Macronutrients of honey
The macronutrient composition of honey as shown in Fig. 1 represents an interest beginning of carbohydrates which is the main kernel of honey and support the anti-spoilage properties. The carbohydrate proportion is ranged from 60 to 95 % of its dry weight including mono-, di- and tri-saccharides where floral character is a key factor in modulating this proportion [ 7 ]. More than 20 types of carbohydrates have been identified in honeys samples from different separate of the earth [ 8 ]. The star carbohydrate existed is fructose followed by glucose with 28–40 % and 20–35 %, respectively, while the disaccharide and trisaccharide concentration are around 5 and 1 %, respectively [ 9 ]. The most name disaccharides are maltose, maltulose, turanose, sucrose, nigerose whereas a few trisaccharide such as erlose, centose, isomaltotrios, panose, psopanose and ketose are found in belittled amount [ 10 ] .Fig. 1 Pie-chart of honey musical composition demonstrating the share of carbohydrates which is about 80 % while water is about 17 %. other components such as enzymes, proteins, vitamins and polyphenols represent 3.24 %. The numbers shown in pie-chart are varied in each type of honey Full size persona
The protein content of honey is roughly ranged from 0.2–0.5 % in forms of enzymes and exempt amino acids. by and large, the sum total of release amino acid in honey range approximately between 10 and 200 mg/100 gigabyte honey and proline contribute with 50 % of total amino acid [ 11 ]. G-aminobutyric acid and ornithine have been identified in honey samples in summation to b-alanine and a-alanine [ 12 ]. While the chief source of protein and amino acid is pollen, honeybee contribute to modifying this profile through regurgitation. Defensin-1 protein has been found in bee hemolymph and subsequently in different honey samples except Manuka honey [ 13 ]. Lipids quantity in most of honey samples is negligible about 0.002 %. Plants and wax take function primarily in the exitance of assorted lipids compounds in form of acids such as palmitic, oleic, miristic, and linoleic acid [ 14 ] .
Micronutrients of honey
The minerals and vitamins profile in honey are varied according to floral type and geographic origin, representing from 0.2–0.5 % of honey dry weight. Although necessity minerals and elements are trace in honey, homo body need them to perform the several biological actions perfectly [ 15 ]. several studies have been conducted to determine the minerals contentedness in honey samples over the world in club to reveal the universe of contaminant minerals [ 16, 17 ]. potassium and sodium constitute largely 80 % of entire minerals while iron, copper and manganese are rare in quantity. furthermore, tracing elements have been recruited recently for recognition purposes of different unifloral honeys [ 18 ]. To illustrate more, the presence mixture of potassium, cadmium, and nickel was implemented as a solid indicator to distinguish honeydew honey while barium and conduct were specific components of rape honeys [ 19 ]. With deference to vitamins, one survey has found vitamin b1, vitamin b2, pyridoxin, niacin and ascorbic acid in respective honey samples, however, their come do not correspond with the recommend daily consumption of homo [ 20 ]. The lipids and fat-soluble vitamins content in honey are hard to detect .
Enzymes in honey
Unlike early sweetening agents, honey incorporate respective active enzymes that play cardinal role in its biological affair. The source of these enzymes is probably from nectar, bee, or micro-organisms in beloved [ 21 ]. Invertase, glucose oxidase, and diastase are the independent enzymes in honey. Although invertase is involved in catalyzing sucrose into its component in honey, little sum of sucrose is even show in the final phase of honey ripening [ 22 ]. Diastase ’ sulfur routine is to breakdown the chemical bonds in starch and chiefly in maltose, even though starch is not detected in any honey samples. thus, the original officiate of diastase in honey remain indecipherable, however, few methods have developed to measure diastase as a timbre indicator of honey, where the quality of honey is positively proportional to diastase sum [ 7, 22 ]. Glucose oxidase is one of carbohydrate metabolize enzymes. The virgin birth of glucose oxidase is the pharyngeal glands of bee and thus its sum is varied. Glucose oxidase breakdown glucose into gluconic acid, which is one of the importance honey acids, and hydrogen peroxidase. The presence of glucose oxidase has prevented the microbial growth in honey [ 23 ]. however, glucose oxidase could be affected by many factors which explain, in function, of its absence in diverse types of beloved samples [ 13 ].
