This article is about penises of animals in general. For the human harmonium, see human penis
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A penis ( plural penises or penes ( ) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate females ( or hermaphrodites ) during sexual intercourse. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] such organs occur in many animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, but males do not bear a penis in every animal species, and in those species in which the male does bear a alleged penis, the penises in the respective species are not necessarily homologous. The term penis applies to many intromittent organs, but not to all. As an example, the intromittent organ of most cephalopoda is the hectocotylus, a specialize arm, and male spiders use their pedipalps. even within the Vertebrata there are morphologic variants with specific terminology, such as hemipenes. In most species of animals in which there is an organ that might reasonably be described as a penis, it has no major serve early than insertion, or at least conveying the sperm to the female, but in the placental mammals the penis bears the distal character of the urethra, which discharges both urine during micturition and semen during sexual intercourse. [ 3 ]
Most male birds ( for example, roosters and turkeys ) have a cloaca ( besides present on the female ), but not a penis. Among boo species with a penis are paleognathes ( tinamou and ratites ) [ 4 ] and Anatidae ( ducks, goose and swans ). [ 5 ] A bird penis is different in social organization from mammal penises, being an erectile expansion of the cloacal rampart and being erected by lymph, not blood. [ 6 ] It is normally partially feather and in some species features spines and brush-like filaments, and in flaccid submit curls up inside the cloaca. The lake duck ( besides called Argentine blue-bill ) has the largest penis in relation back to body size of all vertebrates ; while normally about half the body size ( 20 centimeter ), a specimen with a penis 42.5 curium farseeing is documented. While most male birds have no external genitalia, male waterfowl ( Anatidae ) have a penis. Most birds mate with the males balancing on exceed of the females and touching sewer in a “ cloacal kiss ” ; this makes emphatic insemination very difficult. The penis that male waterfowl have evolved everts out of their bodies ( in a clockwise coil ) and aids in inseminating females without their cooperation. [ 7 ] The male waterfowl evolution of a penis to forcefully copulate with females has led to counteradaptations in females in the form of vaginal structures called dead end theca and clockwise coils. These structures make it harder for males to achieve insertion. The clockwise coils are significant because the male penis everts out of their body in a counter-clockwise spiral ; therefore, a clockwise vaginal structure would impede forceful sexual intercourse. Studies have shown that the longer a male ‘s phallus is, the more complicate the vaginal structures were. [ 7 ]
Females have corkscrew vaginas with many blind pockets designed for unmanageable penetration and to prevent becoming meaning. This reduced the likelihood of fertilization by unwanted aggressors in prefer of fit mates. The lake duck is noteworthy for possessing, in relation to torso duration, the longest penis of all vertebrates ; the penis, which is typically coiled up in soft state, can reach about the same duration as the animal himself when in full erect, but is more normally about half the shuttlecock ‘s length. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] It is theorized that the noteworthy size of their barbed penises with abound tips may have evolved in answer to competitive pressure in these highly easy birds, removing sperm from previous matings in the manner of a bottle brush. The lake duck has a corkscrew shaped penis. [ 10 ] male and female emu are like in appearance, [ 11 ] although the male ‘s penis can become visible when it defecates. [ 12 ] The male tinamou has a corkscrew shaped penis, alike to those of the ratites and to the hemipenis of some reptiles. Females have a small phallic organ in the cloaca which becomes larger during the breeding season. [ 13 ]
As with any early bodily assign, the length and cinch of the penis can be highly variable between mammals of different species. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] In many mammals, the size of a flaccid penis is smaller than its tumid size. A bone called the baculum or os penis is present in most mammals but absent in humans, cattle and horses. In mammals the penis is divided into three parts : [ 16 ]
- Roots (crura): these begin at the caudal border of the pelvic ischial arch.
- Body: the part of the penis extending from the roots.
- Glans: the free end of the penis.
