Human cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the pulp or inner organs of other human beings. A person who practices cannibalism is called a cannibal. The entail of “ cannibalism ” has been extended into zoology to describe an individual of a species consuming all or share of another individual of the like species as food, including intimate cannibalism. The Island Carib people of the Lesser Antilles, from whom the discussion “ cannibalism ” is derived, acquired a long-standing repute as cannibals after their legends were recorded in the seventeenth century. [ 1 ] Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture. cannibalism was practised in New Guinea and in parts of the Solomon Islands, and human body markets existed in some parts of Melanesia. [ 2 ] Fiji was once known as the “ cannibal Isles ”. [ 3 ] Cannibalism has been well documented in much of the world, including Fiji, the Amazon Basin, the Congo, and the Māori people of New Zealand. [ 4 ] Neanderthals are believed to have practised cannibalism, [ 5 ] [ 6 ] and Neanderthals may have been eaten by anatomically modern humans. [ 7 ] Cannibalism was besides practised in ancient Egypt, Roman Egypt and during famines in Egypt such as the great dearth of 1199–1202. [ 8 ] [ 9 ]
Reading: Human cannibalism
cannibalism has recently been both practised and fiercely condemned in several wars, particularly in Liberia [ 10 ] and the democratic Republic of the Congo. [ 11 ] It was still practised in Papua New Guinea as of 2012, for cultural reasons [ 12 ] [ 13 ] and in ritual a well as in war in versatile melanesian tribe. cannibalism has been said to test the bounds of cultural relativism because it challenges anthropologists “ to define what is or is not beyond the pale of acceptable homo behavior ”. [ 1 ] Some scholars argue that no firm evidence exists that cannibalism has ever been a socially satisfactory commit anywhere in the world, at any time in history, although this has been systematically debated against. [ 14 ] A form of cannibalism popular in early mod Europe was the consumption of body parts or rake for medical purposes. This practice was at its altitude during the seventeenth hundred, although american samoa late as the second half of the nineteenth century some peasants attending an execution are recorded to have “ rushed ahead and scraped the ground with their hands that they might collect some of the bloody earth, which they subsequently crammed in their mouth, in hope that they might therefore get rid of their disease. ” [ 15 ] cannibalism has occasionally been practiced as a last recourse by people suffering from famine, even in modern times. celebrated examples include the doomed Donner Party ( 1846–47 ) and, more recently, the doss of Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 ( 1972 ), after which some survivors ate the bodies of the dead. additionally, there are cases of people suffering from mental illness engaging in cannibalism for intimate pleasure, such as Jeffrey Dahmer and Albert Fish. There is resistance to formally labeling cannibalism a genial disorder. [ 16 ]
The word “ cannibalism ” is derived from Caníbales, the spanish name for the Caribs, [ 17 ] a West Indies tribe that may have practiced cannibalism, [ 18 ] from spanish canibal or caribal, “ a savage ”. The term anthropophagy, meaning “ corrode humans ”, is besides used for human cannibalism .
A cannibal banquet on Tanna, Vanuatu, c. 1885–1889 In some societies, cannibalism is a cultural average. consumption of a person from within the same community is called endocannibalism ; ritual cannibalism of the recently deceased can be separate of the bereaved process [ 19 ] or be seen as a means of guiding the soul of the dead into the bodies of live descendants. [ 20 ] Exocannibalism is the pulmonary tuberculosis of a person from outside the community, normally as a celebration of victory against a rival tribe. [ 20 ] Both types of cannibalism can besides be fueled by the belief that eating a person ‘s flesh or internal organs will endow the cannibal with some of the characteristics of the deceased. [ 21 ] In most parts of the world, cannibalism is not a social average, but is sometimes resorted to in situations of extreme necessity. The survivors of the shipwrecks of the Essex and Méduse in the nineteenth century are said to have engaged in cannibalism, as did the members of Franklin ‘s lost excursion and the Donner Party. such cases generally involve necro-cannibalism ( eating the cadaver of person who is already dead ) as opposed to homicidal cannibalism ( killing person for food ). In english law, the latter is constantly considered a crime, even in the most trying circumstances. The case of R v Dudley and Stephens, in which two men were found guilty of murder for killing and eating a cabin boy while adrift at sea in a lifeboat, set the case law that necessity is no defensive structure to a tear of murder. In pre-modern music, the explanation given by the now-discredited theory of humorism for cannibalism was that it came about within a black acrimonious temper, which, being lodged in the linings of the ventricle, produced the edacity for human human body. [ 22 ]
A long-familiar case of mortuary cannibalism is that of the Fore tribe in New Guinea, which resulted in the outspread of the prion disease kuru. [ 23 ] Although the Fore ‘s morgue cannibalism was well-documented, the practice had ceased before the lawsuit of the disease was recognized. however, some scholars argue that although autopsy dismemberment was the practice during funeral rites, cannibalism was not. [ citation needed ] Marvin Harris theorizes that it happened during a famine period coincident with the arrival of Europeans and was rationalized as a religious rite. In 2003, a issue in Science received a large measure of crush attention when it suggested that early on humans may have practiced extensive cannibalism. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] According to this research, genic markers normally found in modern humans worldwide suggest that nowadays many people carry a gene that evolved as protection against the genius diseases that can be spread by consuming human brain tissue. [ 26 ] A 2006 reanalysis of the data questioned this hypothesis, [ 27 ] because it claimed to have found a data collection bias, which led to an erroneous stopping point. [ 28 ] This claimed bias came from incidents of cannibalism used in the analysis not being due to local cultures, but having been carried out by explorers, stranded seafarers or escaped convicts. [ 29 ] The original authors published a subsequent composition in 2008 defending their conclusions. [ 30 ]
Myths, legends and folklore
cannibalism features in the folklore and legends of many cultures and is most much attributed to evil characters or as extreme retribution for some wrongdoing. Examples include the wiccan in “ Hansel and Gretel “, Lamia of Greek mythology and Baba Yaga of Slavic folklore. A number of stories in Greek mythology imply cannibalism, in detail cannibalism of close family members, for example, the stories of Thyestes, Tereus and specially Cronus, who was Saturn in the Roman pantheon. The narrative of Tantalus besides parallels this. The wendigo is a creature appearing in the legends of the algonquian people. It is thought of variously as a malefic cannibalistic intent that could possess humans or a freak that humans could physically transform into. Those who indulged in cannibalism were at detail risk, [ 31 ] and the caption appears to have reinforced this practice as taboo. The zuni people tell the history of the Átahsaia – a elephantine who cannibalizes his fellow demons and seeks out homo flesh. The wechuge is a demonic cannibalistic animal that seeks out human pulp. It is a animal appearing in the native American mythology of the Athabaskan people. [ 32 ] It is said to be half freak and half human-like ; however, it has many shapes and forms .