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Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of honey polyphenols
The presence of polyphenol in beloved is believed to be from the plant ’ s ambrosia while polyphenols quality and quantity depend on the geographic region, floral beginning, climatic conditions, and bee type [ 7 ]. consequently, one study has suggested that polyphenol profile of honey could be as a floral marker to verify the botanic origin [ 24 ]. The attempts to identify the phenolic resin visibility of honey samples have been noticed in many food analytic studies [ 2, 25 ]. Most of these studies have utilized chiefly HPLC-UV and HPLC-DAD for quantification and identification purposes with assorted modified methods. however, LC-MS/MS has been concluded to be more accurate than LC-MS, while GC-MS has been recruited chiefly to identify the fickle compounds [ 26 ]. furthermore, the former mention technologies contribute to creating phenolic resin profiles for many types of honey despite of the complex chemical structure of honey. therefore, developing an optimized method acting to identify and quantify polyphenols in beloved is still required. The being of one or more phenolic resin compounds in beloved samples have been claimed as phytochemical markers for the floral lineage. Founded free in honey samples, phenolic resin acids such as p -coumaric, french acerb, caffeic acerb and ferulic acerb were normally identified in different floral type of beloved [ 27, 28, 29 ]. however, depending on few phenolic resin and flavonoid compounds is not sufficient to determine the multi-floral origin of honeys where the same compounds could be existed. To explain more, the verification of beloved floral is undermined by the concentration and contented among polyphenols compounds [ 30 ]. Considered as biomarkers for rosemary and sunflower honeys, quercetin and kaempferol have been found in high levels of pumpkin, rapeseed, and melon honeys [ 31 ]. Thereby, adding early chemical factors to verify closely the geographic origin of honey remain the proper choice.
The phenolic resin content of honey has been correlated with antioxidant activities in many published researches [ 32 ]. In addition, beloved ’ s phenolic resin profile reflects the bees ’ type, botanic lineage, season, and the region. One report compares the phenolic resin message between the park honeybee and stingless bee honey. The total phenolic resin message of malaysian stingless bee honey was approximately 235 mg GAE equivalent 100 mg compared to Tualang beloved 183 magnesium GAE equivalent 100 mg, while the flavonoid capacity of stingless bee honey was 100 mg CE equivalent 100 milligram. In the same analyze, the antioxidant results of stingless bee honey were significantly higher than the normal beloved [ 2 ]. Likewise, the honey of stingless bee from Plebia spp. species has higher phenolic resin content than Apis spp. 106.01 ± 9.85 milligram GAE equivalent/100 deoxyguanosine monophosphate compared to Apis spp. 92.34 ± 13.55 milligram GA acidic equivalent/100 thousand, respectively [ 33 ]. Furthermore, beloved produced from Meliponini, a stingless bee species, has the highest radical salvage action against ABTS cation due to the senior high school levels of phenolic resin and flavonoid contents. Contributing in proinflammatory state, ROS has been inhibited after treating with honey extract from stingless bee [ 34 ]. In the like study, the author concluded that the stingless bee honey-rich in polyphenol had suppressed the infiltration of leukocyte through downregulating myeloperoxidase and reduced the ear edema [ 34 ]. previous studies-related to the medicative prize of stingless bee honey indicate that there is a deep limit of reported inquiry. The potential remedy prize of stingless bee honey is needed to be widely explored against incendiary and oxidative stress relate disease. probably, the phenolic resin compounds in stingless bee honey have high pharmacokinetics and react synergistically in preventing or treating disease. Since polyphenol compounds have retained a bang-up attention by scientific communities as contraceptive agents against degenerative and chronic incendiary diseases [ 35 ], the main curative activities of honey are attributed to its content of polyphenols because they are the most abundant phytochemcials [ 2, 36 ]. These activities are controlled by the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of polyphenols in homo body. In terms of bioaccessibility, polyphenols which is released from the food matrix or absorbed by minor intestine through mechanical and biochemical breakdown are potentially bioavailable and bioactive [ 37 ]. however, the molecular interaction of polyphenols with other food compounds during digestion work may