Kidney stones – Symptoms and causes

Overview

Female urinary system

Female urinary system

Female urinary system

Your urinary system — which includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — removes barren from your body through urine. Your kidneys, located in the rear fortune of your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluent from your blood .

Male urinary system

Male urinary system

Male urinary system

Your urinary system — which includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — removes waste from your body through urine. Your kidneys, located in the rear part of your upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from your rake.

Kidney stones ( besides called nephritic calculus, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis ) are heavily deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys .
Diet, excess consistency slant, some medical conditions, and certain supplements and medications are among the many causes of kidney stones. Kidney stones can affect any separate of your urinary nerve pathway — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones phase when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together .
Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones normally cause no permanent damage if they ‘re recognized in a timely manner. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medicine and drink lots of body of water to pass a kidney stone. In early instances — for exercise, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or causal agent complications — surgery may be needed .
Your repair may recommend hindrance treatment to reduce your risk of perennial kidney stones if you ‘re at increase risk of developing them again .

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Symptoms

Kidney stones

Illustration showing kidney stones

Kidney stones

Kidney stones shape in your kidneys. As stones move into your ureters — the thin tubes that allow urine to pass from your kidneys to your bladder — signs and symptoms can result. Signs and symptoms of kidney stones can include severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills and blood in your urine .
A kidney stone normally will not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureters — the tubes connecting the kidneys and the bladder. If it becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be very painful. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms :

  • Severe, sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain or burning sensation while urinating

other signs and symptoms may include :

  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • A persistent need to urinate, urinating more often than usual or urinating in small amounts
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

annoyance caused by a kidney gem may change — for example, shifting to a different placement or increasing in volume — as the stone moves through your urinary nerve pathway .

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs and symptoms that worry you .
Seek immediate medical attention if you experience :

  • Pain so severe that you can’t sit still or find a comfortable position
  • Pain accompanied by nausea and vomiting
  • Pain accompanied by fever and chills
  • Blood in your urine
  • Difficulty passing urine

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Causes

Kidney stones frequently have no definite, unmarried cause, although several factors may increase your hazard .
Kidney stones imprint when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acidic — than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the like clock time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form .

Types of kidney stones

Knowing the type of kidney stone you have helps determine its campaign, and may give clues on how to reduce your hazard of getting more kidney stones. If possible, try to save your kidney stone if you pass one so that you can bring it to your doctor for analysis .
Types of kidney stones include :

  • Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are calcium stones, normally in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a substance made daily by your liver or absorbed from your diet. Certain fruits and vegetables, equally well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate content .
    dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal shunt surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the assiduity of calcium or oxalate in urine .
    Calcium stones may besides occur in the form of calcium phosphate. This type of stone is more coarse in metabolic conditions, such as nephritic tubular acidosis. It may besides be associated with certain medications used to treat migraines or seizures, such as topiramate ( Topamax, Trokendi XR, Qudexy XR ).

    Read more: ED

  • Struvite stones. Struvite stones form in response to a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
  • Uric acid stones. Uric acid stones can form in people who lose too much fluid because of chronic diarrhea or malabsorption, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
  • Cystine stones. These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder called cystinuria that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of a specific amino acid.

Risk factors

Factors that increase your gamble of developing kidney stones include :

  • Family or personal history. If someone in your family has had kidney stones, you’re more likely to develop stones, too. If you’ve already had one or more kidney stones, you’re at increased risk of developing another.
  • Dehydration. Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones. People who live in warm, dry climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.
  • Certain diets. Eating a diet that’s high in protein, sodium (salt) and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet. Too much salt in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must filter and significantly increases your risk of kidney stones.
  • Obesity. High body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones.
  • Digestive diseases and surgery. Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the amounts of stone-forming substances in your urine.
  • Other medical conditions such as renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism and repeated urinary tract infections also can increase your risk of kidney stones.
  • Certain supplements and medications, such as vitamin C, dietary supplements, laxatives (when used excessively), calcium-based antacids, and certain medications used to treat migraines or depression, can increase your risk of kidney stones.

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