William Arens, writer of The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology and Anthropophagy, [ 33 ] questions the credibility of reports of cannibalism and argues that the description by one group of people of another people as cannibals is a consistent and demonstrable ideological and rhetorical device to establish perceived cultural superiority. Arens bases his thesis on a detailed analysis of numerous “ classical ” cases of cultural cannibalism cited by explorers, missionaries, and anthropologists. He asserts that many were steeped in racism, uncorroborated, or based on second-hand or hearsay testify. Accusations of cannibalism helped characterize autochthonal peoples as “ barbarian ”, “ primitive ”, or even “ cold. ” [ 34 ] These assertions promoted the use of military force as a means of “ civilizing ” and “ pacify ” the “ savages ”. During the spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and its earlier conquests in the Caribbean there were widespread reports of cannibalism, justifying the conquest. Cannibals were exempt from Queen Isabella ‘s prohibition on enslaving the autochthonal. [ 35 ] Another example of the sensationalism of cannibalism and its joining to imperialism occurred during Japan ‘s 1874 expedition to Taiwan. As Eskildsen describes, there was an exaggeration of cannibalism by Taiwanese autochthonal peoples in Japan ‘s popular media such as newspapers and illustrations at the time. [ 36 ] This Horrid Practice: The Myth and Reality of Traditional Maori Cannibalism ( 2008 ) by New Zealand historian Paul Moon received a hostile reception by many Maori, who felt the book tarnished their wholly people. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] The title of the record is drawn from the 16 January 1770 journal entrance of Captain James Cook, who, in describing acts of Māori cannibalism, stated “ though stronger tell of this hideous practice predominate among the inhabitants of this coast will hardly be required, we have even stronger to give. ” [ 39 ]
Among mod humans, cannibalism has been practiced by respective groups. [ 26 ] It was practiced by humans in Prehistoric Europe, [ 40 ] [ 41 ] Mesoamerica, [ 42 ] South America, [ 43 ] among iroquoian peoples in North America, [ 44 ] Māori in New Zealand, [ 45 ] the Solomon Islands, [ 46 ] parts of West Africa [ 18 ] and Central Africa, [ 18 ] some of the islands of Polynesia, [ 18 ] New Guinea, [ 47 ] Sumatra, [ 18 ] and Fiji. [ 48 ] evidence of cannibalism has been found in ruins associated with the Ancestral Puebloans of the Southwestern United States american samoa well as ( at Cowboy Wash in Colorado ). [ 49 ] [ 50 ] [ 51 ]
There is evidence, both archaeological and familial, that cannibalism has been practiced for hundreds of thousands of years by early homo Sapiens and archaic hominins. [ 52 ] Human bones that have been “ de-fleshed ” by other humans go back 600,000 years. The oldest Homo sapiens bones ( from Ethiopia ) show signs of this american samoa well. [ 52 ] Some anthropologists, such as Tim D. White, suggest that ritual cannibalism was common in homo societies prior to the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic menstruation. This theory is based on the big sum of “ butcher human ” bones found in Neanderthal and other Lower/Middle Paleolithic sites. [ 53 ] Cannibalism in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic may have occurred because of food shortages. [ 54 ] It has been besides suggested that removing dead bodies through ritual cannibalism might have been a means of marauder control, aiming to eliminate predators ‘ and scavengers ‘ access to hominid ( and early human ) bodies. [ 55 ] Jim Corbett proposed that after major epidemics, when human corpses are well accessible to predators, there are more cases of man-eating leopards, [ 56 ] so removing dead bodies through ritual cannibalism ( before the cultural traditions of bury and burning bodies appeared in homo history ) might have had hardheaded reasons for hominids and early humans to control depredation .
