Asian Massage Parlors with ‘Happy Endings’ Give These Sex Workers a Decent Living

Amy points to the polarity scrawled in black magic trick marker, Scotch-taped below an anatomic draft of the homo shape. “ No Sex No Massage only Body Work, ” it declares. We ‘re in a small, colored room on the irregular deck of a brick build on Roosevelt Avenue in Flushing, Queens, the heart of the asian massage industry in America. Amy, a 40-year-old massage worker—her name, like that of others from the industry who appear in this story, has been changed to protect her identity—is clad in a not peculiarly seductive kit : a canary yellow yellow jersey and black leggings, a royal bluing bill atop her head, black haircloth pulled back in a ponytail. asian massage parlors reentered the national consciousness earlier this year, when New England Patriots owner and Donald Trump buddy Robert Kraft was, according to police, caught receiving hand jobs at Orchids of Asia Day Spa in Jupiter, Florida. many news reports presented women of asian descent working at parlors as victims of homo traffic, spurred on by Palm Beach County State Attorney Dave Aronberg and Martin County Sheriff William Snyder, the public faces of the sting. At Aronberg ‘s press conference, he declared that “ human traffic often occurs in homely sight, ” and Snyder said “ the tentacles of this travel from here to New York to China, ” and that women had “ nobelium access to transportation. They were moved from placement to placement. They were averaging eight clients a day… with no days off. ” In an column in the Boston Globe, Snyder added that the “ probe took us on an eye-opening travel into the surly world of homo traffic and intimate exploitation. With court-ordered television surveillance in place, we found that the women selling sex acts in these strip plaza brothels were virtual slaves. ” Amy says they put up the “ no sexual activity ” sign after clients kept requesting sexual services. Men come into her watering place, plunk down $ 30, she massages them, and then they furtively look around—here, she mimes this look—and ask for sex. “ When I do n’t give it, ” she says, “ they wo n’t give me the money, and I call 9-1-1. ” I ask her if women want erotic massages american samoa well. “ Yes, ” she replies. “ Some women ask if you can massage them here, ” and at that she begins rubbing her breasts, mimicking her clients. “ Please, please, ” she says, laughing as she continues kneading herself. many massage workers do n’t have licenses, and indeed refer to massage offerings by euphemism because operating a massage parlor in New York without a license is a class E felony that can result in up to four years behind bars. Unlicensed massage providers who offer sex normally do n’t get charged with prostitution, but alternatively get slapped with this felony technicality. ( ninety-five percentage of New Yorkers charged with this felony from 2012 to 2015 were of asian origin, according to an Urban Institute report. ) Hence the sign.

I ‘d read on RubMaps, the alleged yip of massage parlors —a subscription web site where people provide detail reviews of their sexual experiences at “ rub and tugs ” —that happy-ending massages occur here. I ‘m wondering if Amy provides them, but the sign is n’t promising. In fact, Amy is clamant that she does n’t offer massage either, but “ torso ferment, ” a differentiation that may be unimportant to customers, but is essential to her. But as I previously reported for Deadspin, no charges were always filed to that effect, and the police admitted there was n’t sufficient evidence of traffic. dependable data on traffic in massage parlors is nonexistent. While the FBI collects data on human traffic, it does n’t specify where the traffic occurred. Some sex workers and scholars have argued that patrol and non-profits inflate the oscilloscope of the sex traffic problem so they can look like heroes, swooping in to “ save ” consensual sex workers from alleged bondage. Law enforcement argue they are helping victims, while arouse workers say police are the ones victimizing them. The casing however raised the motion of what arouse work at asian massage parlors in truth looks like nationally. The narrative presented by law enforcement ( and proliferated through media sources ) in the Kraft subject was that massage workers were being transported by predatory bosses from Flushing across the country. “ The one thing they have in coarse is home basis is in Flushing, NY, ” Lt. Mike Dougherty of the Martin County Sheriff ‘s Office told the New York Post about the massage workers arrested in the multi-county prostitution sting that collar Kraft. But how typical is coerced arouse study in the contemporary United States ? And are most masseuses who do sex study choosing to do so on their own volition, or because they are effectively apprenticed servants in debt to abusive bosses ? But the idea that contemporary asian massage parlors are bastions of arouse traffic has come not alone from officials and law enforcement, but besides some of the hundreds of non-profit organizations devoted to combatting that very thing. Among them is the Polaris Project, a group that