Palm oil and the heart: A review

These studies are inherently limited by the fact that they were conducted in rat models, which are not generalisable to humans as rats predominantly carry their cholesterol in HDL shape [ 10 ]. furthermore the natural rat-diet is not fatty acid based far limiting the extrapolation of these results to humans. Although they provide some evidence for the benefits of palm oil, they do not provide tell of the effects of using palm oil that has been heated repeatedly on serum lipid profile and oxidant-antioxidant proportion. It is well known that in parts of the world where palm petroleum is utilized for domestic cook, it is reheated several times particularly when used as fry oil. Adam et alabama [ 20 ] studied the influence of palm anoint that had been heated repeatedly ( five times ) on serum lipid and homocysteine levels arsenic well as peroxidation of lipids in rats. They found that the rats that were fed the heat decoration vegetable oil had significantly increased lipid peroxidation, total cholesterol and TBARS compared to controls ( P < 0.05 ). In the kernel, ischemic episodes induces cell damage that can be made worse by sudden reperfusion due to the release of oxygen complimentary radicals. Palm petroleum has been demonstrated to attenuate this effect in animal experiments. During reperfusion in rats that were fed diets supplemented by palm anoint compared to control rats that had no supplement, Tosaki et alabama [ 14 ] demonstrated a reduction in the degree of oxidatively-modified proteins vitamin a well as an attenuation of the addition in free oxygen radicals in the heart. In a alike more late study, Narang et aluminum [ 15 ] used an detached heart model of rats to demonstrate the effect of handle triolein in the diet on ischemia reperfusion injury ( IRI ). Three groups of Wister rats were used. Two groups received different doses of palm triolein ( 5 % and 10 % respectively ). The one-third was the control group fed a normal diet. Thirty days late, each group was divided in two and each half was made to undergo ball-shaped ischemia for twenty minutes followed by reperfusion for 40 min. Following this, the investigators demonstrated that in the rats that were given the 5 % olein-supplemented diet, there was an increase in the level of antioxidants in the myocardium but the levels of thiobabituric acid and reactive message ( TBARS ) did not change. This was meaning when compared to the rats fed the restraint diet that had significant oxidative injury with no coincident increase in anti-oxidant activity. They however failed to observe a dose-dependent consequence. Their study provided further evidence of the profit of a handle vegetable oil supplemented diet in protecting the heart from oxidative stress and weave injury following ischaemia-reperfusion. Furthermore, Kruger et alabama [ 16 ] clearly demonstrated a decrease in ischemia reperfusion injury in rats that were fed cholesterol rich diets when supplemented with decoration oil. many other studies have confirmed this [ 17 - 19 ]. Onyeali et alabama [ 3 ] studied the influence of a palm oil-laced diet on the plasma lipid profile of Wister albino rats. The experimental animals were given a diet supplemented with 20 % palm oil for 12 wk and compared to controls that were fed standard rat prey. They estimated the serum level of sum cholesterol ( TC ), LDL, TG and high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) at intervals of 0, 4, 8, and 12 wk. They demonstrated that although in the short term ( 4 wk ) LDL and TC levels increased, sustained intake of the handle anoint diet resulted in a significant decrease of the serum TG, TC and LDL levels compared to the control diet by 12 wk. The palm anoint diet had no significant effect on HDL. The authors attributed most of these beneficial effects to the high content of antioxidants and vitamin A and E in the palm petroleum used. Tocotrienol and vitamin e make up 70 % and 30 % of the vitamin E present in loss palm vegetable oil respectively [ 10 ]. The tocotrienols have been suggested to inhibit HMG CoA reductase enzyme activeness and frankincense regulate serum cholesterol levels [ 12 ]. The findings from their study were in keeping with an earlier experiment in which Sulli et alabama [ 13 ] demonstrated that the supplement of diet with α Tocopherol and β carotene ( components of palm petroleum ) reduced plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rabbits after 8 wk. Oluba et alabama [ 4 ] in Benin City Nigeria supplemented the diets of male albino Wister rats with handle anoint and studied the effect of this on peroxidation of lipids and bodily process of gluthathione peroxidase in their livers [ 4 ]. They showed intelligibly that angstrom compared to the rats that were fed 5 % cholesterol-diets without palm oil, those that had palm petroleum supplementation had a significantly reduced rate of lipid peroxidation in the liver-colored. In addition, the action of glutathione peroxidase increased significantly in the livers of the rats who fed on the append diets. They extrapolated that in atheromatous plaques, oxidative damage induced by lipids could consequently be prevented by diets containing palm vegetable oil.

Human studies

Palm oil particularly as part of an overall low-fat diet has been shown to efficaciously maintain total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol values. Kesteloot et aluminum [ 21 ] measured serum lipids and apoproteins in 542 adults living in Nigeria. The subjects used palm oil entirely as their source of cooking oil. The researchers reported that the subjects had lower cholesterol levels compared to values obtained from black and whiten Americans at the time. Peanut anoint and olive petroleum have 52 % -60 % and 65 % -80 % of their fatso acid composition as oleic acidic respectively. Oleic acid has been demonstrated in several studies to have beneficial effects on serum lipids and cardiovascular disease [ 22 ]. These oils are frankincense recommended as fitter options. however, palm oil has 40 % oleic acerb. In addition the palmitic acid it contains, has been shown to have like effects on the serum lipid profile as oleic acid.