A upper jaw from Gough ‘s Cave with cut marks near the tooth. In Gough ‘s Cave, England, remains of human bones and skulls, around 14,700 years honest-to-god, suggest that cannibalism took put amongst the people living in or visiting the cave, [ 57 ] and that they may have used homo skulls as drinking vessels. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 60 ] Researchers have found physical evidence of cannibalism in ancient times. In 2001, archaeologists at the University of Bristol found tell of Iron Age cannibalism in Gloucestershire. [ 61 ] Cannibalism was practiced a recently as 2000 years ago in Great Britain. [ 62 ]
cannibalism is mentioned many times in early history and literature. Herodotus in “ The Histories “ ( 450s to the 420s BCE [ 63 ] ) claimed, that after football team days ‘ ocean trip up the Borysthenes ( Dnieper in Europe ) a abandon land extended for a long direction, and late the nation of the man-eaters ( other than Scythians ) was located, and beyond it again a depopulate area extended where no men lived. [ 64 ] The grave of ancient egyptian king Unas contained a hymn in praise to the king portraying him as a cannibal. [ 65 ] The Stoic philosopher Chrysippus wrote in his treatise On Justice that cannibalism was ethically acceptable. [ 66 ] Polybius records that Hannibal Monomachus once suggested to the carthaginian general Hannibal that he teach his army to adopt cannibalism in ordering to be properly supplied in his travel to Italy, although Barca and his officers could not bring themselves to commit it. In the like war, Gaius Terentius Varro once claimed to the citizens of Capua that Barca ‘s Gaul and spanish mercenaries fed on human pulp, though this claim seemed to be acknowledged as false. [ 67 ] Cassius Dio recorded cannibalism practiced by the bucoli, egyptian kin led by Isidorus against Rome. They sacrificed and devoured two Roman officers in ritualistic fashion, swearing an curse over their entrails. [ 68 ] According to Appian, during the Roman Siege of Numantia in the second hundred BCE, the population of Numantia was reduced to cannibalism and suicide. [ 69 ] cannibalism was reported by Josephus during the siege of Jerusalem by Rome in 70 CE. [ 70 ] Jerome, in his letter Against Jovinianus, discusses how people come to their stage condition as a result of their inheritance, and he then lists several examples of peoples and their customs. In the list, he mentions that he has heard that Attacotti eat human pulp and that Massagetae and Derbices ( a people on the borders of India ) kill and eat old people. [ 71 ]
Ugolino and his sons in their cell, as painted by William Blake. According to Dante, the prisoners were slowly starved to death and before dying Ugolino’s children begged him to eat their bodies. Reports of cannibalism were recorded during the First Crusade, as Crusaders were alleged to have fed on the bodies of their dead opponents following the Siege of Ma’arra. Amin Maalouf besides alleges farther cannibalism incidents on the border to Jerusalem, and to the efforts made to delete mention of these from westerly history. [ 72 ] During Europe ‘s Great Famine of 1315–17, there were many reports of cannibalism among the starve populations. In North Africa, as in Europe, there are references to cannibalism as a final recourse in times of famine. [ 73 ] The Moroccan Muslim internet explorer ibn Battuta reported that one African king advised him that nearby people were cannibals ( although this may have been a prank played on ibn Battuta by the king to fluster his node ). Ibn Batutta reported that Arabs and Christians were safe, as their pulp was “ green ” and would cause the eater to fall ill. [ 74 ]
cannibalism in Lithuania during russian invasion in 1571, german plate For a abbreviated clock time in Europe, an unusual human body of cannibalism occurred when thousands of egyptian mummies preserved in bitumen were ground up and sold as medicate. [ 75 ] The exercise developed into a wide-scale business which flourished until the late sixteenth century. This “ fad ” ended because the mummies were revealed actually to be recently killed slaves. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicative properties against run, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powder shape ( see homo mummy sweet and mummia ). [ 76 ] In China during the Tang dynasty, cannibalism was purportedly resorted to by insurgent forces early in the period ( who were said to raid adjacent areas for victims to eat ), ampere well as both soldiers and civilians besieged during the rebellion of An Lushan. Eating an enemy ‘s heart and liver was besides claimed to be a feature of both official punishments and private vengeance. [ 77 ] References to cannibalizing the enemy have besides been seen in poetry written in the Song dynasty ( for exercise, in Man Jiang Hong ), although the cannibalize is possibly poetic symbolism, expressing hatred towards the foe. Charges of cannibalism were levied against the Qizilbash of the Safavid Ismail. [ 78 ]
A scene depicting the Aztec idol Mictlantecuhtli and ritualistic cannibalism in prehispanic Mesoamerica. Codex Magliabechiano folio 73r There is universal joint agreement that some mesoamerican people practiced human sacrifice, but there is a miss of scholarly consensus as to whether cannibalism in pre-columbian America was widespread. At one extreme, anthropologist Marvin Harris, author of Cannibals and Kings, has suggested that the flesh of the victims was a part of an aristocratic diet as a reward, since the Aztec diet was lacking in proteins. While most historians of the pre-columbian era believe that there was ritual cannibalism related to human sacrifices, they do not support Harris ‘s dissertation that human pulp was always a meaning fortune of the Aztec diet. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] [ 81 ] Others have hypothesized that cannibalism was region of a blood retaliation in war. [ 82 ]
early modern and colonial era