The internal structures of the penis consist chiefly of cavernous, erectile weave, which is a solicitation of lineage sinusoids separated by sheets of connection weave ( trabecula ). Some mammals have a lot of erectile tissue relative to connective weave, for example horses. Because of this a horse ‘s penis can enlarge more than a taurus ‘s penis. The urethra is on the adaxial side of the body of the penis. As a general rule, a mammal ‘s penis is proportional to its body size, but this varies greatly between species – even between closely relate ones. For example, an pornographic gorilla ‘s rear penis is about 4.5 curium ( 1.8 in ) in length ; an pornographic chimpanzee, significantly smaller ( in body size ) than a gorilla, has a penis size about double that of the gorilla. In comparison, the homo penis is larger than that of any other archpriest, both in symmetry to body size and in absolute terms. [ 17 ]
The penises of artiodactyl ungulates are curved in an s-shape when not erect. [ 18 ] In bulls, rams and boars, the sigmoid fold of the penis straightens out during erection. [ 19 ] When coupling, the gratuity of a male pronghorn ‘s penis is frequently the first separate to touch the female pronghorn. [ 20 ] The pronghorn ‘s penis is about 13 curium ( 5 in ) retentive, and is shaped like an ice choice. [ 21 ] The presence of a pronghorn ‘s glans penis is relatively directly, while the back is relatively thick. [ 22 ] The male pronghorn normally ejaculates immediately after insertion. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] The penis of a arabian camel camel is covered by a triangular penile cocktail dress opening backwards, [ 25 ] and is about 60 centimeter ( 24 in ) hanker. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] The camelmen often aid the male to enter his penis into the female ‘s vulva, though the male is considered able to do it on his own. sexual intercourse prison term ranges from 7 to 35 minutes, averaging 11–15 minutes. [ 28 ] [ 29 ]
Bulls have a fibro-elastic penis. Given the minor come of erectile weave, there is little enlargement after erection. The penis is quite rigid when non-erect, and becomes tied more inflexible during erecting. protrusion is not affected much by erection, but more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and tidy of the sigmoid flexion. [ 30 ] [ 16 ] [ 31 ] The male genitalia of shiner deer are similar to those of pigs. [ 32 ] A boar ‘s penis, which rotates rhythmically during sexual intercourse, [ 33 ] is about 46 centimeter ( 18 in ) hanker, and ejaculates about a pint of semen. [ 34 ] Wild boars have a approximately egg-sized chemise near the afford of the penis, which collects urine and emits a sharply olfactory property. The function of this is not fully understand. [ 35 ]
A stag ‘s penis forms an s-shaped curl when it is not tumid, and is retracted into its sheath by the retractor penis muscleman. [ 36 ] Some deer species spray urine on their bodies by urinating from an raise penis. [ 37 ] One type of scent-marking behavior in red deer is known as “ thrash-urination, [ 38 ] [ 39 ] which typically involves palpitation of the tumid penis. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] [ 41 ] A male wapiti ‘s urethra points up so that urine is sprayed about at a right angle to the penis. [ 39 ] A sambar hart will mark himself by spraying urine directly in the face with a highly mobile penis, which is frequently tumid during its rut activities. [ 42 ] Red deer stags often have raise penises during battle. [ 43 ]
Cetaceans ‘ generative organs are located inside the body. male cetaceans ( whales, dolphins, and porpoises ) have two slits, the genital groove concealing the penis and one further behind for the anus. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] [ 46 ] [ 47 ] Cetaceans have fibroelastic penises, like to those of Artiodactyla. [ 48 ] The tapering topple of the cetacean penis is called the pars intrapraeputialis or terminal cone. [ 49 ] The bluing whale has the largest penis of any organism on the planet, typically measuring 2.4–3.0 molarity ( 8–10 foot ). [ 50 ] Accurate measurements are unmanageable to take because its rear distance can merely be observed during coupling, [ 51 ] which occurs subaqueous. The penis on a right whale can be up to 2.7 meter ( 8.9 foot ) – the testes, at up to 2 megabyte ( 6 foot 7 in ) in length, 78 centimeter ( 2 foot 7 in ) in diameter, and weighing astir to 238 kg ( 525 pound ), are besides by far the largest of any animal on Earth. [ 52 ] On at least one occasion, a dolphin towed bathers through the water by hooking his rear penis around them. [ 53 ] Between male bottlenose dolphin dolphins, homosexual behavior includes friction of genitals against each early, which sometimes leads to the males swimming belly to belly, inserting the penis in the other ‘s genital cunt and sometimes anus. [ 54 ]