Zhang et aluminum [ 23 ] assessed the effect of handle vegetable oil used in chinese diets in comparison to soya attic vegetable oil, peanut vegetable oil and lard. They showed that diets containing palm petroleum importantly reduced the levels of cholesterol in the serum of subjects who had normal serum cholesterol levels at service line compared to lard but comparable to the impression of the largely polyunsaturated soy anoint. even among those who were hypercholesterolemic, palm oil significantly reduced the TC/HDL proportion more than peanut oil as the latter reduces HDL. It is crucial to note however that the chinese diet contains less animal protein and cholesterol compared to typical “ western ” diets. This may have influenced their results, limiting their generalisability.

Ng et alabama [ 24 ] demonstrated that the main impregnate fatness in handle petroleum, palmitic acid was comparable to oleic acerb in terms of its effect on cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in serum, a well as eicosanoids. Oleic acid is the major component of olive oil that is recognized as “ heart-healthy ” anoint [ 24 ]. They achieved this by challenging 33 subjects ( whose ages ranged between 22 and 41 years ) that had normal serum levels of cholesterol with a diet deep in coconut vegetable oil for four weeks. Following this, they were given diets rich people in palm triolein or olive anoint with a subsequent crossover voter after 6 wk. During this time, the entirely vegetable oil the subjects were allowed to use was the test oil group to which they were assigned. The coconut vegetable oil containing lauric and myristic fatso acids elevated all the lipoprotein and lipid parameters in serum significantly. During the crossover voter periods, the olive oil and palm triolein diets did not differ significantly in their effects on all measured lipid parameters. They concluded that in healthy humans with normal serum cholesterol levels, olive petroleum could be substituted with handle oil without significant changes in lipid profile. similarly Sundram conducted a hybridization over study that was double blinded and demonstrated that handle triolein and oleic acid were exchangeable in their ability to lower cholesterol levels in serum [ 25 ]. An indian study by Chafoorunissa et aluminum [ 26 ] reported that peanut oil and handle triolein besides have similar effects on cholesterol levels. They both maintain relatively normal serum cholesterol levels. In a taxonomic review and meta-analysis of 51 homo dietary intervention trials, the authors compared trials in which decoration anoint was substituted for diets deep in polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ), stearic acid and monounsaturated fatso acids ( MUFAs ) [ 27 ]. Although serum lipid profile ( TC, HDL and LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B ) was beneficially altered with diets containing palm anoint compared to myristic and lauric acid, the same was not the case when compared to PUFAs and MUFAs. In young people and those subjects that had overall lower energy inhalation from fat, this latter find oneself was not significant. The diets rich in handle anoint did not importantly change the TC/HDL or LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios. On the other hand, the palm oil rich diets significantly increased the levels of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL cholesterol and reduced the levels of TC/HDL, triacylglycerols and apolipoprotein B when compared to trans fatso acid-rich diets. They concluded that with regards to usual dietary sources of fat, palm oil was not much different except when it was substituted for trans fat where it proved beneficial. Considering that majority of ball-shaped fatness consumption is in the mannequin of solid fats and the process of converting liquid oils to solid fats involves hydrogenation, which produces trans fats, decoration oil has a clear-cut advantage ; it does not require hydrogenation to turn it to solid fats. In this way solid fats made from palm oil are barren from trans fats [ 28 ]. dietary fats determine on coronary thrombosis heart disease risk has traditionally been estimated from their effects on total and LDL cholesterol. Following large epidemiologic studies in the 50 ’ south and 60 ’ south saturated fats gained a bad reputation in terms of being significantly associated with cardiovascular disease specially coronary thrombosis center disease ( CHD ) and cardiovascular deathrate [ 8, 9, 22 ]. Furthermore several meta-analysis and taxonomic reviews of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies recommended that polyunsaturated fatty acids should substitute saturated fatty acids. This was based on the guess that this reduces the risk of CHD events and fatal CHD despite the fact that they demonstrated no directly link between saturated fatty acids and CHD death [ 29 – 31 ]. This inform versatile guidepost recommendations to reduce sum dietary energy intake from saturated fats in a bid to decrease the prevalence of coronary heart disease [ 32 – 34 ]. A late meta-analysis has countered this hypothesis as the authors found that a significant kinship did not exist between saturated fatty intake and cardiovascular disease ( coronary thrombosis heart disease and stroke ) [ 35 ]. In patients with established CHD, secondary prevention by means of a reduce fat or modified fatty diet ( in which saturated fatten is substituted by mono- or poly unsaturated adipose tissue ) is besides commend [ 34 ]. however, another late meta-analysis by Schwingshackl and Hoffmann has shown that this had no significant effect on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, combined cardiovascular events and myocardial infarct [ 36 ]. Furthermore multivariate meta-regression in their study did not reveal significant relationships between changes in impregnate fatso acids, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatso acids and risk of all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarct and cardiovascular events. It remains authoritative to note however that this meta-analysis included studies that differed in assorted ways including the protocols of the studies resulting in some heterogeneity. In addition there was publication bias and the quality of evidence was graded as moderate .

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