People of the Islands Recently Discovered…. Woodcut by Johann Froschauer for an edition of Mundus Novus The foremost known delineation of cannibalism in the New World. german, ca. 1505 ,. Woodcut by Johann Froschauer for an edition of Amerigo Vespucci ‘s Tapuia woman holding a severed human hand and showing a human leg in her basket. Brazil, 1641 dutch painter Albert Eckhout holding a severed human hand and showing a human peg in her basket. Brazil, 1641 european explorers and colonizers brought home many stories of cannibalism practiced by the native peoples they encountered, but there is now archaeological and written attest for English settlers ‘ cannibalism in 1609 in the Jamestown Colony under dearth conditions. [ 83 ] In Spain ‘s abroad expansion to the New World, the practice of cannibalism was reported by Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean islands, and the Caribs were greatly feared because of their suppose practice of it. [ citation needed ] Queen Isabel of Castile had forbidden the Spaniards to enslave the autochthonal, but if they were “ guilty ” of cannibalism, they could be enslaved. [ 84 ] The accusation of cannibalism became a pretext for attacks on autochthonal groups and justification for the spanish seduction. [ 85 ] In Yucatán, shipwrecked Spaniard Jerónimo de Aguilar, who late became a translator for Hernán Cortés, reported to have witnessed mate Spaniards sacrificed and eaten, but escaped from enslavement where he was being fattened for sacrifice himself. [ 86 ] In the Florentine Codex ( 1576 ) compiled by Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún from information provided by autochthonal eyewitnesses has questionable evidence of Mexica ( Aztec ) cannibalism. franciscan friar Diego de Landa reported on Yucatán instances. [ 87 ] In early Brazil, there is coverage of cannibalism among the Tupinamba. [ 88 ] It is recorded about the natives of the captainship of Sergipe in Brazil : “ They eat human flesh when they can get it, and if a woman miscarries devour the abortive immediately. If she goes her fourth dimension out, she herself cuts the navel-string with a shell, which she boils along with the secondine [ i.e. placenta ], and eats them both. ” [ 89 ] ( see human placentophagy ). In modern Brazil, a black drollery film, How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman, by and large in the Tupi language, portrays a Frenchman captured by the autochthonal and his demise. The 1913 Handbook of Indians of Canada ( reprinting 1907 material from the Bureau of American Ethnology ), claims that north american natives practicing cannibalism included “ … the Montagnais, and some of the tribes of Maine ; the Algonkin, Armouchiquois, Iroquois, and Micmac ; farther west the Assiniboine, Cree, Foxes, Chippewa, Miami, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Illinois, Sioux, and Winnebago ; in the south the people who built the mounds in Florida, and the Tonkawa, Attacapa, Karankawa, Caddo, and Comanche ; in the northwest and west, portions of the continent, the Thlingchadinneh and early Athapascan tribes, the Tlingit, Heiltsuk, Kwakiutl, Tsimshian, Nootka, Siksika, some of the Californian tribe, and the Ute. There is besides a custom of the practice among the Hopi, and mentions of the custom-made among other tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. The Mohawk, and the Attacapa, Tonkawa, and other Texas tribes were known to their neighbours as ‘man-eaters. ‘ ” [ 90 ] The forms of cannibalism described included both resorting to human pulp during famines and ritual cannibalism, the latter normally consisting of eating a belittled fortune of an enemy warrior. From another beginning, according to Hans Egede, when the Inuit killed a womanhood accused of witchcraft, they ate a fortune of her heart. [ 91 ] As with most lurid tales of native cannibalism, these stories are treated with a big cover of scrutiny, as accusations of cannibalism were much used as justifications for the oppression or end of “ savages ”. [ 92 ] The very first meet between Europeans and Māori may have involved cannibalism of a dutch boater. [ 93 ] In June 1772, the french internet explorer Marion du Fresne and 26 members of his crowd were killed and eaten in the Bay of Islands. [ 94 ] In an 1809 incident known as the Boyd slaughter, about 66 passengers and crowd of the Boyd were killed and eaten by Māori on the Whangaroa peninsula, Northland. Cannibalism was already a regular practice in Māori wars. [ 95 ] In another example, on July 11, 1821, warriors from the Ngapuhi tribe killed 2,000 enemies and remained on the battlefield “ eating the vanquished until they were driven off by the smell of decaying bodies ”. [ 96 ] Māori warriors fighting the New Zealand government in Titokowaru ‘s War in New Zealand ‘s North Island in 1868–69 revive ancient rites of cannibalism as contribution of the radical Hauhau drift of the Pai Marire religion. [ 97 ] In parts of Melanesia, cannibalism was hush practiced in the early twentieth hundred, for a kind of reasons—including retaliation, to insult an enemy people, or to absorb the dead person ‘s qualities. [ 98 ] One tribal chief, Ratu Udre Udre in Rakiraki, Fiji, is said to have consumed 872 people and to have made a voltaic pile of stones to record his accomplishment. [ 99 ] [ 100 ] Fiji was nicknamed the “ cannibal Isles ” by european sailors, who avoided disembarking there. The dense population of the Marquesas Islands, in what is now french Polynesia, was concentrated in narrow valleys, and consisted of warring tribes, who sometimes practiced cannibalism on their enemies. Human human body was called “ long pig bed ”. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] W. D. Rubinstein wrote :
It was considered a capital wallow among the Marquesans to eat the body of a dead serviceman. They treated their captives with big cruelty. They broke their legs to prevent them from attempting to escape before being eaten, but kept them alive so that they could brood over their impend destiny. … With this tribe, as with many others, the bodies of women were in big demand. [ 4 ]
A belated 19th-century map depicting the extent of human cannibalism This time period of fourth dimension was besides prevailing with instances of explorers and seafarers resorting to cannibalism for survival .