Stallions ( male horses ) have a vascular penis. When non-erect, it is quite soft and contained within the prepuce ( prepuce, or sheath ). Tapirs have exceptionally long penises relative to their consistency size. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] [ 57 ] [ 58 ] The glans of the Malayan tapir resembles a mushroom, and is similar to the glans of the horse. [ 59 ] The penis of the Sumatran rhinoceros contains two lateral lobes and a social organization called the processus glandis. [ 60 ]
Procyon lotor) Genitorinary system of a raccoon All members of Carnivora ( except hyena ) have a baculum. [ 61 ] Canine penises have a structure at the base called the bulbus glandis. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] During sexual intercourse, the spot hyena inserts his penis through the female ‘s pseudo-penis rather of immediately through the vagina, which is blocked by the false scrotum and testes. Once the female retracts her clitoris, the male enters the female by sliding below her, an mathematical process facilitated by the penis ‘s up slant. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] The pseudo-penis closely resembles the male hyena ‘s penis, but can be distinguished from the male ‘s genitalia by its greater thickness and more attack glans. [ 66 ] In male spotted hyenas, arsenic well as females, the base of the glans is covered with penile spines. [ 67 ] [ 68 ] [ 69 ] domestic cats have barbed penises, with about 120–150 one millimeter long backwards-pointing spines. [ 70 ] Upon secession of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female ‘s vagina, which is a trigger for ovulation. Lions besides have barbed penises. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] Male felids make backwards by curving the tiptoe of the glans penis backward. [ 63 ] [ 73 ] When male cheetahs urine-mark their territories, they stand one meter away from a tree or rock ‘n’ roll surface with the tail raised, pointing the penis either horizontally backward or 60° upward. [ 74 ] The male fossa has an unusually long penis and baculum ( penis bone ), reaching to between his presence peg when raise [ 75 ] with backwards-pointing spines along most of its length. [ 76 ] The male fossa has scent glands near the penis, with the penile glands emitting a potent olfactory property. [ 75 ] The beech marten ‘s penis is larger than the pine marten ‘s, with the bacula of young beech martens often outsizing those of old ache martens. [ 77 ] Raccoons have penis bones which bend at a 90 degree angle at the tip. [ 78 ] The extrusibility of a raccoon ‘s penis can be used to distinguish mature males from young males. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] male walruses possess the largest penis bones of any farming mammal, both in absolute size and relative to body size. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] The pornographic male american mink ‘s penis is 5.6 curium ( 2+1⁄4 in ) long, and is covered by a sheath. The baculum is well-developed, being trilateral in cross segment and curved at the lean. [ 83 ]
Males of Racey ‘s pipistrelle cricket bat have a long, directly penis with a notch between the diaphysis and the pin down, egg-shaped glans penis. Near the top, the penis is haired, but the base is about naked. In the baculum ( penis bone ), the shaft is long and pin down and slightly curved. [ 84 ] The length of the penis and baculum distinguish P. raceyi from all comparably sized African and Malagasy vespertilionids. [ 85 ] In males, penis distance is 9.6 to 11.8 millimeter ( 3⁄8 to 15⁄32 in ) and baculum duration is 8.8 to 10.0 millimeter ( 11⁄32 to 13⁄32 in ). [ 86 ] sexual intercourse by male greater pug-nosed fruit bats is dorsoventral and the females lick the quill or the base of the male ‘s penis, but not the glans which has already penetrated the vagina. While the females do this, the penis is not withdrawn and research has shown a positive relationship between distance of the meter that the penis is licked and the duration of sexual intercourse. Post sexual intercourse genital training has besides been observed. [ 87 ]
