What is Hepatitis C – FAQ

Overview and Statistics

What is hepatitis?

hepatitis means ignition of the liver. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol habit, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can all cause hepatitis. however, hepatitis is much caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus .

What is the difference between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C?

hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C are liver infections caused by three different viruses. Although each can cause like symptoms, they are spread in different ways and can affect the liver differently. Hepatitis A is normally a short-run infection. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can besides begin as short-run infections, but in some people, the virus remains in the body and causes chronic ( long-run ) infection. There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B ; however, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C .
The foliate “ What is viral hepatitis ? ” explains in detail the differences between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.

What is hepatitis C?

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C can range from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, long-run illness. Hepatitis C is much described as “ acute, ” meaning a new contagion, or “ chronic, ” meaning long-run contagion .

  • Acute hepatitis C occurs within the first 6 months after someone is exposed to the hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C can be a short-term illness, but for most people, acute infection leads to chronic infection.
  • Chronic hepatitis C can be a lifelong infection if left untreated. Chronic hepatitis C can cause serious health problems, including liver damage, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver cancer, and even death.

How serious is chronic hepatitis C?

Chronic hepatitis C can be a unplayful disease resulting in long-run health problems, including liver damage, liver failure, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and even death. It is the most common argue for liver-colored transplant in the United States. There were 15,713 deaths related to hepatitis C virus reported to CDC in 2018, but this is believed to be an undervalue .

How likely is it that someone with acute hepatitis C will become chronically infected?

More than half of people who become infected with hepatitis C virus will develop a chronic infection .

Is it possible for someone with hepatitis C to get better without treatment

Yes. however, less than half of people who are infected with the hepatitis C virus clear it from their bodies without treatment. Experts do not amply understand why this happens for some people .

How common is acute hepatitis C in the United States?

In 2018, a sum of 3,621 cases of acute hepatitis C were reported to CDC. Since many people do not have symptoms, they don ’ thyroxine try manage from a health supplier and don ’ t get diagnosed with this infection. These cases aren ’ thymine reported to public health authorities and aren ’ thymine counted in annual totals. CDC believes the actual number of acute hepatitis C cases in 2018 was probably closer to 50,300 .

How common is chronic hepatitis C in the United States?

In 2016, an estimated 2.4 million people were living with hepatitis C in the United States .

Transmission / Exposure

How is hepatitis C spread?

The hepatitis C virus is normally spread when person comes into contact with blood from an infect person. This can happen through :
►Sharing drug-injection equipment.
today, most people become infect with hepatitis C by sharing needles, syringes, or any other equipment used to prepare and inject drugs .
approximately 6 % of infants born to infected mothers will get hepatitis C .
►Health care exposures.
Although rare, people can become infect when health-care professionals do not follow the proper steps needed to prevent the gap of bloodborne infections .
►Sex with an infected person.
While uncommon, hepatitis C can spread during sexual activity, though it has been reported more frequently among men who have sex with men .
►Unregulated tattoos or body piercings.
Hepatitis C can spread when getting tattoo or body piercings in unaccredited facilities, informal settings, or with
non-sterile instruments .
►Sharing personal items.
People can get infected from sharing glucose monitors, razors, nail down clippers, toothbrushes, and early items that may have come into contact with septic lineage, evening in amounts besides minor to see .
►Blood transfusions and organ transplants.
Before widespread screen of the lineage supply in 1992, hepatitis C was besides spread through lineage transfusions and organ transplants. now, the risk of transmission to recipients of lineage or blood products is extremely broken .
Hepatitis C is not spread by sharing eating utensils, breastfeed, hug, caressing, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. It is besides not spread through food or water .

Can you get hepatitis C more than once?

Yes. You can be infected again tied if you have cleared the virus or were successfully treated and cured. This is why people who presently inject and share needles, syringes, or other drug homework equipment, along with those who receive maintenance hemodialysis, should be tested for hepatitis C on a regular basis .

Can hepatitis C virus be spread through sexual contact?

Yes, but the hazard of infection from intimate contact is believed to be low. The gamble increases for men who have sex with men and for people who have multiple sexual activity partners, have a sexually transmit disease, lease in roughly sex, or are infected with HIV .

Can you get hepatitis C by getting a tattoo or piercing?

research has not shown that hepatitis C is spread within licensed, commercial tattoo facilities. however, transmission of hepatitis C ( and other infectious diseases ) is possible at facilities that don ’ t take the necessary measures to control infections during tattooing or piercing. Unregulated tattoo and piercing occurring in prisons and other informal settings may put a person at risk of infection.