Roger Casement, writing to a consular colleague in Lisbon on August 3, 1903 from Lake Mantumba in the Congo Free State, said :
“ The people round here are all cannibals. You never saw such a weird looking batch in your life. There are besides shadow ( called Batwas ) in the forest who are even worse cannibals than the grandiloquent homo environment. They eat valet human body crude ! It ‘s a fact. ” Casement then added how assailants would “ bring down a dwarf on the way home, for the marital cook pot … The Dwarfs, as I say, dispense with cooking pots and eat and drink their human prey fresh dilute on the battlefield while the blood is placid quick and running. These are not fagot tales, my beloved Cowper, but actual ghastly reality in the heart of this poor, benighted ferocious land. ” [ 107 ]
During the 1892–1894 war between the Congo Free State and the Swahili – Arab city-states of Nyangwe and Kasongo in Eastern Congo, there were reports of widespread cannibalization of the bodies of defeated arabian combatants by the Batetela allies of belgian commanding officer Francis Dhanis. [ 108 ] The Batetela, “ like most of their neighbors were chronic cannibals. ” [ 109 ] According to Dhanis ‘s medical officeholder, Captain Hinde, their town of Ngandu had “ at least 2,000 milled human skulls ” as a “ firm white pavement in presence ” of its gates, with human skulls crowning every mail of the stockade. [ 109 ]
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In April 1892, 10,000 of the Batetela, under the command of Gongo Lutete, joined forces with Dhanis in a campaign against the Swahili–Arab leaders Sefu and Mohara. [ 109 ] After one early skirmish in the campaign, Hinde “ noticed that the bodies of both the killed and wounded had vanished. ” When fighting broke out again, Hinde saw his Batetela allies drop human arms, legs and heads on the road. [ 110 ] One youthful belgian military officer wrote home : “ Happily Gongo ‘s men ate them up [ in a few hours ]. It ‘s atrocious but extremely useful and hygienic … I should have been horrified at the estimate in Europe ! But it seems quite natural to me here. Do n’t show this letter to anyone indiscreet. ” [ 111 ] After the slaughter at Nyangwe, Lutete “ hid himself in his quarters, appalled by the sight of thousands of men smoking human hands and human chops on their camp fires, adequate to feed his army for many days. ” [ 109 ] In West Africa, the Leopard Society was a cannibalistic hidden society that existed until the mid-1900s. Centered in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ivory Coast, the Leopard men would dress in leopard skins, and ambush travelers with sharp claw-like weapons in the phase of leopards ‘ claws and teeth. [ 112 ] The victims ‘ human body would be cut from their bodies and distributed to members of the society. [ 113 ]
Modern earned run average
finnish soldiers show the skin of russian soldiers eaten by members of a soviet patrol during the Continuation War further instances include cannibalism as ritual practice ; cannibalism in times of drought, dearth and early destitution ; american samoa well angstrom cannibalism as criminal acts and war crimes throughout the twentieth and 21st centuries .
World War II
many instances of cannibalism by necessity were recorded during World War II. For model, during the 872-day Siege of Leningrad, reports of cannibalism began to appear in the winter of 1941–1942, after all birds, rats, and pets were eaten by survivors. Leningrad police even formed a limited part to combat cannibalism. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] Some 2.8 million soviet POWs died in Nazi custody in less than eight months during 1941–42. [ 116 ] According to the USHMM, by the winter of 1941, “ starvation and disease resulted in mass death of impossible proportions ”. [ 117 ] This careful starvation led to many incidents of cannibalism. [ 118 ] Following the soviet victory at Stalingrad it was found that some german soldiers in the besiege city, cut off from supplies, resorted to cannibalism. [ 119 ] Later, following the german giving up in January 1943, roughly 100,000 german soldiers were taken prisoner of war ( POW ). Almost all of them were sent to POW camps in Siberia or Central Asia where, due to being chronically underfed by their soviet captors, many resorted to cannibalism. Fewer than 5,000 of the prisoners taken at Stalingrad survived enslavement. [ 120 ] Cannibalism took position in the concentration and death camps in the Independent State of Croatia ( NDH ), a nazi german puppet state which was governed by the fascist Ustasha organization, who committed the Genocide of Serbs and the Holocaust in NDH. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] [ 123 ] [ 124 ] Some survivors testified that some of the Ustashas drank the blood from the slash throats of the victims. [ 122 ] [ 125 ]
The Australian War Crimes Section of the Tokyo court, led by prosecutor William Webb ( the future Judge-in-Chief ), collected numerous written reports and testimonies that documented japanese soldiers ‘ acts of cannibalism among their own troops, on enemy dead, equally well as on Allied prisoners of war in many parts of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. In September 1942, japanese daily rations on New Guinea consisted of 800 grams of rice and tinned meat. however, by December, this had fallen to 50 grams. [ 126 ] : 78–80 According to historian Yuki Tanaka, “ cannibalism was much a systematic action conducted by hale squads and under the dominate of officers ”. [ 127 ] In some cases, human body was cut from living people. A prisoner of war from the british indian Army, Lance Naik Hatam Ali, testified that in New Guinea : “ the Japanese started selecting prisoners and every day one prisoner was taken out and killed and eaten by the soldiers. I personally saw this happen and about 100 prisoners were eaten at this position by the Japanese. The remainder of us were taken to another descry 80 kilometres ( 50 miles ) away where 10 prisoners died of nausea. At this place, the japanese again started selecting prisoners to eat. Those selected were taken to a hut where their pulp was cut from their bodies while they were alive and they were thrown into a dump where they later died. ” [ 128 ] Another well-documented case occurred in Chichi-jima in February 1945, when japanese soldiers killed and consumed five american airmen. This character was investigated in 1947 in a war crimes test, and of 30 japanese soldiers prosecuted, five ( Maj. Matoba, Gen. Tachibana, Adm. Mori, Capt. Yoshii, and Dr. Teraki ) were found guilty and hanged. [ 129 ] In his reserve Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, James Bradley details several instances of cannibalism of World War II Allied prisoners by their japanese captors. [ 130 ] The author claims that this included not only ritual cannibalization of the livers of impertinently killed prisoners, but besides the cannibalization-for-sustenance of know prisoners over the class of respective days, amputating limbs alone ampere needed to keep the kernel fresh. [ 131 ] There are more than 100 document cases in Australia ‘s government archives of japanese soldiers practising cannibalism on enemy soldiers and civilians in New Guinea during the war. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] For example, from an archive case, an australian lieutenant describes how he discovered a scene with cannibalize bodies, including one “ consisting alone of a oral sex which had been scalped and a spinal anesthesia column ” and that “ [ one ] n all cases, the condition of the remains were such that there can be no doubt that the bodies had been dismembered and portions of the flesh cooked ”. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] In another archive subject, a Pakistan bodily ( who was captured in Singapore and transported to New Guinea by the Japanese ) testified that japanese soldiers cannibalized a prisoner ( some were inactive alive ) per day for approximately 100 days. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] There was besides an archive memo, in which a japanese general stated that eating anyone except foe soldiers was punishable by end. [ 133 ] Toshiyuki Tanaka, a japanese learner in Australia, mentions that it was done “ to consolidate the group feel of the troops ” rather than due to food deficit in many of the cases. [ 132 ] Tanaka besides states that the Japanese committed the cannibalism under supervision of their elder officers and to serve as a world power projection joyride. [ 134 ] Jemadar Abdul Latif ( VCO of the 4/9 Jat Regiment of the british amerind Army and POW rescued by the Australians at Sepik Bay in 1945 ) stated that the japanese soldiers ate both amerind POWs and local New Guinean people. [ 134 ] At the camp for indian POWs in Wewak, where many died and 19 POWs were eaten, the japanese doctor of the church and lieutenant Tumisa would send an indian come out of the closet of the camp after which a Japanese party would kill and eat human body from the body a well as cut off and cook certain body parts ( liver, buttock muscles, thighs, legs, and arms ), according to Captain R. U. Pirzai in a The Courier-Mail report of 25 August 1945. [ 134 ]
cannibalism has been reported in several holocene african conflicts, including the second Congo War, [ 135 ] and the civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone .
democratic Republic of Congo
A UN homo rights expert reported in July 2007 that sexual atrocities against congolese women go “ far beyond rape ” and include sexual slavery, forced incest, fistulous withers mutilation of genitals with sharp objects, and cannibalism. [ 135 ] [ 136 ] This may be done in desperation, as during peacetime cannibalism is much less patronize ; [ 137 ] at other times, it is consciously directed at certain groups believed to be relatively helpless, such as Congo Pygmies, even considered subhuman by some other congolese. [ 138 ]
central African Republic
The self-declared emperor of the central African Empire, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, was tried on October 24, 1986, for several cases of cannibalism although he was never convicted. [ 139 ] [ 140 ] Between April 17 and April 19, 1979, a count of elementary school students were arrested after they had protested against wearing the expensive, government-required school uniforms. Around 100 were killed. [ 141 ] Bokassa is said to have participated in the slaughter, beating some of the children to death with his cane and allegedly ate some of his victims. [ 142 ] In June 1987, he was cleared of charges of cannibalism, but found guilty of the murder of schoolchildren and other crimes. [ 143 ] further reports of cannibalism were reported against the Seleka Muslim minority during the ongoing central African Republic conflict. [ 144 ] [ 145 ]
During South Sudanese Civil War cannibalism and forced cannibalism have been reported. [ 146 ] [ 147 ]
In the 1970s the Ugandan authoritarian Idi Amin was reputed to drill cannibalism. [ 148 ] [ 149 ] More recently, the Lord ‘s Resistance Army has been accused of routinely engaging in ritual or charming cannibalism. [ 150 ] It is besides reported by some that witch doctors in the country sometimes use the body parts of children in their medicine. [ 151 ]
In the 1980s, Médecins Sans Frontières, the international aesculapian charity, supplied photographic and other documentary testify of ritualize cannibal feasts among the participants in Liberia ‘s internecine discord to representatives of Amnesty International who were on a fact-finding deputation to the neighboring submit of Guinea. however, Amnesty International declined to publicize this material ; the Secretary-General of the constitution, Pierre Sane, said at the time in an internal communication that “ what they do with the bodies after human rights violations are committed is not part of our mandate or refer ”. The universe of cannibalism on a wide scale in Liberia was subsequently verified. [ 152 ]
In 2008, a british model called Anthony Morley was imprisoned for the stamp out, dismemberment and overtone cannibalisation of his lover, magazine executive Damian Oldfield. In 1996, Morley was a dissenter on the television course of study God’s Gift ; one of the consultation members of that version was Damian Oldfield. Oldfield was a dissenter of another version of the show in October 1996. On 2 May 2008, it was announced that Morley had been arrested for the mangle of Oldfield, who worked for the brave life style cartridge holder Bent. After inviting Oldfield into his Leeds flat, police believed that Morley killed him, removed a section of his leg and began cooking it, before he stumbled into a nearby kabob house around 2:30 in the dawn, drenched in blood and asking that person call the patrol. He was found guilty on 17 October 2008 and sentenced to life imprisonment for the crime. [ 153 ] [ 154 ] [ 155 ]
