Anemia – Symptoms and causes

Overview

Anemia is a condition in which you lack enough healthy loss blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body ‘s tissues. Having anemia, besides referred to as humble hemoglobin, can make you feel banal and weak .
There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. Anemia can be temp or long term and can range from balmy to severe. In most cases, anemia has more than one cause. See your doctor if you suspect that you have anemia. It can be a warning polarity of unplayful illness .
Treatments for anemia, which depend on the cause, range from taking supplements to having checkup procedures. You might be able to prevent some types of anemia by eating a healthy, deviate diet.

Types

Symptoms

Anemia signs and symptoms vary depending on the causal agent and severity of anemia. Depending on the causes of your anemia, you might have no symptoms .
Signs and symptoms, if they do occur, might include :

  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Pale or yellowish skin
  • Irregular heartbeats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness
  • Chest pain
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Headaches

At foremost, anemia can be then meek that you do n’t notice it. But symptom worsen as anemia worsens .

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your doctor if you feel fatigued and you do n’t know why .
Fatigue has many causes besides anemia, sol do n’t assume that if you ‘re tired you must be anemic. Some people learn that their hemoglobin is first gear, which indicates anemia, when they donate blood. If you ‘re told that you ca n’t donate because of first gear hemoglobin, make an date with your doctor .

Causes

anemia can be due to a condition present at birth ( congenital ) or to a condition you develop ( acquired ). Anemia occurs when your lineage does n’t have enough loss blood cells .
This can happen if :

  • Your body doesn’t make enough red blood cells
  • Bleeding causes you to lose red blood cells more quickly than they can be replaced
  • Your body destroys red blood cells

What red blood cells do

Your body makes three types of rake cells — white blood cells to fight infection, platelets to help your blood clot, and crimson blood cells to carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body and carbon dioxide from the body back to the lungs .
crimson lineage cells contain hemoglobin — an iron-rich protein that gives blood its red color. Hemoglobin enables red blood cells to carry oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body and to carry carbon paper dioxide from early parts of the body to your lungs to be exhaled.

Most blood cells, including bolshevik blood cells, are produced regularly in your bone marrow — a spongy substantial found within the cavities of many of your large bones. To produce hemoglobin and red blood cells, your body needs iron, vitamin B-12, vitamin bc and other nutrients from the foods you eat .

Causes of anemia

Different types of anemia have different causes. They include :

  • Iron deficiency anemia. This most coarse type of anemia is caused by a dearth of cast-iron in your body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin. Without adequate cast-iron, your body ca n’t produce enough hemoglobin for red rake cells .
    Without iron supplementation, this type of anemia occurs in many meaning women. It ‘s besides caused by lineage loss, such as from heavy menstrual shed blood ; an ulcer in the stomach or little intestine ; cancer of the large intestine ; and regular manipulation of some pain relievers that are available without a prescription drug, specially aspirin, which can cause inflammation of the digest lining resulting in blood loss. It ‘s crucial to determine the generator of iron lack to prevent recurrence of the anemia .
  • Vitamin deficiency anemia. Besides iron, your body needs folate and vitamin B-12 to produce enough healthy red blood cells. A diet lacking in these and other key nutrients can cause decreased red blood cell production. Some people who consume enough B-12 aren’t able to absorb the vitamin. This can lead to vitamin deficiency anemia, also known as pernicious anemia.
  • Anemia of inflammation. Certain diseases — such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, Crohn’s disease and other acute or chronic inflammatory diseases — can interfere with the production of red blood cells.
  • Aplastic anemia. This rare, life-threatening anemia occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells. Causes of aplastic anemia include infections, certain medicines, autoimmune diseases and exposure to toxic chemicals.
  • Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. A variety of diseases, such as leukemia and myelofibrosis, can cause anemia by affecting blood production in your bone marrow. The effects of these types of cancer and cancer-like disorders vary from mild to life-threatening.
  • Hemolytic anemias. This group of anemias develops when red blood cells are destroyed faster than bone marrow can replace them. Certain blood diseases increase red blood cell destruction. You can inherit a hemolytic anemia, or you can develop it later in life.
  • Sickle cell anemia. This inherited and sometimes serious condition is a hemolytic anemia. It’s caused by a defective form of hemoglobin that forces red blood cells to assume an abnormal crescent (sickle) shape. These irregular blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells.

Risk factors

These factors place you at increased risk of anemia :

  • A diet lacking in certain vitamins and minerals. A diet consistently low in iron, vitamin B-12, folate and copper increases your risk of anemia.
  • Intestinal disorders. Having an intestinal disorder that affects the absorption of nutrients in your small intestine — such as Crohn’s disease and celiac disease — puts you at risk of anemia.
  • Menstruation. In general, women who haven’t had menopause have a greater risk of iron deficiency anemia than do men and postmenopausal women. Menstruation causes the loss of red blood cells.
  • Pregnancy. Being pregnant and not taking a multivitamin with folic acid and iron, increases your risk of anemia.
  • Chronic conditions. If you have cancer, kidney failure or another chronic condition, you could be at risk of anemia of chronic disease. These conditions can lead to a dearth of red blood cells .
    Slow, chronic blood loss from an ulcer or other source within your body can deplete your body ‘s memory of iron, leading to iron insufficiency anemia .
  • Family history. If your family has a history of an inherited anemia, such as sickle cell anemia, you also might be at increased risk of the condition.
  • Other factors. A history of certain infections, blood diseases and autoimmune disorders increases your risk of anemia. Alcoholism, exposure to toxic chemicals and the use of some medications can affect red blood cell production and lead to anemia.
  • Age. People over age 65 are at increased risk of anemia.

Complications

Left untreated, anemia can cause many health problems, such as :

  • Extreme fatigue. Severe anemia can make you so tired that you can’t complete everyday tasks.
  • Pregnancy complications. Pregnant women with folate deficiency anemia can be more likely to have complications, such as premature birth.
  • Heart problems. Anemia can lead to a rapid or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia). When you’re anemic your heart pumps more blood to make up for the lack of oxygen in the blood. This can lead to an enlarged heart or heart failure.
  • Death. Some inherited anemias, such as sickle cell anemia, can lead to life-threatening complications. Losing a lot of blood quickly results in acute, severe anemia and can be fatal. Among older people, anemia is associated with an increased risk of death.

Prevention

many types of anemia ca n’t be prevented. But you can avoid iron insufficiency anemia and vitamin insufficiency anemias by eating a diet that includes a assortment of vitamins and minerals, including :

  • Iron. Iron-rich foods include beef and other meats, beans, lentils, iron-fortified cereals, dark green leafy vegetables and dried fruit.
  • Folate. This nutrient, and its synthetic form folic acid, can be found in fruits and fruit juices, dark green leafy vegetables, green peas, kidney beans, peanuts, and enriched grain products, such as bread, cereal, pasta and rice.
  • Vitamin B-12. Foods rich in vitamin B-12 include meat, dairy products, and fortified cereal and soy products.
  • Vitamin C. Foods rich in vitamin C include citrus fruits and juices, peppers, broccoli, tomatoes, melons and strawberries. These also help increase iron absorption.

If you ‘re concerned about getting enough vitamins and minerals from food, ask your repair whether a multivitamin might help .

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