indigestion, which is sometimes called indigestion, is a cosmopolitan terminus covering a group of nonspecific symptoms in the digestive tract. It is often described as a feel of comprehensiveness, bloat, nausea, heartburn, or colicky discomfort in the breast or abdomen. The symptoms develop during meals or soon subsequently. In most cases, indigestion is a minor problem that often clears up without master treatment .


indigestion or indigestion is a widespread condition, estimated to occur in 25 % of the pornographic population of the United States. Most people with indigestion do not feel sick adequate to see a repair ; however, it is a common argue for position visits. About 3 % of visits to primary care doctors are for indigestion .

Causes and symptoms

Physical causes

The symptoms associated with indigestion have a kind of possible physical causes, ranging from banal food items to dangerous systemic disorders :

  • Diet. Milk, milk products, alcoholic beverages, tea, and coffee cause indigestion in some people because they stimulate the stomach’s production of acid.
  • Medications. Certain prescription drugs as well as over-the-counter medications can irritate the stomach lining. These medications include aspirin, NSAIDs, some antibiotics, digoxin, theophylline, corticosteroids, iron (ferrous sulfate), oral contraceptives, and tricyclic antidepressants.
  • Disorders of the pancreas and gallbladder. These include inflammation of the gallbladder or pancreas, cancer of the pancreas, and gallstones.
  • Intestinal parasites. Parasitic infections that cause indigestion include amebiasis, fluke and tapeworm infections, giardiasis, and strongyloidiasis.
  • Systemic disorders, including diabetes, thyroid disease, collagen vascular disease.
  • Cancers of the digestive tract.
  • Conditions associated with women’s reproductive organs. These conditions include menstrual cramps, pregnancy, and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Psychologic and emotional causes

Indigestion much accompanies an aroused disturbance, because the separate of the aflutter system involved in the alleged “ fight-or-flight ” reply besides affects the digestive tract. People diagnosed with anxiety or somatoform disorders frequently have problems with indigestion. many people in the general population, however, will besides experience heartburn, “ butterflies in the stomach, ” or stomach cramps when they are in upsetting situations-such as school examinations, arguments with syndicate members, crises in their workplace, and thus on. Some people ‘s digestive systems appear to react more intensely to emotional stress due to allergic nerve endings in their intestinal tract.

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Specific gastrointestinal disorders

In some cases, the affected role ‘s description of the symptoms suggests a specific digestive disorderliness as the campaign of the indigestion. Some doctors classify these cases into three groups : ESOPHAGITIS TYPE. Esophagitis is an inflammation of the tube that carries food from the throat to the abdomen ( the esophagus ). The tissues of the esophagus can become annoyed by the flow ( ebb ) of stomach acid backward into the lower function of the esophagus. If the patient describes the indigestion in terms of frequent or acute heartburn, the doctor of the church will consider gastroesophageal ebb disease ( GERD ) as a possible cause. GERD is a common disorder in the general population, affecting about 30 % of adults .Helicobacter pylori infections. H. pylori is a rod-shaped bacterium that lives in the tissues of the stomach and causes irritation of the mucous lining of the stomach walls. Most people with H. pylori infections do not develop chronic indigestion, but the organism appears to cause peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in a vulnerable segment of the population. PEPTIC ULCER TYPE. Patients who smoke and are over 45 are more probable to have indigestion of the peptic ulcer type. This group besides includes people who find that their indigestion is relieved by taking antacids or eating a little amount of food. Patients in this category are often found to a rod-shaped bacteria that lives in the tissues of the stomach and causes irritation of the mucous trace of the digest walls. Most people withinfections do not develop chronic indigestion, but the organism appears to cause peptic ulcer disease ( PUD ) in a vulnerable segment of the population. NONULCER TYPE. Most cases of chronic indigestion—as many as 65 % —fall into this third category. Nonulcer indigestion is sometimes called functional indigestion because it appears to be related to abnormalities in the way that the stomach empties its contents into the intestine. In some people, the stomach empties either excessively slowly or excessively quickly. In others, the abdomen ‘s brawny contractions are irregular and uncoordinated. These disorders of stomach motion ( motion ) may be caused by allergic heart endings in the abdomen tissues. Patients in this group are probable to be younger than 45 and have a history of taking medications for anxiety or depression .


Patient history

Because indigestion is a nonspecific set of symptoms, patients who feel ill enough to seek medical attention are likely to go to their basal worry repair. The history does not always point to an obvious diagnosis. The doctor can, however, use the process of history-taking to evaluate the patient ‘s climate or emotional express in order to assess the hypothesis of a psychiatric affray. In summation, asking about the placement, volume, time, and recurrence of the indigestion can help the doctor weigh the unlike diagnostic possibilities. An important separate of the history-taking is asking about symptoms that may indicate a serious illness. These warning symptoms include :

  • Weight loss
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Difficulty or pain in swallowing
  • Vomiting blood or passing blood in the stools
  • Anemia.