decrease or increase the bioaccessibility [ 38, 39 ]. For exercise, the bioaccessibility of anthocyanin has been varied when testing its exhaust from different foods ( unharmed berries, berry juice, wine, jam, powders ) [ 40 ]. The universe of dietary fibers in food matrix play a major character in releasing polyphenols for absorption into gastrointestinal tract [ 37 ]. few clinical trials illustrated that less than 10 % of polyphenols ( aglycones and glucoside conjugate ) are being absorbed in the amphetamine gastrointestinal tract due to the consequence of food matrix, while the remainder of phenolic resin compounds undergo to microfloral metabolization at which bioactive metabolites cross colonic mucous membrane to plasma [ 37, 41, 42 ]. At the same clock, it is apparent that polyphenols may have high affinity to protein and fibers, specially if all the previous components are stage together. thus, the presence of polyphenol in a food matrix with negligible amounts of dietary fibers, protein and lipids could reduce the molecular interactions and may increase the bioaccessibility and bioavailability proportion in beloved. In this common sense, the phenolic resin contentedness and antioxidant activity of Manuka honey were not altered after subjecting to in-vitro digestion process compared with other commercial honey samples [ 43 ]. In addition to that, 1-3 mg/ml of post- and pre-digested Manuka beloved has significantly protective ability against hydrogen hydrogen peroxide induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cell tune. This demonstrate that polyphenols in Manuka honey are not affected by any molecular changes due to digestion process and frankincense, they may have gamey bioaccessibility ratio [ 43 ]. In another cogitation, adding floral and ache honey to brewed chocolate significantly increased the levels of phenolic resin message and antioxidant activities after simulating digestion serve in vitro. The possibilities of using honey as a natural sweetening synergize the phenolic resin subject of coffee and consequently, leading to high bioavailability [ 44 ]. After mimicking the gastric and intestinal digestion, the phenolic resin message and antioxidant activities of Turkish honeybee pollen have been reduced which could credibly due to either the interaction of polyphenols and protein honeybee pollen matrix or the dispute in ph levels which influence the bioactivity of phenolic resin compounds. consequently, maximizing the effect of honeybee pollen could be achieved through encapsulation [ 45 ]. however, bractinga honeydew honey has shown different results in terms of phenolic resin content and antioxidant capacities where in vitro duodenal digestion decreases the antioxidant stability and increase the flavonoid content. The bioaccessible fraction was increased from 112 % after gastric consumption to become 174 % after duodenal digestion [ 46 ]. Overall, the former studies have used in vitro exemplar to mimic digestion march in which honey polyphenols stability have been examined and demonstrated likely bioaccessibility and bioavailability. possibly, this constancy observed in vitro may not be the lapp as in vivo due to differences in conditions and concentrations of honey. Determining the best phenolic resin compounds in terms of preoccupation and producing bioactive metabolites is silent occupying the independent objective in bioavailability studies through which the biological actions of polyphenols within targeted tissues could be revealed and classified. As a consequence of that, bioavailability studies have measured the phenolic resin compounds concentrations in plasma and urinary execration among subjects supplemented with polyphenols as pure colonial, plant excerpt or whole food [ 39, 47 ]. While polyphenols-derived metabolites, affected by the gastric and liverwort processes, could be inactive, detecting these metabolites in plasma and urine requires a rigorous proficiency. besides, there is a miss research with respect to the bioavailability of polyphenols in human. frankincense, these challenges could attract researchers to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of beloved as rich food in polyphenol. furthermore, human interventions trials with beloved seem to be overpowered. The phenolic resin acidic and flavonoid in beloved are varied with different bioavailability. In cosmopolitan, phenolic resin acids ratio are used to be higher than flavonoid in beloved. At the same time, phenolic resin acid classes ; hydroxycinnamic derivatives and hydroxybenzoic derivatives are well absorbed in human body as they are in aglycon phase [ 47 ]. Gallic, caffeic, p -coumaric, and sinapic acid have been proven to be well absorbed in the upper region of gastro-intestinal system despite of the differences in