runs the government-funded National Human Trafficking Hotline. many media outlets in recent years have credulously published claims from the group ‘s “ Human Trafficking in Illicit Massage Businesses ” report, spreading the notion that “ many of the thousands of women engaging in commercial sex in… ‘massage parlors ‘ are victims of homo traffic. ” other non-profit anti-trafficking groups share alike messages about massage parlors, including the Night Angels, which aim “ to help [ homo trafficking victims ] take steps to get out of the crimson and chaotic world that they live and move on to restoration through Jesus Christ. ” massage parlors have long been tied to sex in the United States. “ Massage parlors… are plainly houses of prostitution which the police fosters quite than checks, ” Reverend Frank M. Goodchild wrote in 1896. While the count of chinese women working in these parlors was credibly smaller then than it is today, immigrant prostitution flourished in San Francisco before the turn of the twentieth hundred, and hysteria surrounded these sexual activity workers. “ We have shown that chinese prostitution exists among us as the footing of the abject and satanic concept of human bondage, ” the Special Committee of the Board of Supervisors of San Francisco investigating taiwanese immigration stated in 1885. Echoes of these attitudes, which were not entirely baseless—trafficking was in fact significant—remain to this day. A massage living room owner in Florida suggested that, to answer my questions, I had to go to Flushing, where many of the workers in the Florida massage living room female chest were from, and see for myself. ( According to this parlor owner, masseuses come to Florida because the marketplace is excessively saturated in Flushing, and they think they ‘ll have a better opportunity at making money down confederacy. ) That ‘s why I ‘m drenched in fret from wandering around in 90 degree heat, trying to get insights into Amy ‘s line of work. When we entered Zhong Huang Spa, a homo with a massage enforce was quickly hitting himself on the back as three young women crowded around, eager for their body rubs. The woman at the front desk told us that “ clients who are looking for illegitimate [ massage ] wo n’t come here. ” A sign that the resort hotel were non-sexual, she said, was the fact that they had male masseuses. ( Despite her call, this was not necessarily a sign of legal propriety—some asian massage parlors with male masseuses provide sexual services. ) Getting massage parlor workers to admit that they have sex in resort hotel at all—much less explain why—is unmanageable. It ‘s illegal, after all, and considered black in both chinese and american culture, according to massage workers and lawyers who represent them. When I visited Queens this summer, my interpreter and I walked down Flushing ‘s Main Street going from door to door buzz massage parlors ; cipher let us in. then we found a place without a doorbell, which I did n’t realize at the time was a bless a watering place might be legit. about every small town in America has a massage parlor, and larger cities are home to hundreds that offer sex work. On RubMaps, 92 parlors in Flushing were listed as offering some form of intimate liaison when I visited. Amy ‘s watering place was n’t on there ; neither was Zhong Huang Spa. But after much search, I finally found a massage proletarian who offers sex who was will to talk face-to-face. It ‘s impossible to determine how many american massage parlors and resort hotel offer sex acts for money. The U.S. massage diligence is an $ 18 billion enterprise comprising 279,075 businesses, according to IBIS World. Polaris, for its depart, estimates that there are 9,000 “ illegitimate ” ( sexual ) massage parlors in the U.S., while RubMaps lists over 24,400. It ‘s barely vitamin a unmanageable to estimate how many people of asian descent work in massage—the population is predominantly chinese immigrants, but besides includes people of other ethnicities. Considering the swerve book of establishments, however, it ‘s fair to assume the number of sex workers therein is in the tens of thousands. many are in the process of getting their visa or employment authorizations, according to lawyers who work with them. Workers fear arrest because it can affect their immigration condition. Another chinese massage proletarian l met through the NSFW Ask Me Anything subreddit ( and who said she besides offers full service ), Emily, echoed Jenny ‘s sentiments about traffic. “ No, ” she said. “ No matchless ‘s locked in. I ‘ve never seen that in any locate that I ‘ve been at. People can leave these establishments. They surely can equitable not come back to work the adjacent day, you know ? ” She added that she considered massage work dependable than escort, “ because it ‘s a street visible place, ” and people in parlors do n’t work alone. Had she ever seen human trafficking at any of the six massage parlors she ‘d worked in ? “ Oh my God, not at all, ” she said. “ She ‘s, like, business-y ; she ‘s very straightforward. She ‘s not a humble speaker kind of person, but that ‘s barely her personality. And she ‘s responsible