Imaging studies

If the doctor thinks that the indigestion should be investigated foster, he or she will order an endoscopic examination of the digest. An endoscope is a slender tubular instrument that allows the doctor to look at the line of the patient ‘s stomach. If the patient has indigestion of the esophagitis type or nonulcer character, the digest trace will appear normal. If the patient has PUD, the sophisticate will be able to see breaks or cankerous areas in the tissue. He or she may besides club ultrasound imagination of the abdomen, or a radio-nuclide scan to evaluate the motion of the stomach .

Laboratory tests

lineage TESTS. If the patient is over 45, the doctor will have the affected role ‘s rake analyzed for a complete blood cell count, measurements of liver enzyme levels, electrolyte and serum calcium levels, and thyroid function. TESTS FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI. Doctors can immediately test patients for the presence of H. pylori without having to take a weave sample distribution from the stomach. One of these noninvasive tests is a blood test and the other is a breath test .


Since most cases of indigestion are not caused by serious disorders, many doctors prefer to try medications and other treatment measures before ordering an endoscopy.

Diet and stress management

many patients benefit from the doctor ‘s reassurance that they do not have a serious or fatal disorder. Cutting out alcoholic beverages and drinks containing caffeine frequently helps. The patient may besides be asked to keep a record of food consumption, daily schedule, and symptom severity. Food diaries sometimes reveal psychologic or dietary factors that determine indigestion .


Patients with the esophagitis type of indigestion are frequently treated with H2 antagonists. H2 antagonists are drugs that block the secretion of stomach acid. They include ranitidine ( Zantac ) and famotidine ( Pepcid ). Patients with motility disorders may be given pro-kinetic drugs. Prokinetic medications speed up the empty of the stomach and increase intestinal motility. They include metoclopramide ( Reglan ) and cisapride ( Propulsid ). These drugs relieve symptoms in 60-80 % of patients .

Removal of h. pylori

It is not clear that patients with H. pylori infections who have not developed gastric ulcers need to have the bacteria removed. Some studies indicate, however, that these patients may benefit from antibiotic therapy .

Alternative treatment

Herbal medicine

Practitioners of chinese traditional herbal medicine might recommend medicines derived from peony ( Paeonia lactiflora ), hibiscus ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ), or hare ‘s auricle ( Bupleurum chinense ) to treat indigestion. western herbalists are likely to prescribe fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare ), lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis ), or peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) to relieve abdomen cramps and heartburn .


Homeopaths tailor their remedies to the patient ‘s overall personality profile a well as the particular symptoms. Depending on the patient ‘s reaction to the indigestion and some of its likely causes, the homeopath might choose Gelsemium (Gelsemium sempervirens), Carbo vegetalis, Nux vomica, or Pulsatilla (Pulsatilla nigricans) .

Other treatments

Some alternative treatments are aimed at lowering the affected role ‘s stress degree or changing attitudes and beliefs that contribute to indigestion. These therapies and practices include Reiki, reflexology, hydropathy, therapeutic massage, yoga, and meditation


2 antagonists or prokinetic drugs, depending on the cause of their indigestion. Most cases of mild indigestion do not need aesculapian discussion. For patients who consult a sophisticate and are given an endoscopic interrogation, 5-15 % are diagnosed with GERD and 15-25 % with PUD. About 1 % of patients who are endoscoped have stomach cancer. Most patients with functional indigestion do well on either Hantagonists or prokinetic drugs, depending on the campaign of their indigestion .


indigestion can often be prevented by attention to one ‘s diet, general stress level, and ways of managing stress. specific preventive measures include :

  • Stop smoking.
  • Cutting down on or eliminating alcohol, tea, or coffee.
  • Avoiding foods that are highly spiced or loaded with fat.
  • Eating slowly and keeping mealtimes relaxed.
  • Practicing yoga or meditation.
  • Not taking aspirin or other medications on an empty stomach.
  • Keeping one’s weight within normal limits.



“ indigestion. ” ThriveOnline. April 6, 1998. .

Key terms

Dyspepsia — Another name for indigestion.Endoscope — A slender tubular instrument used to examine the inside of the stomach.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) — A disorder of the lower end of the esophagus, caused by stomach acid flowing backward into the esophagus and irritating the tissues.H 2 antagonist — A type of drug that relieves indigestion by reducing the production of stomach acid.Heartburn — A popular term for an uncomfortable burning sensation in the stomach and lower esophagus, sometimes caused by the reflux of small amounts of stomach acid.Helicobacter pylori — A gramnegative rod-shaped bacterium that lives in the tissues of the stomach and causes inflammation of the stomach lining.Motility — The movement or capacity for movement of an organism or body organ. Indigestion is sometimes caused by abnormal patterns in the motility of the stomach.Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) — A stomach disorder marked by corrosion of the stomach lining due to the acid in the digestive juices.Prokinetic — A drug that works to speed up the emptying of the stomach and the motility of the intestines.Reflux — The backward flow of a body fluid or secretion. Indigestion is sometimes caused by the reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus.

Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved .

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