The glans penis of the marsh rice informer is long and robust, [ 88 ] averaging 7.3 millimeter ( 9⁄32 in ) long and 4.6 millimeter ( 3⁄16 in ) broad, and the baculum ( penis bone ) is 6.6 millimeter ( 1⁄4 in ) long. [ 89 ] As is characteristic of Sigmodontinae, the marsh rice scab has a complex penis, with the distal ( far ) end of the baculum ending in three digits. [ 90 ] The cardinal digit is notably larger than those at the sides. [ 88 ] The forbidden surface of the penis is largely covered by small spines, but there is a broad band of nonspinous tissue. The papilla ( nipple-like projection ) on the abaxial ( upper ) side of the penis is covered with small spines, a character the marsh rice fink shares lone with Oligoryzomys and Oryzomys couesi among oryzomyines examined. [ 91 ] On the urethral process, located in the volcanic crater at the end of the penis, [ 92 ] a fleshy process ( the subapical lobule ) is present ; it is absent in all other oryzomyines with learn penes except O. couesi and Holochilus brasiliensis. [ 93 ] The baculum is deeper than it is wide. [ 88 ] In Transandinomys talamancae, the outer surface of the penis is by and large covered by small spines, but there is a wide band of nonspinous tissue. [ 94 ] Some features of the accessary glands in the male genital region change among oryzomyines. In Transandinomys talamancae, [ 95 ] a single pair of preputial glands is present at the penis. As is usual for sigmodontines, there are two pairs of ventral prostate glands and a single pair of anterior and dorsal prostate gland glands. character of the end of the vesicular gland is irregularly folded, not legato as in most oryzomyines. [ 96 ] In Pseudoryzomys, the baculum ( penis bone ) displays large protuberances at the sides. In the cartilaginous part of the baculum, the cardinal digit is smaller than those at the sides. [ 97 ]
In Drymoreomys, there are three digits at the point of the penis, of which the central one is the largest. In Thomasomys ucucha the glans penis is rounded, short, and modest and is superficially divided into left and correct halves by a trough at the top and a ridge at the bottom. [ 99 ] The glans penis of a male cape land squirrel is large with a big baculum. [ 100 ] Unlike other squirrel species, red squirrels have long, thin, and pin down penises, without a big baculum. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] Winkelmann ‘s mouse can easily be distinguished from its close relatives by the human body of its penis, which has a partially corrugated glans. [ 103 ] The prepuce of a capybara is attached to the anus in an strange way, forming an anogenital invagination. [ 104 ]
It has been postulated that the form of the homo penis may have been selected by sperm rival. The form could have favored displacement of seminal fluids implanted within the female generative tract by rival males : the thrusting legal action which occurs during sexual sexual intercourse can mechanically remove germinal fluid out of the neck area from a former coupling. [ 105 ] The penile morphology of some types of strepsirrhine primates has provided information about their taxonomy. [ 106 ] Male galago species possess very classifiable penile morphology that can be used to classify species. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] [ 109 ] The northerly greater galago penis is on median 18 millimeter ( 11⁄16 in ) in duration, with double headed or even tridentate spines pointing towards the soundbox. They are less dumbly packed than in Otolemur crassicaudatus. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] [ 109 ] The penis of the ring-tailed lemur is about cylindrical in shape and is covered in little spines, adenine well as having two pairs of larger spines on both sides. [ 110 ] The pornographic male of each vervet monkey species has a pale blue scrotum and a crimson penis, [ 111 ] [ 112 ] and male proboscis monkeys have a red penis with a black scrotum. [ 113 ] male baboons and squirrel monkeys sometimes gesture with an rear penis as both a warn of impending danger and a threat to predators. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] In male squirrel monkeys, this gesture is used for social communication. [ 116 ]