Can hepatitis C be spread within a household?

Yes, but this does not occur very frequently. If hepatitis C virus is spread within a family, it is most probably a consequence of direct, through-the-skin photograph to the blood of an infect family member .

Who is at risk for hepatitis C?

The play along people are at increased gamble for hepatitis C :

  • People who use injection drugs or did so in the past, even those who injected only once many years ago
  • People with HIV infection
  • People with certain medical conditions, including those who ever received maintenance hemodialysis and those with persistently abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (an enzyme found within liver cells).
  • People who have received transfusions or organ transplants, including those who
    • received clotting factor concentrates produced before 1987
    • received a transfusion of blood or blood components before July 1992
    • received an organ transplant before July 1992
    • were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for hepatitis C virus infection
  • Health care, emergency medical, and public safety personnel who have been exposed to the blood of someone who has hepatitis C (through needle sticks, sharps, or mucosal exposures)
  • Children born to mothers who have hepatitis C

Can a person be infected with both HIV and the hepatitis C virus?

Yes. A person can be “ coinfected ” with both HIV and the hepatitis C virus. People who are coinfected are more likely to get cirrhosis as a consequence of their chronic hepatitis C infection. To learn more about coinfection, read HIV and Viral Hepatitis .

What is the risk of a pregnant woman passing hepatitis C to her baby?

Of every 100 infants born to mothers with hepatitis C, about six will become infect with the hepatitis C virus. however, the risk is greater if the mother has both HIV and hepatitis C .

Can women with hepatitis C breastfeed their babies?

Yes. There is no attest that breastfeeding spreads hepatitis C, sol infect women can safely breastfeed their babies. however, women with crack or bleeding nipples should stop nursing temporarily until their nipples have healed. Hepatitis C is spread through contact with blood, and not adequate is known about whether this practice is safe .

Can I get hepatitis C from a mosquito or other insect bite?

No. The hepatitis C virus has not been shown to be transmitted by mosquitoes or other insects .

Can I donate blood if I have tested positive for hepatitis C?

The american Red Crossexternal icon does not accept lineage donations from anyone who has always tested positive for hepatitis C or from anyone with current signs or symptoms of hepatitis .

Can someone with hepatitis C donate organs?

According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Service ’ s on-line data on electric organ contribution and transplantationexternal icon, identical few conditions would prevent person from being an organ, eye, or tissue donor. even with acute accent or chronic hepatitis C, you may be able to donate your organs or tissues. The transfer team will determine what organs or tissue can be used based on a clinical evaluation, aesculapian history, and other factors .


What are the symptoms of acute (new) hepatitis C?

many people newly infected with the hepatitis C virus don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate have symptoms, don ’ metric ton look or feel brainsick, and consequently don ’ t know they are infected. For people who develop symptoms, they normally happen 2–12 weeks after photograph to the hepatitis C virus and can include yellow bark or eyes, not wanting to eat, disorder stomach, throwing up, abdomen trouble, fever, darkness urine, light toilet, joint pain, and feel tired .

What are the symptoms of chronic (long-term) hepatitis C?

Most people with chronic hepatitis C wear ’ t have any symptoms or have lone general symptoms like chronic fatigue and depression. many people finally develop chronic liver-colored disease, which can range from mild to severe and include cirrhosis ( scarring of the liver-colored ) and liver-colored cancer. Chronic liver disease in people with hepatitis C normally happens slowly, without any signs or symptoms, over several decades. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is often not recognized until people are screened for blood contribution or from an abnormal rake test found during a routine repair ’ s visit .

Can a person spread hepatitis C without having symptoms?

Yes. If you are infected with the hepatitis C virus, you can spread it to others even if you have no symptoms .


Who should get tested for hepatitis C?

CDC recommends hepatitis C testing for :

  • Are 18 years of age and older (get tested at least once in your lifetime)
  • Are pregnant (get tested during each pregnancy)
  • Currently inject drugs (get tested regularly)
  • Have ever injected drugs, even if it was just once or many years ago
  • Have HIV
  • Have abnormal liver tests or liver disease
  • Are on hemodialysis
  • Received donated blood or organs before July 1992
  • Received clotting factor concentrates before 1987
  • Have been exposed to blood from a person who has hepatitis C
  • Were born to a mother with hepatitis C

Should anyone be tested for hepatitis C more than once?

