The modern verb is a fusion of two relate Old English words, in both of which the initial two letters sometimes switched places. The first is intransitive verb rinnan, irnan “ to run, flow, run together ” ( past tense run, past participle runnen ), which is cognate with Middle Dutch runnen, Old Saxon, Old High German, Gothic rinnan, german rinnen “ to flow, run. ”
The second gear is Old English transitive unaccented verb ærnan, earnan “ ride, run to, reach, gain by running ” ( credibly a metathesis of *rennan ), from Proto-Germanic *rannjanan, causative of the etymon *ren- “ to run. ” This is akin with Old Saxon renian, Old High German rennen, german rennen, Gothic rannjan.
Watkins says both are from PIE *ri-ne-a-, nasalize form of solution *rei- “ to run, flow, ” but Boutkan ‘s sources find this derivation doubtful based on the poor people attestation of supposed related forms, and he lists it as of “ No certain IE etymology. ”
Of streams, and so forth, “ to flow, ” from late Old English. From c. 1200 as “ take escape, withdraw hurriedly or secretly. ” Phrase run for it “ take escape ” is attested from 1640s .
besides from c. 1200 as “ compete in a slipstream. ” Extended to “ strive for any ends, ” particularly “ enter a contest for office or honors, stand as a campaigner in an election ” ( 1826, American English ) .
Of any sort of rush travel, c. 1300. From early 13c. as “ have a certain commission or class. ” By c. 1300 as “ keep going, extend through a period of time, remain in being. ” specifically of theater plays by 1808. Of conveyances, stagecoach lines, and so forth, “ perform a regular passage from topographic point to place ” by 1817.
Of machinery or mechanical devices, “ go through normal or assign movements or process, ” 1560s. Of colors, “ to spread in a fabric when exposed to moisture, ” 1771. Of movie movie, “ pass between spools, ” hence “ be shown, ” by 1931 .
The mean “ carry on ” ( a business, etc. ) is by 1861, American English ; hence extended senses of “ attend after, manage. ” As “ print or print in a newspaper or magazine, ” by 1884 .
many senses are via the notion of “ pass into or out of a sealed state. ” To run dry “ discontinue to yield water or milk ” ( 1630s ). In department of commerce, “ be of a specify price, size, etc., ” by 1762. To run low “ be about exhausted ” is by 1712 ; to run short “ exhaust one ‘s provide ” is from 1752 ; to run out of in the same common sense is from 1713. To run on “ keep on, continue without pause or deepen ” is from 1590s .
The transitive sense of “ cause to run ” was in Old English. By deep 15c. as “ to pierce, stab, ” hence 1520s as “ thrust through or into something. ” The entail “ enter ( a sawhorse ) in a race ” is from 1750. The feel of “ cause a mechanical device to keep move or knead ” is by 1817.
many figurative uses are from horseracing or hunting ( such as to run (something) into the ground “ carry to excess, exhaust by constant pastime, ” 1836, American English ) .
To run across “ meet by luck, fall in with ” is attested from 1855, American English. To run into in this feel is by 1902. To run around with “ choir with ” is from 1887 .
In reference to fevers by 1918. To run a ( loss ) traffic signal is by 1933. Of tests, experiments, etc., by 1947. Of computers by 1952. Time has been running out since c. 1300. To run in the family is by 1771. The figurative expression run interference ( 1929 ) is from U.S. football. To run late is from 1954 .