Polycystic Kidney Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

What is polycystic kidney disease?

Polycystic kidney disease ( PKD ) is an inherit kidney disorder. It causes fluid-filled cysts to form in the kidneys. PKD may impair kidney function and finally cause kidney failure. PKD is the one-fourth leading cause of kidney failure. People with PKD may besides develop cysts in the liver-colored and other complications.

What are the symptoms of PKD?

many people live with PKD for years without experiencing symptoms associated with the disease. Cysts typically mature 0.5 inches or larger before a person starts noticing symptoms. initial symptoms associated with PKD can include :

  • pain or tenderness in the abdomen
  • blood in the urine
  • frequent urination
  • pain in the sides
  • urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • kidney stones
  • pain or heaviness in the back
  • skin that bruises easily
  • pale skin color
  • fatigue
  • joint pain
  • nail abnormalities

Children with autosomal recessive PKD may have symptoms that include :

  • high blood pressure
  • UTI
  • frequent urination

Symptoms in children may resemble other disorders. It ’ south authoritative to get medical attention for a child experiencing any of the symptoms listed above .

What causes PKD?

polycystic kidney disease is broadly inherited. Less normally, it develops in people who have other good kidney problems. There are three types of PKD .

Autosomal dominant PKD

Autosomal dominant ( ADPKD ) is sometimes called pornographic PKD. According to the National Kidney Foundation, it accounts for about 90 percentage of cases. person who has a rear with PKD has a 50 percentage chance of developing this condition. Symptoms normally develop later in life, between the ages of 30 and 40. however, some people begin to experience symptoms in childhood .

Autosomal recessive PKD

Autosomal recessive PKD ( ARPKD ) is much less coarse than ADPKD. It ’ mho besides inherited, but both parents must carry the gene for the disease. People who are carriers of ARPKD won ’ t have symptoms if they have only one gene. If they inherit two genes, one from each rear, they ’ ll have ARPKD. There are four types of ARPKD :

  • Perinatal form is present at birth.
  • Neonatal form occurs within the first month of life.
  • Infantile form occurs when the child is 3 to 12 months old.
  • Juvenile form occurs after the child is 1 year old.

Acquired cystic kidney disease

Acquired cystic kidney disease ( ACKD ) isn ’ thymine inherited. It normally occurs late in life. ACKD normally develops in people who already have other kidney problems. It ’ s more common in people who have kidney failure or are on dialysis.

How is PKD diagnosed?

Because ADPKD and ARPKD are inherited, your doctor of the church will review your family history. They may initially order a arrant blood count to look for anemia or signs of infection and a urinalysis to look for blood, bacteria, or protein in your urine. To diagnose all three types of PKD, your doctor may use imaging tests to look for cysts of the kidney, liver, and early organs. Imaging tests used to diagnose PKD admit :

  • Abdominal ultrasound. This noninvasive test uses sound waves to look at your kidneys for cysts.
  • Abdominal CT scan. This test can detect smaller cysts in the kidneys.
  • Abdominal MRI scan. This MRI uses strong magnets to image your body to visualize kidney structure and look for cysts.
  • Intravenous pyelogram. This test uses a dye to make your blood vessels show up more clearly on an X-ray.

What are the complications of PKD?

In addition to the symptoms broadly experienced with PKD, there may be complications as cysts on the kidneys grow larger. These complications may include :

  • weakened areas in the walls of arteries, known as aortic or brain aneurysms
  • cysts on and in the liver
  • cysts in the pancreas and testicles
  • diverticula, or pouches or pockets in the wall of the colon
  • cataracts or blindness
  • liver disease
  • mitral valve prolapse
  • anemia, or insufficient red blood cells
  • bleeding or bursting of cysts
  • high blood pressure
  • liver failure
  • kidney stones
  • heart disease

What’s the treatment for PKD?

The goal of PKD treatment is to manage symptoms and debar complications. Controlling high rake pressure is the most important share of treatment. Some discussion options may include :

  • pain medication, except ibuprofen (Advil), which isn’t recommended since it may worsen kidney disease
  • blood pressure medication
  • antibiotics to treat UTIs
  • a low-sodium diet
  • diuretics to help remove excess fluid from the body
  • surgery to drain cysts and help relieve discomfort

In 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved a drug called tolvaptan ( stigmatize name Jynarque ) as a treatment for ADPKD. It ’ s used to slow the progress of kidney decline. One of the good potential side effects of tolvaptan is severe liver damage, so your doctor will regularly monitor the health of your liver and kidneys while on this medication. With advanced PKD that causes nephritic failure, dialysis and kidney transplant may be necessary. One or both of the kidneys may need to be removed .

Coping and support for PKD

A diagnosis of PKD may mean changes and considerations for you and your family. You may experience a range of emotions when you receive a PKD diagnosis and as you adjust to living with the condition. Reaching out to a subscribe network of family and friends can be helpful. You may besides wish to reach out to a dietician. They can recommend dietary steps to help you keep blood pressure broken and reduce the work required of the kidneys, which must filter and balance electrolytes and sodium levels. There are several organizations that provide digest and information for people living with PKD :

  • The PKD Foundation has chapters all across the country to support those with PKD and their families. Visit their website to find a chapter near you.
  • The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) offers education and support groups to kidney patients and their families.
  • American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP) engages in advocacy to protect the rights of kidney patients in all levels of government and insurance organizations.

You can besides talk to your nephrologist or local dialysis clinic to find back groups in your area. You don ’ t have to be on dialysis in order to access these resources. If you aren ’ t ready or don ’ triiodothyronine have the time to attend a back group, each of these organizations have on-line resources and forums available .

Reproductive support

Because PKD can be an inherit circumstance, your repair may recommend seeing a genic advocate. They can help you figure out a map of your family ’ south aesculapian history with deference to PKD. genetic guidance may be an choice that can help you weigh important decisions, such as the likelihood your child could have PKD .

Kidney failure and transplant options

One of the most serious complications of PKD is kidney bankruptcy. This is when the kidneys are no longer able to :

  • filter waste products
  • maintain fluid balance
  • maintain blood pressure

When this occurs, your doctor will discuss options with you that may include a kidney transplant or dialysis treatments to act as artificial kidneys. If your sophisticate does place you on a kidney transplant list, there are several factors that determine your placement. These include your overall health, expected survival, and time you have been on dialysis. It ’ randomness besides potential that a ally or relative could donate a kidney to you. Because people can live with entirely one kidney with relatively few complications, this can be an choice for families who have a volition donor. The decision to undergo a kidney transplant or donate a kidney to a person with kidney disease can be a unmanageable one. Speaking to your nephrologist can help you weigh your options. You can besides ask what medications and treatments can help you live arsenic well as potential in the meanwhile. According to the University of Iowa, the modal kidney transplant will allow kidney function from 10 to 12 years .

What’s the outlook for people with PKD?

For most people, PKD slowly gets worse over time. It ’ second estimated that 50 percentage of people with PKD will experience kidney failure by age 60, according to the National Kidney Foundation. This number increases to 60 percentage by old age 70. Because the kidneys are such authoritative organs, their failure may start to affect other organs, such as the liver-colored.

Proper checkup care can help you manage PKD symptoms for years. If you don ’ t have other medical conditions, you may be a good candidate for a kidney transplant. besides, you may consider speaking with a genic advocate if you have a family history of PKD and are planning to have children .

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