Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ( IDDM ), besides known as type 1 diabetes, normally starts before 15 years of old age, but can occur in adults besides. Diabetes involves the pancreas gland, which is located behind the stomach ( Picture 1 ). The special cells ( beta cells ) of the pancreas produce a hormone called insulin .
The body is made up of millions of cells. All cells need glucose ( carbohydrate ) from the food we eat for energy. Just as a car can ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate run without gasoline, the torso can ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate study without glucose. Insulin is the “ key ” that allows glucose to enter the cells. Without this key, glucose stays in the bloodstream and the cells can ’ triiodothyronine use it for energy. alternatively, the glucose builds up in the blood and spills over into the urine. When a person develops type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin. To help the body ’ mho cells use the glucose, a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus ( DM ) must receive insulin by injection ( shoot ).
What Happens in Type 1 Diabetes
The campaign of diabetes is not known. Some experts believe diabetes is inherited ( runs in families ), but the genetics are not clearly understand. Diabetes does not always run in families. The body mistakes the cells that produce insulin for foreign cells. The body then destroys these cells. This is called an auto-immune action. Although something in the environment may trigger the disease, there are no know ways to prevent type 1 diabetes in children .
Important Facts about Diabetes
People do not “ outgrow ” type 1 diabetes, but they can learn to control it by insulin shots, rake glucose test, diet and exercise .
Diabetes is not catching ( “ catching ” ) .
About 14.6 million Americans have diabetes .
about 1 out of 10 people with diabetes have type 1 DM .
Another type of diabetes is type 2, non-insulin pendent diabetes mellitus ( NIDDM ). Type 2 diabetes is more common than character 1. About 9 out of 10 people with diabetes have type 2. Type 2 DM used to occur largely in adults, but is becoming increasingly more common in children. It is associated with fleshiness. NIDDM normally starts after 40 years of age. People with type 2 diabetes normally produce adequate of their own insulin, but their bodies don ’ thymine practice it proper. Type 2 may be controlled by system of weights loss or with insulin and/or oral medicate .
Signs of Diabetes Mellitus
Type 1 normally comes on suddenly .
Early Signs of Type 1 DM Are (Picture 2):
- Weight loss or poor weight gain, even if eating large amounts of food
- More thirst than usual
- Enuresis (bed wetting)
- Frequent urination
- More urine than usual
- Feeling tired all the time
Later Signs of Diabetes Are:
- Dry skin and mouth
- Hard to breathe
- Urine sugar and acetone will be positive
- Blood sugar is very high (above 126 mg/dL)
- Loss of appetite
- “Fruity” odor to the breath
- Stomach pain
What Causes Glucose (Sugar) in the Urine
The kidneys filter consume products and excess water out of the lineage. When the glucose in the lineage is above normal level, the kidneys can ’ thymine hold it all. The glucose then shows up in the urine. The glucose in the urine causes the urine end product to increase in frequency and sum. This addition causes you to be thirstier.
What Causes Acetone (Ketones) in the Urine
When the body can ’ triiodothyronine manipulation glucose because of the miss of insulin, the body uses fat for energy. This causes weight loss. When big amounts of fatness are broken down besides cursorily, acetones ( ketones ) are produced. acetone builds up in the blood and “ spills over ” into the urine. Too many ketone acids in the blood may result in ketoacidosis. ( Refer to the Helping Hand : Diabetes : Ketoacidosis, HH-I-23. )
The Honeymoon Period
soon after you find out you have diabetes and start treatment, your necessitate for insulin may be a lot less. This is because the pancreas cells that make insulin have not so far been wholly destroyed. They begin to make a small come of insulin. We call this the “ honeymoon period ”. If a honeymoon period occurs, it starts curtly after diagnosis and can last anywhere from two weeks to two years. You will need to continue to take small amounts of insulin during this prison term. After the honeymoon period is over, the pancreas will no longer produce insulin and insulin needs to go up .
There must be a balance between insulin, food, and practice to keep your diabetes under control ( Picture 3 ). education is necessity to help you and your kin understand how to properly take care of you and your diabetes .
Insulin is made in the lab using a chemical process. There are a number of types of insulin. Your doctor of the church will prescribe the kind that is best for you. You will need multiple shots of insulin every day. It is given by injection. Your nanny will teach you and your parents how to give the insulin shots .
You will need foods that help your body grow, produce energy and keep your rake sugar in balance. Your dietician will help to set up a meal plan based on your senesce, sex, and activity level. Ask your diabetes nurse educator or dietician about how you can learn to include all food groups how to count carbohydrates so you can have a flexible meal plan .
Your dietician will teach you and your parents about meal plan .
exercise builds muscles, keeps the body in shape, improves general health, helps keep you mentally alert and increases the heart muscle tone. drill improves the way insulin is absorbed and used by the body. And it normally makes the rake sugar go down. Include exercise in your casual plan .
Monitoring your diabetes means checking to see if it is under control. It will help you and your parents know if the treatment design is working well. We will teach you and your syndicate how to measure lineage boodle and urine ketones. Blood testing is one way to check to see if your diabetes is under manipulate. Learn to use a logbook or fax log plane to record your blood sugars. The doctor of the church will tell the lab to do a blood examination that measures your median glucose level over the death 3 months. This test is called glycosylated hemoglobin, or Hemoglobin A1-C, and is normally done every 3 to 4 months. Your breastfeed educator or doctor will tell you more about casual monitor. Refer to the Helping Hand : Diabetes : Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose, HH-I-22. Hemoglobin A1-C less than 7 % will help prevent complications from occurring .
education about diabetes, casual attention to meals, exercise, insulin and proper care of your soundbox are all necessity to control your diabetes and continue with normal daily exist. Your doctor, nurse, dietician and other persons in the health concern sphere will teach you all about diabetes.
If you have any questions, please be certain to ask your doctor or nurse .
Diabetes : Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus ( Type I ) ( PDF )
HH-I-12 7/80, Revised 3/08 Copyright 1980-2008, Nationwide Children ‘s hospital