cannibalism is documented to have occurred in China during the Great Leap Forward, when rural China was hit hard by drought and famine. [ 156 ] [ 157 ] [ 158 ] [ 159 ] [ 160 ] [ 161 ] During Mao Zedong ‘s Cultural Revolution, local governments ‘ documents revealed hundreds of incidents of cannibalism for ideological reasons ( for example, the large-scale cannibalism during the Guangxi Massacre [ 162 ] ). public events for cannibalism were organised by local anesthetic Communist Party officials, and people took depart in them in concert in order to prove their revolutionary passion. [ 163 ] [ 164 ] The writer Zheng Yi documented incidents of cannibalism in Guangxi in 1968 in his 1993 book, Scarlet Memorial: Tales of Cannibalism in Modern China. [ 165 ]
Karl Denke, Carl Großmann, Fritz Haarmann, Joachim Kroll, Peter Stumpp are of the many know german cannibals. Armin Meiwes, a early computer repair technician who achieved international notoriety for killing and eating a voluntary victim in 2001, whom he had found via the Internet. After Meiwes and the victim jointly attempted to eat the victim ‘s discerp penis, Meiwes killed his victim and proceeded to eat a large come of his human body. He was arrested in December 2002. In January 2004, Meiwes was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to eight years and six months in prison. In a retrial May 2006, he was convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment. [ 166 ] He reported that there are over 800 active cannibals in Germany. [ 167 ]
Reports of widespread cannibalism began to emerge from North Korea during the famine of the 1990s [ 168 ] [ 169 ] and subsequent ongoing starvation. Kim Jong-il was reported to have ordered a crackdown on cannibalism in 1996, [ 170 ] but chinese travelers reported in 1998 that cannibalism had occurred. [ 171 ] Three people in North Korea were reported to have been executed for selling or eating human flesh in 2006. [ 172 ] Further reports of cannibalism emerged in early 2013, including reports of a serviceman executed for killing his two children for food. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] [ 175 ] There are competing claims about how far-flung cannibalism was in North Korea. While refugees reported that it was far-flung, [ 176 ] Barbara Demick wrote in her book, Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea ( 2010 ), that it did not seem to be. [ 177 ]
Flesh pills were used by Tibetan Buddhists. [ 178 ] It was believed that mystic powers were bestowed upon people when they consumed Brahmin human body. [ 179 ]
Eastern Europe and Russia
In his book, The Gulag Archipelago, soviet writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn described cases of cannibalism in 20th-century Soviet Union. [ 180 ] Of the famine in Povolzhie ( 1921–1922 ) he wrote : “ That atrocious famine was improving to cannibalism, up to consuming children by their own parents — the dearth, which Russia had never known even in Time of Troubles [ in 1601–1603 ] ”. [ 180 ] cannibalism was widespread during the Holodomor ( dearth of Ukraine ) in 1932 and 1933. [ 181 ] [ 182 ] During the 1930s, multiple acts of cannibalism were reported from Ukraine, Russia ‘s Volga, South Siberian, and Kuban regions during the soviet famine of 1932–1933. [ 183 ]
survival was a moral adenine well as a forcible contend. A charwoman doctor wrote to a acquaintance in June 1933 that she had not however become a cannibal, but was “ not certain that I shall not be one by the time my letter reaches you ”. The good people died first gear. Those who refused to steal or to prostitute themselves die. Those who gave food to others died. Those who refused to eat corpses died. Those who refused to kill their fellow man died. … At least 2,505 people were sentenced for cannibalism in the years 1932 and 1933 in Ukraine, though the actual total of cases was surely much higher. [ 184 ]
Solzhenitsyn said of the Siege of Leningrad ( 1941–1944 ) : “ Those who consumed human flesh, or cover with the human liver trade from dissecting rooms … were accounted as the political criminals ”. [ 185 ] And of the build of Northern Railway Labor Camp ( “ Sevzheldorlag “ ) Solzhenitsyn reports, “ An ordinary hard working political prisoner about could not survive at that penal clique. In the camp Sevzheldorlag ( chief : colonel Klyuchkin ) in 1946–47 there were many cases of cannibalism : they cut human bodies, cooked and eat. ” [ 186 ] The soviet journalist Yevgenia Ginzburg was a long-run political prisoner who spent time in the soviet prisons, Gulag camps and settlements from 1938 to 1955. She described in her memoir, Harsh Route ( or Steep Route ), of a case which she was immediately involved in during the recently 1940s, after she had been moved to the prisoners ‘ hospital. [ 187 ]
The headman warder shows me the blacken smoked pot, filled with some food : “ I need your aesculapian expertness regarding this kernel. ” I look into the pot, and hardly hold vomiting. The fibres of that kernel are very small, and do n’t resemble me anything I have seen before. The bark on some pieces bristles with black hair … A former smith from Poltava, Kulesh worked in concert with Centurashvili. At this time, Centurashvili was only one calendar month away from being discharged from the camp … And suddenly he surprisingly disappeared. The wardens looked around the hills, stated Kulesh ‘s evidence, that final time Kulesh had seen his workmate near the fireplace, Kulesh went out to work and Centurashvili left to warm himself more ; but when Kulesh returned to the fireplace, Centurashvili had vanished ; who knows, possibly he got frozen somewhere in snow, he was a weak guy … The wardens searched for two more days, and then assumed that it was an elude font, though they wondered why, since his imprisonment period was about over … The crime was there. Approaching the fireplace, Kulesh killed Centurashvili with an axe, burned his clothes, then dismembered him and hid the pieces in snow, in different places, putting particular marks on each burying place. … just yesterday, one body separate was found under two cross logs .
