Pea – Wikipedia

Species of flowering plant with comestible seeds in the family Fabaceae
This article is about one species of plant and its variations. For early uses, see Pea ( disambiguation )
Pisum sativum : ripe pods dehiscing to shed ripe seeds – : advanced pods dehiscing to shed ripe seeds – MHNT

Pisum sativum Flowers of The pea is most normally the little ball-shaped seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum. Each pod contains respective peas, which can be greens or chicken. Botanically, pea pods are fruit, [ 2 ] since they contain seeds and develop from the ovary of a ( pea ) bloom. The name is besides used to describe other comestible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ), the black-eyed pea ( Vigna unguiculata ), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. Peas are annual plants, with a life sentence cycle of one year. They are a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the worldly concern ; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on localization. The average pea weigh between 0.1 and 0.36 gram. [ 3 ] The young pea ( and in snow peas the tender pod as well ) are used as a vegetable, fresh, freeze or canned ; varieties of the species typically called field peas are grown to produce dry peas like the split pea shelled from a suppurate pod. These are the footing of pea porridge and pea soup, staples of medieval cuisine ; in Europe, consuming fresh immature green pea was an invention of early advanced cuisine .

description [edit ]

A pea is a most normally greens, occasionally golden yellow, [ 5 ] or infrequently purple [ 6 ] pod-shaped vegetable, widely grown as a cool-season vegetable craw. The seeds may be planted american samoa soon as the territory temperature reaches 10 °C ( 50 °F ), with the plants growing best at temperatures of 13 to 18 °C ( 55 to 64 °F ). They do not thrive in the summer heat of warm moderate and lowland tropical climates, but do grow well in cooler, high-level, tropical areas. many cultivars reach maturity about 60 days after planting. [ 7 ] Worldwide pea yield
Peas have both low-growing and vining cultivars. The vining cultivars grow thinly tendrils from leaves that coil around any available support and can climb to be 1 to 2 metres ( 3 foot 3 in to 6 ft 7 in ) high. A traditional approach to supporting climbing peas is to thrust branches pruned from trees or other woody plants upright into the land, providing a wicket for the peas to climb. Branches used in this fashion are called pea sticks [ 8 ] or sometimes pea brush. Metal fences, string, or netting supported by a frame are used for the same aim. In dense plantings, peas give each other some quantify of common defend. pea plants can self-pollinate. [ 9 ]

history [edit ]

The crazy pea is restricted to the Mediterranean Basin and the Near East. The earliest archaeological finds of pea date from the late Neolithic earned run average of current Greece, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Iraq and Jordan. In Egypt, early finds date from c. 4800–4400 BC in the Nile delta area, and from c. 3800–3600 BC in Upper Egypt. The pea was besides deliver in Georgia in the fifth millennium BC. Farther east, the finds are younger. Peas were award in Afghanistan c. 2000 BC ; in Harappan culture around contemporary Pakistan and western- and northwestern India in 2250–1750 BC. In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, this legume craw appears in the Ganges Basin and southern India. [ 10 ] In early times, peas were grown largely for their dry seeds. [ 11 ] From plants growing wild in the Mediterranean Basin, constant excerpt since the Neolithic click of department of agriculture [ 12 ] improved their give. In the early third hundred BC Theophrastus mentions peas among the legumes that are sown late in the winter because of their tenderness. [ 13 ] In the first hundred AD, Columella mentions them in De re rustica, when Roman legionaries distillery gathered raving mad peas from the flaxen soils of Numidia and Judea to supplement their rations. [ citation needed ] In the Middle Ages, sphere peas are constantly mentioned, as they were the staple that kept dearth at bay, as Charles the Good, count of Flanders, noted explicitly in 1124. [ 14 ] green “ garden ” peas, feed green and bracing, were an advanced luxury of early on Modern Europe. In England, the eminence between field peas and garden peas dates from the early on seventeenth hundred : John Gerard and John Parkinson both mention garden pea. [ citation needed ] Sugar peas, which the French called mange-tout, because they were eaten pods and all, were introduced to France from the market gardens of Holland in the time of Henri IV, through the french ambassador. green peas were introduced from Genoa to the court of Louis XIV of France in January 1660, with some staged flourish ; a hamper of them were presented before the King, and then were shelled by the Savoyan comte de Soissons, who had married a niece of Cardinal Mazarin ; little dishes of peas were then presented to the King, the Queen, Cardinal Mazarin and Monsieur, the baron ‘s brother. [ 15 ] [ clarification needed ] Immediately established and grown for earliness warmed with manure and protected under glass, they were even a deluxe airiness in 1696, when Mme de Maintenon and Mme de Sevigné each reported that they were “ a fashion, a ferocity ”. [ 16 ] [ clarification needed ] mod rent peas, with their indigestible skins rubbed off, are a growth of the subsequently nineteenth hundred .