Yes. regular quiz is recommended for people who presently inject and share needles, syringes, or early drug preparation equipment and for those presently getting care hemodialysis .

If I am pregnant, should I be tested for hepatitis C?

Yes, hepatitis C test is recommended during every pregnancy .

What tests are used to diagnose someone with hepatitis C?

A blood trial, called an HCV antibody screen, is used to find out if person has always been infected with the hepatitis C virus. This screen, sometimes called the anti-HCV test, looks for antibodies, which are proteins released into the bloodstream when person gets infected with the virus that causes hepatitis C. People who have positive HCV antibody tests are given a follow-up HCV RNA screen to learn whether they have active contagion .

When should I expect to get my test results?

examination results can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks to come back. rapid anti-HCV tests are available in some health clinics, and the results of these tests are available in 20–30 minutes .

How are hepatitis C test results interpreted?

Your doctor will help interpret the results from your HCV antibody test and help guide you through next steps. The trial can be “ non-reactive, ” or “ negative, ” mean that you are not presently infected with the hepatitis C virus. The test can besides be “ reactive, ” or “ cocksure, ” which means you have been infected with the hepatitis C virus at some indicate in time. It is important to know that

  • Once you have been infected, you will always have antibodies in your blood. This is true if you have cleared the virus, have been cured, or still have the virus in your blood.
  • A reactive, or positive, antibody test does not necessarily mean that you currently have hepatitis C, so a follow-up test is needed.

What should I do if the HCV antibody test is reactive?

  • If the antibody test is reactive or positive, you need an additional test to see if you currently have hepatitis C. This test is called a nucleic acid test (NAT) for HCV RNA, but it can also be called a PCR test.
  • If the nucleic acid test for HCV RNA (or PCR test) is:
    • Negative – this means you were infected with hepatitis C virus, but the virus is no longer in your body because you were cured or cleared the virus naturally.
    • Positive – this means you currently have the virus in your blood and are infectious, meaning you can spread the virus to others.
  • If you have a reactive antibody test and a positive NAT for HCV RNA, you need to talk to a doctor about treatment. Treatments are available that can cure most people with hepatitis C in 8–12 weeks.

How soon after exposure to the hepatitis C virus can a test tell if someone is infected?

After photograph to the hepatitis C virus, it can take 8–11 weeks for an HCV antibody test to be plus. For most people who are infected, the anti-HCV lineage examination will become positive by 6 months after exposure. A extra kind of lineage test called a nucleic acid test ( NAT ) that detects HCV RNA ( besides called a PCR examination ) can tell if a person is infected within 1–2 weeks of vulnerability .

Can a person have normal liver enzyme level and still have hepatitis C?

Yes. For people with hepatitis C, it is coarse for liver enzyme levels to go up and down, sometimes returning to normal or near normal. Some people with hepatitis C have liver enzyme levels that are normal for over a year even though they have chronic liver disease .


What is the treatment for hepatitis C?

treatment is recommended for all people, including non-pregnant women, with acute or chronic hepatitis C ( including children aged ≥3 years and adolescents ). current treatments normally involve barely 8–12 weeks of oral therapy ( pills ) and cure over 90 % with few side effects. The FDA has a list of presently approved FDA treatments for hepatitis C.external icon

 What can people with chronic hepatitis C do to protect the liver?

People with chronic hepatitis C and those with cirrhosis ( tied if they have been cured of their hepatitis C infection ) should be monitored regularly by a doctor of the church, because these people have a continued risk of complications of gain liver disease, including liver cancer. In addition, people living with hepatitis C should

  • be vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B
  • avoid alcohol because it can cause additional damage to the liver
  • check with their doctor before taking any prescription pills, herbs, supplements, or over-the-counter medications, as these can potentially damage the liver
  • be tested for HIV, because people who have both infections are more likely to get cirrhosis


Is there a vaccine that can prevent hepatitis C?

No. presently, there is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C .

Hepatitis C and Employment

Should a person infected with the hepatitis C virus be restricted from working in certain jobs or settings?

CDC ’ s recommendations for prevention and operate of the hepatitis C virus infection country that people should not be excluded from work, school, gambling, child manage, or other settings because they have hepatitis C virus infection. There is no testify that people can get hepatitis C from food handlers, teachers, or other overhaul providers without blood-to-blood touch .

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