is a common symptom for people with polycystic kidney disease. It often occurs in your side or back. The pain can also be associated with a urinary tract infection, a kidney stone or a malignancy.
  • Growth of cysts in the liver. The likelihood of developing liver cysts for someone with polycystic kidney disease increases with age. While both men and women develop cysts, women often develop larger cysts. Female hormones and multiple pregnancies might contribute to liver cyst development.
  • Development of an aneurysm in the brain. A balloon-like bulge in a blood vessel (aneurysm) in your brain can cause bleeding (hemorrhage) if it ruptures. People with polycystic kidney disease have a higher risk of aneurysms. People with a family history of aneurysms seem to be at highest risk. Ask your doctor if screening is needed in your case. If screening reveals that you don’t have an aneurysm, your doctor may recommend repeating the screening exam in a few years or after several years as a follow-up. The timing of repeat screening depends on your risk.
  • Pregnancy complications. Pregnancy is successful for most women with polycystic kidney disease. In some cases, however, women may develop a life-threatening disorder called preeclampsia. Those most at risk have high blood pressure or a decline in kidney function before they become pregnant.
  • Heart valve abnormalities. As many as 1 in 4 adults with polycystic kidney disease develops mitral valve prolapse. When this happens, the heart valve no longer closes properly, which allows blood to leak backward.
  • Colon problems. Weaknesses and pouches or sacs in the wall of the colon (diverticulosis) may develop in people with polycystic kidney disease.


If you have polycystic kidney disease and you ‘re considering having children, a genetic counselor can help you assess your risk of passing the disease to your offspring .
Keeping your kidneys arsenic healthy as possible may help prevent some of the complications of this disease. One of the most important ways you can protect your kidneys is by managing your lineage atmospheric pressure.

here are some tips for keeping your rake pressure in check :

  • Take the blood pressure medications prescribed by your doctor as directed.
  • Eat a low-salt diet containing plenty of fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Ask your doctor what the right weight is for you.
  • If you smoke, quit.
  • Exercise regularly. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week.
  • Limit alcohol use.

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