for taking manage of a batch of stuff. ” Born in China, Jenny moved to the U.S. as a child. She ‘d worked in early massage parlors in New York before going to Flushing, a well as done some dominatrix workplace and high-end see, she said. Jenny is besides associated with Red Canary, a migrant sex worker organization. I met Jenny, a 32-year-old massage proletarian based in Flushing who at the meter we spoke offered full servicing ( the euphemism for intercourse ), in front of a concrete lion demarcating the historic main branch of the New York Public Library in Manhattan. From there, we walked confederacy to Koreatown for ice tea. Brad said workers sometimes live in his health spa, but that he alone lets them if they do n’t have anywhere else to stay. They normally pay about $ 10 a day, he said. Brad, a massage parlor owner on Florida ‘s easterly seashore, said that at the watering place he co-owns with his wife, the two workers, ranging in long time from 49 to 53, are not required to offer any sexual services. In fact, about half of his male customers do n’t want felicitous endings, he said, and lone a small percentage want more. He does n’t want workers to do anything more than give hand jobs ; it ‘s safer for him legally if they do n’t offer full sex, he said. But workers do n’t always abide by his restrictions. He does n’t know what goes on behind close doors, but he can tell if his workers are offering full serve by the credit card charges. Despite Lisa ‘s broad assertions, some people are forced to do this bring against their will. The New York Times reported that a 60-year-old min actor “ was lured into working at a massage living room in New York, ” had her recommendation taken away, and was forced to provide sexual services. But there ‘s identical small tell it ‘s adenine far-flung as media depictions might suggest. “ The notion that most or about all of the women are trafficked, when they do work in massage parlors… is wholly bogus, ” said Dr. Ronald Weitzer, a professor of sociology at George Washington University and an expert in sex function and sexual activity traffic. “ There ‘s no datum to support that. ” ( What data we do have comes from the National Human Trafficking Hotline, which estimated it received 861 messages reporting suspect human traffic in massage parlors in 2018. ) Lisa, a chinese massage parlor owner and former actor in southeast Florida, added, “ [ The media ] says homo traffic, but I do n’t believe it. I have never seen that. Everybody is unblock. ” I asked her what a actor would do if their party boss locked them in and told them they couldn ’ metric ton leave. “ They ‘d call 9-1-1, ” she said. Jenny said the owner of the living room she works in was n’t forcing her to do full serve. The owner knew arouse was on offer in her spa—she ‘s a erstwhile worker herself—but has a pretty individualistic policy most of the clock time, she added. “ We ‘re not sex slaves and cipher I ‘ve talked or worked with is a sex slave by any means, ” she wrote me. “ Most of my coworkers are immigrants, yes, but honestly they ‘re in it for the money and they make more money doing this than working in a restaurant washing dishes or in a dry cleaners folding laundry. ” Although clients entirely paid $ 40 for the massage ( of which she kept half ), they paid a $ 100 “ tip ” for sexual intercourse, which she got to keep, she said. She did have to pay the watering place about $ 160 a day to work there. On a good day, she saw five or six clients and took home about $ 500, she added. “ We watch chinese soap operas and eat ramen, ” she said. “ sometimes I precisely walk out and… have a lot of cigarettes…. There ’ re days when I have like two clients, ” she added, laughing, “ and that ‘s truly steel bust up because you ‘re like, ‘Ugh, I ’ m not making enough to cover this day. ‘ ” From the batch of media reports detailing exploitation in massage parlors, I expected Jenny ‘s daily life sentence in the watering place to involve constantly servicing men, hour after hour. But from what she told me, the world was quite different. When I talked to her, she was working an eight-hour transfer, normally starting in late morning or good afternoon. She said she had about five to six clients a day, which meant two to three hours of downtime. “ One of the reasons that I left the police department [ was ] because besides all the corruption that I saw, I saw how they treated sex workers. “ —Norma Jean Almodovar, former LAPD officeholder John, a jack-of-all-trades who provides everything from chauffeur services to tax serve to several asian massage parlors in southern California, estimated that about a quarter of massage workers in the Los Angeles sphere sleep in the parlors. “ Workers live at the watering place, willingly, because it is cheaper than typical economic rent and it does n’t lock them into a long term committedness, ” he said. Flushing massage workers in Queens have been particularly cowardly of the police since 2017, when Song Yang, a sex worker, fell to her end from the fourth-floor health spa where she was working during a police sting. Yang and early arouse workers would solicit clients on 40th Road, a