polish [edit ]

Modern culinary practice [edit ]

fresh peas for sale in their pods on a united kingdom grocery store stall Frozen park peas A basket of peas in pods In modern times peas are normally boiled or steamed, which breaks down the cell walls and makes the taste angelic and the nutrients more bioavailable. Along with across-the-board beans and lentils, these formed an significant share of the diet of most people in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe during the Middle Ages. [ 17 ] By the 17th and 18th centuries, it had become popular to eat pea “ park ”, that is, while they are young and proper after they are picked. [ 18 ] New cultivars of peas were developed by the English during this time, which became known as “ garden ” or “ english ” peas. The popularity of park peas spread to North America. Thomas Jefferson grew more than 30 cultivars of peas on his estate. [ 19 ] With the invention of displace and freeze of foods, green pea became available year-round, and not just in the spring as ahead. [ citation needed ]
fresh peas are frequently eaten boiled and flavored with butter and/or spearmint as a side dish vegetable. Salt and capsicum are besides normally added to peas when served. clean peas are besides used in toilet pies, salads and casseroles. Pod pea ( bamboozle peas and snap peas ) are used in stir-fried dishes, particularly those in american Chinese cuisine. [ 20 ] Pea pods do not keep well once picked, and if not used quickly, are best preserved by drying, canning or freezing within a few hours of harvest. [ 21 ] In India, fresh peas are used in versatile dishes such as aloo matar ( curried potatoes with peas ) or mattar paneer ( paneer cheese with peas ), though they can be substituted with freeze peas american samoa well. Peas are besides eat crude, as they are fresh when fresh off the scrub. green Peas known as Hasiru Batani in Kannada are used to make curry and Gasi. [ 22 ] Split peas are besides used to make dal, particularly in Guyana, and Trinidad, where there is a significant population of Indians. [ citation needed ] Dried peas are frequently made into a soup or merely eaten on their own. In Japan, China, Taiwan and some Southeast asian countries, including Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia, peas are roasted and salted, and feed as snacks. In the Philippines, peas, while still in their pods, are a common ingredient in viands and pansit. In the UK, dried yellow or green split peas are used to make pea pudding ( or “ pea porridge ” ), a traditional dish. In North America, a similarly traditional dish is split pea soup. [ citation needed ] Pea soup is eaten in many other parts of the world, including northerly Europe, parts of middle Europe, Russia, Iran, Iraq and India. [ 23 ] In Sweden it is called ärtsoppa, and is eaten as a traditional Swedish food which predates the Viking Age. [ citation needed ] This food was made from a aggressive pea that would mature in a short growing season. Ärtsoppa was particularly popular among the inadequate, who traditionally only had one pot and everything was cooked together for a dinner using a tripod to hold the pot over the fire. In chinese cuisine, the tender new growth [ leaves and stem ] dou hmong ( 豆苗 ; dòu miáo ) are normally used in stir-fries. a lot like picking the leaves for tea, the farmers pick the tips off of the pea implant. [ citation needed ] In Greece, Tunisia, Turkey, Cyprus, and other parts of the Mediterranean, peas are made into a stew with lamb and potatoes. [ citation needed ] In Hungary and Serbia, pea soup is much served with dumplings and spiced with hot sweet pepper. [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] In the United Kingdom, dried, rehydrated and mashed marrowfat peas, or cooked green split peas, known as mushy peas, are popular, in the first place in the north of England, but now ubiquitously, and specially as an accompaniment to fish and chips or kernel pies, particularly in fish and chip shops. sodium bicarbonate is sometimes added to soften the peas. In 2005, a poll of 2,000 people revealed the pea to be Britain ‘s seventh favorite culinary vegetable. [ 27 ] Processed peas are ripen peas which have been dried, soaked and then hotness treated ( processed ) to prevent spoilage—in the lapp manner as pasteurize. Cooked peas are sometimes sold dried and coated with wasabi, salt, or other spices. [ 28 ] In North America pea milk is produced and sold as an alternate to cow milk for a variety of reasons. [ 29 ]