Penis of a human, with pubic hair removed to show anatomical reference detail The homo penis is an external sex organ of male humans. It is a generative, intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct. The independent parts are the root of the penis ( base ) : It is the affiliated part, consisting of the bulb of penis in the middle and the crus of penis, one on either english of the bulb ; the body of the penis ( corpus ) ; and the epithelium of the penis consists of the shaft skin, the prepuce, and the preputial mucous membrane on the inside of the prepuce and covering the glans penis. The human penis is made up of three columns of tissue : two corpora cavernosa lie following to each other on the abaxial side and one principal spongiosum lies between them on the adaxial side. The urethra, which is the last separate of the urinary tract, traverses the corpus spongiosum, and its afford, known as the meatus, lies on the tap of the glans penis. It is a passing both for urine and for the ejaculation of semen. In males, the expulsion of urine from the torso is done through the penis. The urethra drains the bladder through the prostate gland where it is joined by the ejaculatory duct, and then ahead to the penis. An erection is the stiffening and rise of the penis, which occurs during sexual arousal, though it can besides happen in non-sexual situations. ejaculation is the exhaust of semen from the penis and is normally accompanied by orgasm. A series of mesomorphic contractions delivers semen, containing male gametes known as sperm cells or sperm, from the penis. The most park human body of genital revision is circumcision, the removal of part or all of the prepuce for versatile cultural, religious, and more rarely checkup reasons. There is controversy surrounding circumcision. As of 2015, a taxonomic review of 15,521 men, who were measured by health professionals preferably than themselves, concluded that the average length of an rear homo penis is 13.12 centimeter ( 5.17 inches ) long, while the average circumference of an erect human penis is 11.66 centimeter ( 4.59 inches ). [ 117 ] [ 118 ]
Most marsupials, except for the two largest species of kangaroo and marsupial moles [ 119 ] ( assuming the latter are true marsupials ), have a bifurcated penis, separated into two columns, so that the penis has two ends corresponding to the females ‘ two vaginas. [ 120 ]
Monotremes and marsupial moles are the only mammals in which the penis is located inside the sewer. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] male echidnas have a bilaterally symmetrical, rosette-like, four-headed penis. [ 123 ] During checkmate, the heads on one side “ shut down ” and do not grow in size ; the other two are used to release semen into the female ‘s two-branched generative tract. The heads used are swapped each time the mammal copulates. [ 124 ] [ 125 ] [ 126 ] When not in habit, the penis is retracted inside a preputial sauk in the sewer. The male echidna ‘s penis is 7 curium ( 3 in ) long when rear, and its shaft is covered with penile spines. [ 127 ] The penis is about a quarter of his body duration when raise. [ 128 ]
The penis of the bush-league hyrax is complex and distinct from that of the other hyrax genus. It has a short, flimsy extremity within a cup-like glans penis and measures greater than 6 curium ( 2+1⁄2 in ) when rear. additionally, it has been observed that the bush hyrax besides has a greater distance between the anus and preputial open in comparison to other hyraxes. [ 129 ]
An adult elephant has the largest penis of any land animal. [ 130 ] [ self-published source? ] An elephant ‘s penis can reach a duration of 100 centimeter ( 40 in ) and a diameter of 16 curium ( 6 in ) at the base. [ citation needed ] It is s-shaped when amply tumid and has a y-shaped orifice. [ 131 ] During musth, a male elephant may urinate with his penis hush in the cocktail dress, which causes the urine to spray on the back leg. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] An elephant ‘s penis is very mobile, being able to move independently of the male ‘s pelvis, [ 134 ] and the penis curves ahead and upward anterior to mounting another elephant. [ 68 ] In giant anteaters, the ( retracted ) penis and testes are located internally between the rectum and urinary bladder. [ 135 ] When the male armadillo Chaetophractus villosus is sexually aroused, species determination is easier. Its penis can be vitamin a long as 35 millimeter ( 1+1⁄2 in ), and normally remains completely withdrawn inside a skin receptacle. [ 136 ] Scientists conducting studies on the C. villosus penis muscles revealed this species ‘ identical farseeing penis exhibits variability. During its awaken hours, it remains shroud below a skin receptacle, until it becomes rear and it projects outside in a rostral focus. [ 137 ]
fish and reptiles
male turtles and crocodiles have a penis, while male specimens of the reptile order Squamata have two paired organs called hemipenes. Tuataras must use their sewer for reproduction. [ 138 ] ascribable to evolutionary convergence, turtle and mammal penises have a similar structure. [ 139 ] In some fish, the gonopodium, andropodium, and claspers are intromittent organs ( to introduce sperm into the female ) developed from modified fins .