few blocks away from Amy ‘s watering place, and then bring them up to spas on higher floors of the buildings. According to Ron Kim, state assemblyman for the fortieth District, which encompasses Flushing, Yang had texted her friends and class with claims that she had been sexually assaulted by person who appeared to be an clandestine bull and harassed endlessly by officers. While police were n’t charged in her death, some massage workers and other community members besides do n’t think it was a suicide. traffic was not described as a dangerous problem by the asian massage workers I spoke to, and no good data exists on how boastfully the problem is. But workers do face dangers that are n’t so normally discussed, many of which directly result from official campaigns against traffic, and from the cops who wage them. Emily said she sees about four to eight clients a day and charges $ 120 for full service, $ 40 for a handwriting job, and $ 80 for a fellate job—plus her extra $ 100 wage from the watering place. She has made more than $ 200,000 over three years, doing the work half-time while in college, she said. According to Weitzer, while high-end escorts can make up to $ 10,000 per node, lower-level escorts may charge more like $ 200 for a sex act ; at the lowest end, street workers may charge $ 20 or less. According to her own numbers, Emily is making 60 percentage more per class than the average non-sexual massage therapist, who, per the Bureau of Labor Statistics, brings in $ 41,420 per class. “ One of the reasons that I left the police department [ was ] because besides all the corruptness that I saw, I saw how they treated sex workers, ” added Norma Jean Almodovar, a former LAPD officer and retired sex worker who founded the Los Angeles arm of the sex-worker rights organization COYOTE. “ I mean, they had an unofficial term for prostitutes that were murdered. They call them NHIs, which stands for no humans involved. ” “ The vice units have created a bloodcurdling kind of result for then many massage living room workers over the last couple of years, ” said Kim. “ They are barely very predatory, and they often exploit the women workers. And even after the raid, oftentimes the police take the cash that these workers have—which is very their livelihoods, for the majority of them are from unbanked communities. ” ( Earlier this year, an ex-vice detective pleaded guilty to charges of operate on brothels in Queens, Brooklyn, and Hempstead, with the avail of patrol detectives who were said to tip him off to raids. )

That ‘s left sex workers at massage parlors—even in one of America ‘s most progressive cities—to cope with cops they and their advocates often describe as inept, or worse. One of those people is Kim. “ even if she was n’t pushed physically off that balcony, she had no intent of killing herself, ” he said. “ Her holocene text messages and records show that she had a plane ticket to visit her family five days late from that incidental. ” Kim urged more probe into Yang ‘s end ; he hoped that if Tiffany Cabán won the Queens district lawyer race against Melissa Katz earlier this year, she would reopen the case. But after initially appearing to pull off the broken, Cabán lost by 55 votes. In 2016, one adolescent sex actor in Oakland, California, said she was trading sex with 14 police officers in exchange for information on prostitution raids. The Urban Justice Center ‘s study of 30 New York sex workers found that approximately a third of the true modest sample size said they were harassed by police, and five ( 17 percentage ) sexually harassed or assaulted. A analyze of 91 female Midwestern sex workers found that 90 percentage had experienced harassment by the police. Of that group, 70 percentage were asked for further details, and 30 percentage of that group said “ patrol would sexually abuse them, either by demanding sexual activity, assaulting them sexually, trading sexual activity with them in exchange for releasing them from criminal charges, or arresting them after having arouse or despite having sex. ” “ The entirely unusual context in that is that Song Yang either was pushed or threw herself off of that fourth history window. But police officers sexually abusing sexual activity workers… and sex workers being reticent and timid around the police… is identical common, ” Kaytlin Bailey, film director of communications at the advocacy group Decriminalize Sex Work, said. “ But I do n’t think that this was an isolated incident, or like one badly apple…. This is not a rescue operation. These women are rationally running. Because what ‘s about to happen future is a nightmare. ” For her part, Amy said police came and visited her and a bunch of her friends at their watering place around the time of Yang ‘s death, urging them not to be afraid. It ‘s unvoiced not to think of Song Yang while walking through Flushing streets crowded with massage parlors. Her death spark shock among some in the residential district, and helped lead to the creation of Red Canary, the migrant sex workers ‘ rights arrangement. Yang ‘s death reverberated throughout the asian massage proletarian community not merely because it was