Pea sprouts [edit ]

In East Asia, the sprouts or shoots of pea ( 豆苗 ; 완두순 ) [ 30 ] were once dedicated cuisine when the plant was not highly available as nowadays. But nowadays, when the plant can be well grown, fresh pea shoots are available in supermarkets, and some people decided to grow them in their backyard. [ 31 ]

Manufacturing freeze peas [edit ]

In rate to freeze and preserve peas, they must first be grown, picked, and shelled. normally, the more bid the peas are, the more probable that they will be used in the final product. The peas must be put through the serve of freezing shortly after being picked sol that they do not spoil besides soon. Once the peas have been selected, they are placed in ice water and allowed to cool. After, they are sprayed with water to remove any residual dirt or dust that may remain on them. The following tone is blanching. The peas are boiled for a few minutes to remove any enzymes that may shorten their ledge life. They are then cooled and removed from the water. The final step is the actual freeze to produce the final intersection. [ 32 ] This gradation may vary well ; some companies freeze their peas by air blast freeze, where the vegetables are put through a burrow at high speeds and flash-frozen by cold air out. ultimately, the peas are packaged and shipped out for retail sale .

Grading [edit ]

Pea grading involves sorting peas by size, in which the smallest peas are graded as the highest quality for their softheartedness. [ 33 ] Brines may be used, in which peas are floated, from which their density can be determined. [ 33 ]

Varieties [edit ]

Woman picking peas in Mount Kenya Region of Kenya.

Garden peas [edit ]

There are many varieties ( cultivars ) of garden peas. Some of the most coarse varieties are listed hera. PMR indicates some academic degree of powdered mold underground ; afila types, besides called semi-leafless, have clusters of tendrils alternatively of leaves. [ 34 ] Unless otherwise noted these are so predict gnome varieties which grow to an average height of about 1m. Giving the vines defend is recommended, but not required. extra dwarf are desirable for container grow, reaching only about 25 curium. tall varieties grow to about 2m with support required. [ 35 ]

  • Alaska, 55 days (smooth seeded)
  • Tom Thumb / Half Pint, 55 days (heirloom, extra dwarf)
  • Thomas Laxton (heirloom) / Laxton’s Progress / Progress #9, 60–65 days
  • Mr. Big, 60 days, 2000 AAS winner
  • Little Marvel, 63 days, 1934 AAS winner
  • Early Perfection, 65 days[36]
  • Kelvedon Wonder, 65 days, 1997 RHS AGM winner[37]
  • Sabre, 65 days, PMR
  • Homesteader / Lincoln, 67 days (heirloom, known as Greenfeast in Australia and New Zealand)
  • Miragreen, 68 days (tall climber)
  • Serge, 68 days, PMR, afila
  • Wando, 68 days
  • Green Arrow, 70 days
  • Recruit, 70 days, PMR, afila[38]
  • Tall Telephone / Alderman, 75 days (heirloom, tall climber)

Sugar peas [edit ]

Sugar peas or edible-pod peas ( french : pois mange-tout, “ eat-all pea ” ), lack the tough membrane inside the pod wall and have tender edible pods. [ 39 ] There are two independent types : [ 40 ]

  • Snow peas have flat pods with thin pod walls. Pods and seeds are eaten when they are very young.
  • Snap peas or sugar snap peas have rounded pods with thick pod walls. Pods and seeds are eaten before maturity.