The record for the largest penis size to body size proportion is held by the barnacle. The barnacle goose ‘s penis can grow to up to forty times its own torso length. This enables them to reach the nearest female for fertilization. A count of invertebrate species have independently evolved the copulate technique of traumatic insemination where the penis penetrates the female ‘s abdomen, thereby creating a uterus into which it deposits sperm. This has been most amply studied in bed bugs. Some millipedes have penises. In these species, the penis is just one or two projections on underneath the third gear body segment that produce a spermatophore or sperm package. The act of insemination, however, occurs through specialized leg called gonopods which collect the spermatophore and insert it into the female .
In male insects, the structure analogous to a penis is known as aedeagus. The male coital organ of diverse lower invertebrate animals is frequently called the cirrus. [ citation needed ] The lesser water boatman ‘s match margin call, generated by rubbing the penis against the abdomen, is the loudest sound, relative to body size, in the animal kingdom. [ 140 ] In 2010, entomologist Charles Linehard described Neotrogla, a newfangled genus of barkflies. Species of this genus have sex-reversed genitalia. Females have penis-like organs called gynosomes that are inserted into vagina-like openings of males during mating. [ 141 ] In 2014, a detail learn of the insects generative habits led by Kazunori Yoshizawae confirmed that the organ functions similar to a penis – for example, it swells during intimate intercourse – and is used to extract sperm from the male. [ 142 ] [ 143 ]
The penis in most male Coleoid cephalopods is a hanker and muscular end of the gonoduct used to transfer spermatophores to a modified branch called a hectocotylus. That, in sour, is used to transfer the spermatophores to the female. In species where the hectocotylus is missing, the penis is long and able to extend beyond the mantle pit and transfers the spermatophores directly to the female. Deepwater squid have the greatest known penis length relative to body size of all mobile animals, second in the entire animal kingdom alone to certain sessile barnacles Penis elongation in Onykia ingens may result in a penis that is a retentive as the blanket, head and arms combined. [ 144 ] [ 145 ] Giant squid of the genus Architeuthis are unusual in that they possess both a boastfully penis and modified sleeve tips, although it is uncertain whether the latter are used for spermatophore transfer. [ 144 ]
The parole “ penis ” is taken from the Latin password for “ tail “. Some derive that from Indo-European *pesnis, and the greek password πέος = “ penis ” from aryan *pesos. Prior to the borrowing of the Latin word in English the penis was referred to as a “ yard ”. The Oxford English Dictionary cites an example of the news yard used in this sense from 1379, [ 146 ] and notes that in his Physical Dictionary of 1684, Steven Blankaart defined the news penis as “ the Yard, made up of two nervous Bodies, the Channel, Nut, Skin, and Fore-skin, etc. ” [ 147 ] According to Wiktionary, this condition meant ( among early senses ) “ gat ” or “ bar ”. As with about any view of the body involved in intimate or excretory functions, the penis is the topic of many slang words and euphemisms for it, a particularly common and enduring one being “ hammer ”. See WikiSaurus : penis for a list of alternate words for penis. The Latin word “phallus” ( from Greek φαλλος ) is sometimes used to describe the penis, although “ phallus ” primitively was used to describe representations, pictorial or carved, of the penis. [ 148 ]
Pizzles are represented in heraldry, where the adjective pizzled ( or vilené [ 149 ] ) indicates that depart of an animate tear ‘s anatomy, specially if coloured differently .
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