Bismuth subsalicylate, sold as generic and under the mark name Pepto-Bismol and BisBacter, is an antacid philosopher’s stone medicine used to treat temp discomforts of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, such as nausea, heartburn, indigestion, broken stomach, and diarrhea. It is besides normally known as pink bismuth, but Pepto-Bismol has become a genericized trademark for the substance. Bismuth subsalicylate has the empirical chemical formula of C7H5BiO4, [ 1 ] and it is a colloidal means obtained by hydrolysis of bismuth salicylate ( Bi ( C6H4 ( OH ) CO2 ) 3 ) .
checkup uses [edit ]
A generic interpretation of Pepto-Bismol, back watch
Reading: Bismuth subsalicylate
As a derivative of salicylic acidic, bismuth subsalicylate displays anti-inflammatory [ 2 ] and bactericidal legal action. [ 3 ] It besides acts as an antacid .
adverse effects [edit ]
There are some adverse effects. It can cause a black clapper and black stools in some users of the drug when it combines with trace amounts of sulfur in saliva and the colon to form bismuth sulfide. [ 4 ] Bismuth sulfide is a highly insoluble black salt, and the discoloration seen is temp and harmless. long-run use ( greater than six weeks ) may lead to accumulation and perniciousness. [ 5 ] Some of the risks of salicylism can apply to the use of bismuth subsalicylate. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] Children should not take medicine with bismuth subsalicylate while recovering from influenza or chicken pox, as epidemiologic evidence points to an association between the use of salicylate -containing medications during certain viral infections and the attack of Reye syndrome. [ 9 ] For the lapp reason, it is typically commend that nursing mothers not use medicine containing bismuth subsalicylate because little amounts of the medicine are excreted in human breast milk, and these pose a theoretical risk of Reye ‘s syndrome to nursing children. [ 10 ] Salicylates are very toxic to cats, and therefore bismuth subsalicylate should not be administered to cats. [ 11 ] The british National Formulary does not recommend bismuth-containing antacids ( unless chelated ), cautioning that absorb bismuth can be neurotoxic, causing brain disorder, and that such antacids tend to be constipating. [ 12 ]
drug interactions [edit ]
There is an increased risk of bleeding when using bismuth subsalicylate and anticoagulation therapy, like Coumadin ( Warfarin ). [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
mechanism of action [edit ]
Bismuth subsalicylate is used as an antacid and antidiarrheal, and to treat some other gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea. The means by which this happen is still not well documented. It is thought to be some combination of the trace : [ 16 ]
- Stimulation of absorption of fluids and electrolytes by the intestinal wall (antisecretory action)
- As a salicylate, reducing inflammation/irritation of stomach and intestinal lining through inhibition of prostaglandin G/H synthase 1/2
- Reduction in hypermotility of the stomach
- Inhibits adhesion and filmogenesis by Escherichia coli
- Bactericidal action of a number of its subcomponents, including salicylic acid
- Bactericidal action via a so-called oligodynamic effect in which small amounts of heavy metals such as bismuth damage many different bacteria species.
- Weak antacid properties
In vitro and in vivo data have shown that bismuth subsalicylate hydrolyzes in the intestine to bismuth oxychloride and salicylic acidic and less normally bismuth hydroxide. In the stomach, this is probable an acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. The salicylic acid is absorbed and therapeutic concentrations of salicylic acid can be found in lineage after bismuth subsalicylate government. Bismuth oxychloride and bismuth hydroxide are both believed to have bactericidal effects, as is salicylic acid for enterotoxigenic E. coli a coarse cause of “ traveler ‘s diarrhea. ” [ 17 ]
Organobismuth compounds have historically been used in growth media for selective isolation of microorganisms. such salts have been shown to inhibit proliferation of Helicobacter pylori, early intestinal bacteria, and some fungi. [ 18 ]
history [edit ]
Life magazine ad for the product 1957magazine ad for the product While bismuth salts were in consumption in Europe by the late 1700s, the combination of bismuth subsalicylate and zinc salts for astringency with salol ( phenyl salicilate ) appears to have begun in the US in the early 1900s as a rectify for dangerous diarrhea in infants with cholera. At first sold directly to physicians, it was first marketed as Bismosal in 1918. [ 19 ] Pepto-Bismol began being sold in 1900 [ 19 ] or 1901 [ 20 ] by a doctor in New York. It was in the first place sold as a remedy for baby diarrhea by Norwich Pharmacal Company under the appoint “ Bismosal : mix Cholera Infantum ”. [ 19 ] It was renamed Pepto-Bismol in 1919. Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals was acquired by Procter and Gamble in 1982. [ 21 ] As of 1946 and 1959, canadian advertisements placed by Norwich show the intersection as Pepto-Besmal both in graphic and textbook. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] Pepto-Bismol is an over-the-counter drug presently produced by the Procter & Gamble party in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. Pepto-Bismol is made in chewable tablets [ 24 ] and swallowable caplets, [ 25 ] but it is best known for its original formula, which is a compact fluid. This original formula is a medium pink in color, with a teaberry ( methyl salicylate ) season. [ 26 ]
References [edit ]
- Andrews PC, Deacon GB, Forsyth CM, Junk PC, Kumar I, Maguire M (August 2006). “Towards a structural understanding of the anti-ulcer and anti-gastritis drug bismuth subsalicylate”. Angewandte Chemie. 45 (34): 5638–42. doi:10.1002/anie.200600469. PMID 16865763.
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