The name “ boodle pea ” includes both types, [ 39 ] and therefore it can be synonymous with either bamboozle peas or break down peas in unlike dictionaries. [ 41 ] Snow peas and elasticity peas both belong to Macrocarpon Group, [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] a cultivar group based on the diverseness Pisum sativum volt-ampere. macrocarpum Ser. named in 1825. [ 45 ] It was described as having very compress non-leathery edible pods in the master publication. The scientific name Pisum sativum volt-ampere. saccharatum Ser. is much misused for bamboozle peas. The assortment under this name was described as having sub-leathery and compressed- terete pods and a french name of petit pois. [ 45 ] The description is inconsistent with the appearance of coke peas, and consequently botanists have replaced this name with Pisum sativum volt-ampere. macrocarpum. [ 46 ]

Field peas [edit ]

Pod ‘Blue Schokker ‘ Field Pea Plant in Bloom The field pea is a type of pea sometimes called P. sativum subsp. arvense ( L. ) Asch. It is besides known as dun ( grey-brown ) pea, Kapucijner pea, or austrian winter pea, and is one of the oldest domestic crops, cultivated for at least 7,000 years. Field peas are now grown in many countries for both human consumption and stockfeed. There are several cultivars and colors including blue, dun ( brown ), maple and flannel. This pea should not be confused with the black-eyed pea ( Vigna unguiculata ) which is sometimes called the “ battlefield pea ” in warm climates. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] It is a climbing annual legume with weak, viny, and relatively lush stems. Vines frequently are 4 to 5 feet ( 120 to 150 cm ) retentive, but when adult alone, field pea ‘s unaccented stems prevent it from growing more than 1.5 to 2 feet ( 45 to 60 curium ) tall. Leaves have two leaflets and a tendril. Flowers are white, pink, or purple. Pods carry seeds that are bombastic ( 4,000 seeds/lb ), closely ball-shaped, and white, grey, green, or brown university. The root system is relatively shallow and small, but well nodular. [ 49 ] The sphere pea is a cool-season legume snip that is grown on over 25 million acres worldwide. It has been an authoritative grain legume craw for millennium, seeds showing domesticate characteristics dating from at least 7000 years ago have been found in archaeological sites around what is now Turkey. Field peas or “ dry pea ” are marketed as a dry, blast product for either human or livestock food, unlike the garden pea, which is marketed as a fresh or canned vegetable. The major producing countries of field peas are Russia and China, followed by Canada, Europe, Australia and the United States. Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States raise over 4.5 million acres and are major exporters of peas. In 2002, there were approximately 300,000 acres of sphere peas grown in the United States. [ 50 ]

Pests and diseases [edit ]

A assortment of diseases affect peas through a act of pathogens, including insects, viruses, bacteria and fungi. [ 51 ] In detail, virus disease of pea has worldwide economic importance. [ 52 ] additionally, insects such as the pea leaf weevil ( Sitona lineatus ) can damage peas and other pod fruits. The pea leaf weevil is native to Europe, but has spread to other places such as Alberta, Canada. They are about 3.5 millimetres ( 0.14 in ) —5.5 millimetres ( 0.22 in ) long and are distinguishable by three light-coloured stripes running length-wise down the thorax. The weevil larva feed on the settle nodules of pea plants, which are all-important to the plants ‘ supply of nitrogen, and therefore diminish leaf and stem turn increase. Adult weevils feed on the leaves and create a erose, “ c-shaped ” appearance on the outside of the leaves. [ 53 ] The Pea moth can be a serious pest producing caterpillars the resemble little white maggots in the pea-pods. The caterpillars eat the developing peas making them unsightly and undesirable for culinary use. [ 54 ] Prior to the use of modern insecticides, pea moth caterpillars were a very coarse sight in pea pods .

Peas in skill [edit ]