kinetic efficacy [ 37 ]. recently, it has been indicated that stomach could have an active absorption locate for the above-mentioned phenolic resin acids [ 48 ]. The mechanism of assimilation is mediated through monocarboxylic acid conveyer belt and paracellular diffusion. On the other hand, flavonoid preoccupation in minor intestine is considered as a complex procedure where flavonoids, in forms of glycoside, require hydrolysis process to convert into aglycones. This hydrolytic process is performed through two enzymes : 1 ) lactase phlorizin hydrolase acting in the epithelial cells, 2 ) cytosolic β -glucosidase in the enterocyte. then, aglycones can be absorbed by the intestinal cells namely, enterocytes crossing to the blood stream [ 39, 41, 47 ]. The being of glycosidase enzyme in bee salivary glands contribute basically to hydrolyzing glycosylated polyphenols into aglycones imprint. therefore, honey polyphenols which are in aglycones forms, could have more electric potential bioavailability than other foods [ 49 ]. however, a direct probe on the bioavailability of honey polyphenols either in vivo or in human has not been conducted yet. In contrast, administrating natural beloved as a dietary supplement in versatile animal and clinical trials have either improved or ameliorated the diseased condition of learn subjects [ 1, 50 ]. indeed, consuming 1.5 g of honey per kilogram of human consistency has elevated the antioxidant status in healthy individuals comparing with those who have consumed the lapp measure of corn syrup [ 51 ]. Although the former learn may promote the pharmacokinetics of honey polyphenols, the possible natural process of honey polyphenols in improving the total antioxidant could be indirectly throughout supporting the endogenous antioxidant system. A randomize clinical trial has revealed the supportive effect of Tualang honey on glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in chronic smokers ’ subjects [ 52 ]. Although some individuals have differences in the consumption and metamorphosis of phytochemical due to polymorphism, honey intervention trials demonstrate that the variability in the level of beloved polyphenols absorption could be low [ 53 ]. Hence, determining the bioavailability of honey polyphenols in tissues is all-important to confirm the share of assimilation. The conjugation reaction of polyphenols in hepatic tissues to detoxify likely perniciousness and increase hydrophilicity is thought to impair the bioactivities of polyphenols through glucorination, methylation, and sulfation. In lineage circulating, polyphenols metabolites assiduity has been found largely in nanomolar and micromolar range [ 39, 54 ]. besides, determining pharmacokinetics of phenolic resin compounds have been selectively performed on few types of phenolic resin compounds, due to the bombastic total of polyphenols which are eight thousand. Despite of being proven to have a low plasma concentration of some phenolic resin acid and flavonoid, the other phenolic resin compounds could be different. It is noteworthy that the physiochemical profile of polyphenols ( molecular size, basic structure, degree of polymerization, solubility, conjugation with other compounds ) contribute basically in concentration and metabolism summons and consequently, affect their biomolecular interaction [ 39 ]. In terms of honey, conceivable conjectural explanations could interpret the positive effect on homo treatment studies i ) honey polyphenols absorbed lento through gastrointestinal tract, two ) the chasteness of honey social organization, three ) polyphenols metabolized completely in the tissues, four ) unknown phenolic resin compounds and/or their metabolites in honey could have high bioavailability and click cells with special receptors, v ) the absence of anti-nutrients compounds. In conclusion, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of honey polyphenols are affected by several factors such as floral lineage, food matrix, gastrointestinal assimilation, liver and intestinal metabolic action, binding to albumin, tissue accumulation and abhorrence. Hence, assimilating these factors and attributing them to the healthy pleiotropic effects are a boastful challenge. additionally, reconstructing instrumental analytic equipment with advanced selectivity and sensitivity is a command gradation to understand the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of beloved polyphenols. But at the same time, the empirical testify of honey intervention on send interaction with DNA and gene expression have been revealed [ 55, 56 ]. The study to identify electric potential molecular mechanisms involved in the cellular interactions by assorted types of honey polyphenols with its relevant gene expression profiles should be extensively made .