heartbreaking, but besides because after Song died, police decided to respond by targeting 40th Road, a block-long dead-end with about 10 parlors among crab restaurants and dumpling vendors. Police shut down several parlors and arrested a bunch of arouse workers. “ basically, they took a broken windows approach, ” Kim said. “ ‘Let ‘s merely clean it up, you know, beautify our neighborhoods and if people do n’t see it, there ‘s no problems’…That does n’t mean that we fixed the problem. We just have put the workers further into the shadows, or more into more fierce and dangerous situations. ” ( The NYPD did not respond to a request for gossip for this fib. ) Activists have had some victories over the years, like a bill in California that provides immunity for arouse workers who report rape and other crimes to the patrol, and besides makes condoms inadmissible as testify that a person is a sex worker. But as Almodovar put it : “ How can those who claim to want to stop the violence, rape and rape against arouse workers—by further criminalizing our work—ignore the decades worth of crimes perpetrated against sex workers by the identical police enforcement agents entrusted to ‘protect ‘ us ? ” “ There ‘s no statistics from the government, the government does n’t keep track of that. But I keep lead of the numbers of cases, ” said Almodovar, the former hook and arouse proletarian. “ I barely have hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of these kinds of cases. ” Emily, for her part, suggested some might not have expected to do sex work, only to find they had no option. “ From my experience, most of them came all over expecting to work in the servicing industry—nail salons, massage parlors, restaurants, ” she said. Oftentimes, chinese workers find ads for these jobs on social media apps like WeChat, and they pay a broker to help get a visa to come to the U.S. Some come to work in the massage industry at the urge of their relatives, according to Jenny. “ It ‘s never explicitly said, but a fortune of people do realize that this is what they ‘re going to do, ” said Jenny. “ In China, excessively, there ‘s tons of warnings of like, ‘Do n’t do this, you ’ re going to, you might end up in prostitution. ‘ ” money is what ‘s driving predominantly chinese people to come to the U.S. to work in massage parlors, according to many people I talked to. Some women come intending to do sexual activity work, some not, but it ‘s not a unavowed what goes on in many health spa. Amy went up to the sexual activity workers and asked if they would talk to me. They all declined. After Amy got off influence, she took a interpreter and me around the corner from where Song died and police sought to snuff out prostitution. She pointed out a charwoman in a pink dame and ruffled ashen shirt, wearing a 1960s-esque pearl necklace and strapless heels. This charwoman and others take clients to spas to have sex, Amy said. They ‘re scared of patrol, but like working here because when they see police they can scatter on the street, she added. In parlors, they do n’t have anywhere to hide. More than 40 women worked in the main street area, night and day when I visited in June, though it used to be 70 to 80 before Song died, Amy said. now, only four to five sexual activity workers congregate in the area, according to Amy. Critics of the way massage living room sex work is policed conceded it was an industry that invited maltreatment by bosses, but that such problems were n’t specific to sex bring. Jenny said massage parlors have better working conditions than other forms of exploit chinese immigrants with restrict speech skills can get. “ If you do sex workplace, you normally will get paid more than what you are paid in domestic workplace, and you do n’t inevitably have to live there, ” she said. “ Everyone ‘s talking about how people are living in massage parlors and cipher is talking about how people are actually living with their employers in domestic employment, you know ? And how exploitative some of those conditions are. ” Some massage parlor laborers do take on debt to come to the U.S., and that can put them in a precarious station, insiders said. Most pay a debt to a “ shellflower ” or independent agent that is not tied to a specific place of work. Some occasionally do pay a debt to an individual parlor, and those are the situations that are coercive. debt can drive people to do sex work as a manner to pay down their loans. “ There are people who will help taiwanese people go through the wholly serve of getting visas… and they will charge 20K to come from China to the U.S., and once they are in the U.S., they will go through the motions of fleeceable tease for refugee status, ” Brad said. Some borrow money from their family who have saved for years for this purpose. massage workers “ are precisely trying to make a populate, whether it ‘s legit or it ’ s not, ” said David Bredin, a Flushing lawyer who represents health spa workers. “ A batch of women do n’t see [ manual stimulation ] as prostitution—they just want to support themselves. ” Advocates said [ massage workers not talking to police ] was less a product of a carousel of sex