Pea flowers In the mid-19th hundred, austrian monk Gregor Mendel ‘s observations of pea pods led to the principles of mendelian genetics, the basis of advanced genetics. [ 55 ] He ended up growing and examining approximately 28,000 pea plants in the course of his experiments. [ 56 ] Mendel chose peas for his experiments because he could grow them well, develop pure-bred strains, protect them from cross-pollination, and control their pollination. Mendel cross-bred tall and shadow pea plants, green and yellow peas, empurpled and white flowers, wrinkled and smooth peas, and a few other traits. He then observed the resulting offspring. In each of these cases, one trait is dominant and all the offspring, or Filial-1 ( abbreviated F1 ) genesis, showed the prevailing trait. then he crossed members of the F1 generation together and observed their offspring, the Filial-2 ( abbreviated F2 ) generation. The F2 plants had the dominant trait in approximately a 3:1 proportion. Mendel reasoned that each parent had a ‘vote ‘ in the appearance of the offspring, and the non-dominant, or recessive allele, trait appeared entirely when it was inherited from both parents. He did far experiments that showed each trait is individually inherited. unwittingly, Mendel had solved a major problem with Charles Darwin ‘s theory of development : how new traits were preserved and not blended second into the population, a doubt Darwin himself did not answer. Mendel ‘s work was published in an obscure austrian journal and was not rediscovered until about 1900. [ 57 ] recently, extracts from garden pea have shown inhibitory activity on hoggish pancreatic lipase in vitro. [ 58 ]

Genome [edit ]

The pea karyotype consists of seven chromosomes, five of which are acrocentric and two submetacentric. [ 59 ] Despite its scientific popularity, its relatively large genome size ( 4.45 Gb ) made it challenging to sequence compared to other legumes such as Medicago truncatula and soybeans. The International Pea Genome Sequencing Consortium was formed to develop the first pea address genome, and the draft assembly was officially announced in September 2019. It covers 88 % of the genome ( 3.92Gb ) and predicted 44,791 gene-coding sequences. The pea used for the assembly was the connatural french cultivar “ Caméor ”. [ 60 ]

Peas in medicate [edit ]

Some people experience allergic reactions to peas, a good as lentils, with vicilin or convicilin as the usual allergens. [ 61 ] favism, or Fava-bean-ism, is a genetic lack of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase that affects Jews, early Middle Eastern Semitic peoples and other descendants of the Mediterranean coastal regions. In this condition, the toxic reaction to eating most, if not all, beans is hemolytic anemia, and in severe cases the released circulate absolve hemoglobin causes acute kidney injury. [ 62 ] [ 63 ]

nitrogen-fixing ability [edit ]

Peas, like many legumes, contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their solution systems. These bacteria have the special ability to fix nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen ( N2 ) into ammonia ( NH3 ). [ 64 ] The chemical reaction is :

N 2 + 8 H + + 8 east − → 2 N H 3 + H 2 { \displaystyle N_ { 2 } +8H^ { + } +8e^ { – } \to 2NH_ { 3 } +H_ { 2 } }N_{2}+8H^{+}+8e^{-}\to 2NH_{3}+H_{2}

Ammonia is then converted to another form, ammonium ( NH4+ ), useable by ( some ) plants by the stick to chemical reaction :

N H 3 + H + → N H 4 + { \displaystyle NH_ { 3 } +H^ { + } \to NH_ { 4 } ^ { + } }NH_{3}+H^{+}\to NH_{4}^{+}

The root nodules of peas and other legumes are sources of nitrogen that they can use to make amino acids, constituents of proteins. Hence, legumes are good sources of plant protein. [ 65 ] When a pea plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the dirt. In the dirty, the amino acids are converted to nitrate ( NO3− ), that is available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops. [ 66 ] [ 67 ]

etymology [edit ]

The term pea originates from the Latin discussion pisum, which is the latinisation of the greek πίσον ( pison ), neuter of πίσος ( pisos ) “ pea ”. [ 68 ] It was adopted into English as the noun pease ( plural peasen ), as in pea pudding. however, by doctrine of analogy with early plurals ending in -s, speakers began construing pease as a plural and constructing the singular form by dropping the -s, giving the term pea. This process is known as back-formation. [ 69 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

  • European Association for Grain Legume Research (AEP). Pea. https://web.archive.org/web/20061017214408/http://www.grainlegumes.com/default.asp?id_biblio=52 .
  • Hernández Bermejo, J. E. & León, J., (1992). Neglected crops: 1492 from a different perspective, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Contents
  • Muehlbauer, F. J. and Tullu, A., (1997). Pisum sativum L. Purdue University. Pea
  • Oelke, E. A., Oplinger E. S., et al. (1991). Dry Field Pea. University of Wisconsin.Dry Field Pea

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