The Aghoris are indian ascetics [ 188 ] [ 189 ] who believe that eating homo flesh confers religious and physical benefits, such as prevention of aging. They claim to only eat those who have voluntarily willed their torso to the sect upon their death, [ 190 ] although an indian television crew witnessed one Aghori feasting on a cadaver discovered floating in the Ganges, [ 191 ] and a member of the Dom caste reports that Aghoris often take bodies from the cremation ghat ( or funeral pyre ). [ 192 ]
The Korowai tribe of south-eastern Papua could be one of the last outlive tribes in the populace engaging in cannibalism. [ 47 ] A local cannibal cult killed and corrode victims american samoa late as 2012. [ 12 ] As in some other papuan societies, the Urapmin people engaged in cannibalism in war. notably, the Urapmin besides had a system of food taboos wherein dogs could not be eaten and they had to be kept from breathing on food, unlike humans who could be eaten and with whom food could be shared. [ 193 ]
anterior to 1931, The New York Times reporter William Buehler Seabrook, in the interests of research, obtained from a hospital intern at the Sorbonne a chunk of human meat from the body of a goodly human killed in an accident, then cooked and ate it. He reported, “ It was comparable good, fully grow veal, not unseasoned, but not yet gripe. It was very decidedly like that, and it was not like any other kernel I had ever tasted. It was so closely like good, amply developed veal that I think no person with a palate of average, convention sensitivity could distinguish it from veal. It was balmy, good kernel with no other precipitously defined or highly characteristic taste such as for example, capricorn, high game, and pork have. The steak was slenderly tougher than prime veal, a little stringy, but not excessively street fighter or stringy to be pleasantly comestible. The roast, from which I cut and ate a cardinal slice, was tender, and in coloring material, texture, spirit vitamin a well as sample, strengthened my certainty that of all the meats we habitually know, veal is the one kernel to which this kernel is accurately comparable. ” [ 194 ] [ 195 ] When Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashed into the Andes on October 13, 1972, the survivors resorted to eating the deceased during their 72 days in the mountains. Their report was late recounted in the books Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors ( 1974 ) and Miracle in the Andes: 72 Days on the Mountain and My Long Trek Home ( 2006 ), equally well as the film Alive ( 1993 ), by Frank Marshall, and the documentaries Alive: 20 Years Later ( 1993 ) and Stranded: I’ve Come from a Plane that Crashed in the Mountains ( 2008 ). On July 23, 1988, Rick Gibson ate the pulp of another person in public. Because England does not have a specific law against cannibalism, he legally ate a canapé of donate human tonsils in Walthamstow High Street, London. [ 196 ] A year former, on April 15, 1989, he publicly ate a slice of human testis in Lewisham High Street, London. [ 197 ] [ 198 ] When he tried to eat another slit of human testis at the Pitt International Galleries in Vancouver on July 14, 1989, the Vancouver police confiscated the testis hors d’œuvre. [ 199 ] however, the charge of publicly exhibiting a disgusting object was dropped, and he last ate the piece of human testis on the steps of the Vancouver court house on September 22, 1989. [ 200 ] In 1992, Jeffrey Dahmer of Milwaukee, Wisconsin was arrested after one of his intended victims managed to escape. Found in Dahmer ‘s apartment were two human hearts, an entire torso, a pocket entire of homo organs from his victims, and a part of arm muscle. [ 201 ] He stated that he planned to consume all of the body parts over the following few weeks. [ 202 ]
In 2001, Armin Meiwes from Essen, Germany killed and ate the human body of a will victim, Bernd Jürgen Brandis, as separate of a sexual illusion between the two. Despite Brandis ‘ accept, which was documented on video, german courts convicted Meiwes of manslaughter, then murder, and sentenced him to life in prison .