bondage than the precarity of immigrant labor. many massage workers are besides looking to support their children back home plate. “ There ‘s about this compulsion with taking care of their family, making indisputable that their family ‘s needs are met, ” said Alexandre. Some workers in their 50s “ were good trying to [ help ] their children to get a higher education in the United States, ” he said, or, according to Liu, paying tutelage. “ In China, for the women who are over 40 or 50 years old, it ‘s very hard for them… they can only could find jobs like babysitter or something, ” said Alexandre ’ s partner, Wei Liu. A 2018 Human Rights Watch report found that 19 percentage of job ads there had words like “ men only, ” “ men preferred, ” or “ desirable for men. ” many lack job opportunities in China because of sexism and ageism. “ The huge majority [ of the women massage workers ] are 40-plus, ” said Felipe Alexandre of the Alexandre Law firm in Flushing, which represents many massage workers. ( The retirement age in China is 55 for female professional workers and 50 for blue-collar workers. ) But it makes fiscal sense to do so, Jenny argued. “ They ‘re not going to make this kind of money in China always. This is a way out… You can pay off this debt in a year if you ‘re doing massage exercise, say, versus like restaurant work or other solve. ” According to John, some California massage workers have been able to make over $ 10,000 a month when they travel to Florida. But others are only making about $ 80 a customer, so paying off debt is not so easily . always since the break that ensnared Kraft, Florida has held less of an drawing card . “ It ‘s getting identical difficult to get chinese workers to come down to Florida, ” Brad said. “ The WeChat ads have n’t been answered as they were ahead. [ Workers ] are scared that a television camera will be planted inside the room, ” he said. Business has suffered because “ customers are afraid, ” Lisa added. She said that on some days they only have one customer. A few workers have shifted from erotic massages to foot hang-up, taking a wage cut in the march . While the apparition of arouse slavery tends to make for a compelling story—and immigrants are sometimes trapped in bloodcurdling situations—what the populace should in truth focus on is immigrant parturiency, sex-worker advocates I spoke to systematically argued. After all, abuse is more probably to happen in industries relying on a vulnerable population, no matter the work involved . The traffic floor besides fits into racialized stereotypes of asian women as passive. It is rare for the public to hear from people in the massage industry themselves. Their voices are absent for good reason, of course : It ‘s intemperate to get them to talk. But even when they do speak, their voices are frequently not trusted. In the Polaris report on massage business, the authors claim that “ cultural shame, combined with elements of wedge, fraud and coercion… often leave women arrested at illegitimate massage businesses to insist to police that they are performing commercial arouse acts of their own release will. ” Police, besides, say that asian massage workers “ will frequently be untruthful if interviewed, ” as the sanction in the Kraft character argued . Advocates said this was less a product of a carousel of arouse slavery than the precarity of immigrant british labour party . “ The women in the Robert Kraft case, none of them would testify on behalf of the pursuance, so the case fell apart, ” said Dr. Weitzer, who added, “ They saw themselves as migrant workers, just like person who comes across the Mexican bound, and works in department of agriculture. ” Why has the traffic image persisted ? Because many groups are profiting off of it, according to Kim. “ It ‘s easier, I think, if we stick to the narrative, to justify the overall criminalization and besides the monetization of this system. There are nonprofits and courts and lawyers, that monetize the traffic narrative, and try to criminalize the integral ecosystem. ” The trafficking report masks the bigger trouble : that Asian-Americans “ are the fastest growing minority group that struggles with poverty, ” he said. “ alternatively of having honest conversations of how to uplift them, by giving them fully access to our economy, we often end up criminalizing them. ” As Jenny put it, chinese massage workers “ are actually struggling with the community stigma… from doing this work when the Chinese community is so, so against it. ” “ I think that ’ s actually psychologically damage, ” she added. “ It ’ second in truth unfair for people that are equitable trying to make money in a way that ‘s less abusive than, say, domestic workplace. ”

correction 10/30/2019 : Because of a transcription error, a previous version of this article misstated an expert ‘s estimate of the fees charged by lower-level escorts ( as opposed to street sex workers ). We regret the error . Sign up for our newsletter to get the best of VICE delivered to your inbox daily . Follow Hallie Lieberman on Twitter .

reference : https://www.bestofcalgary.city
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