Healthy diet – Wikipedia

type of diet

A healthy diet is a diet that maintains or improve overall health. A goodly diet provides the body with necessity nutrition : fluid, macronutrients, micronutrients, and adequate food energy. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] A healthy diet may contain fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and may include little to no processed food or sweetened beverages. The requirements for a goodly diet can be met from a diverseness of plant-based and animal-based foods, although a non-plant source of vitamin B12 is needed for those following a vegan diet. [ 4 ] Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate individuals on what they should be eating to be healthy. Nutrition facts labels are besides mandatary in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health. [ 5 ] [ 6 ]

Recommendations [edit ]

World Health Organization [edit ]

The World Health Organization ( WHO ) makes the take after five recommendations with obedience to both populations and individuals : [ 7 ]

  1. Maintain a healthy weight by eating roughly the same number of calories that your body is using.
  2. Limit intake of fats. Not more than 30% of the total calories should come from fats. Prefer unsaturated fats to saturated fats. Avoid trans fats.
  3. Eat at least 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots do not count). A healthy diet also contains legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), whole grains and nuts.[8]
  4. Limit the intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie (below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better).[9]
  5. Limit salt / sodium from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[10]

The WHO has stated that insufficient vegetables and fruit is the cause of 2.8 % of deaths cosmopolitan. [ 10 ] [ failed verification ] early WHO recommendations include :

United States Department of Agriculture [edit ]

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans by the United States Department of Agriculture ( USDA ) recommends three goodly patterns of diet, summarized in the table below, for a 2000 kcal diet. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] The guidelines emphasize both health and environmental sustainability and a flexible approach. The committee that drafted it wrote : “ The major findings regarding sustainable diets were that a diet higher in plant-based foods, such as vegetables, fruits, wholly grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, and lower in calories and animal-based foods is more health promote and is associated with less environmental impact than is the stream U.S. diet. This radiation pattern of feed can be achieved through a variety of dietary patterns, including the “ Healthy U.S.-style Pattern ”, the “ Healthy Vegetarian Pattern ” and the “ goodly Mediterranean-style Pattern ”. [ 14 ] Food group amounts are per sidereal day, unless noted per week .

The three healthy patterns
Food group/subgroup (units) U.S. style Vegetarian Med-style
Fruits (cup eq) 2 2 2.5
Vegetables (cup eq) 2.5 2.5 2.5
Dark green 1.5/wk 1.5/wk 1.5/wk
Red/orange 5.5/wk 5.5/wk 5.5/wk
Starchy 5/wk 5/wk 5/wk
Legumes 1.5/wk 3/wk 1.5/wk
Others 4/wk 4/wk 4/wk
Grains (oz eq) 6 6.5 6
Whole 3 3.5 3
Refined 3 3 3
Dairy (cup eq) 3 3 2
Protein Foods (oz eq) 5.5 3.5 6.5
Meat (red and processed) 12.5/wk 12.5/wk
Poultry 10.5/wk 10.5/wk
Seafood 8/wk 15/wk
Eggs 3/wk 3/wk 3/wk
Nuts/seeds 4/wk 7/wk 4/wk
Processed Soy (including tofu) 0.5/wk 8/wk 0.5/wk
Oils (grams) 27 27 27
Solid fats limit (grams) 18 21 17
Added sugars limit (grams) 30 36 29

American Heart Association / World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research [edit ]

The American Heart Association, World Cancer Research Fund, and American Institute for Cancer Research recommend a diet that consists largely of unrefined plant foods, with emphasis on a across-the-board range of solid grains, legumes, and non-starchy vegetables and fruits. This goodly diet includes a wide range of non-starchy vegetables and fruits which provide different colors including red, green, yellow, white, imperial, and orange. The recommendations note that tomato cooked with oil, allium vegetables like garlic, and cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower, provide some protection against cancer. This healthy diet is low in department of energy density, which may protect against weight acquire and associated diseases. last, limiting consumption of sugary drinks, limiting energy rich foods, including “ fast foods ” and crimson kernel, and avoiding processed meats improves health and longevity. overall, researchers and medical policy reason that this healthy diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease and cancer. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] It is recommended that children consume less than 25 grams of add carbohydrate ( 100 calories ) per day. [ 17 ] early recommendations include no extra sugars in those under 2 years old and less than one cushy drink per week. [ 17 ] As of 2017, decreasing sum fat is no longer commend, but alternatively, the recommendation to lower hazard of cardiovascular disease is to increase consumption of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, while decreasing consumption of saturated fats. [ 18 ]

Harvard School of Public Health [edit ]

The Nutrition Source of Harvard School of Public Health makes the follow 10 recommendations for a healthy diet : [ 19 ]

  • Choose good carbohydrates: whole grains (the less processed the better), vegetables, fruits and beans. Avoid white bread, white rice, and the like as well as pastries, sugared sodas, and other highly processed food.[20]
  • Pay attention to the protein package: good choices include fish, poultry, nuts, and beans. Try to avoid red meat.[21]
  • Choose foods containing healthy fats. Plant oils, nuts, and fish are the best choices. Limit consumption of saturated fats, and avoid foods with trans fat.[19]
  • Choose a fiber-filled diet which includes whole grains, vegetables, and fruits.[22]
  • Eat more vegetables and fruits—the more colorful and varied, the better.[19]
  • Include adequate amounts of calcium in the diet; however, milk is not the best or only source. Good sources of calcium are collards, bok choy, fortified soy milk, baked beans, and supplements containing calcium and vitamin D.[23]
  • Prefer water over other beverages. Avoid sugary drinks, and limit intake of juices and milk. Coffee, tea, artificially-sweetened drinks, 100% fruit juices, low-fat milk and alcohol can fit into a healthy diet but are best consumed in moderation. Sports drinks are recommended only for people who exercise more than an hour at a stretch to replace substances lost in sweat.[24]
  • Limit salt intake. Choose more fresh foods, instead of processed ones.[19]
  • Drink alcohol in moderation. Doing so has health benefits, but is not recommended for everyone.[19]
  • Consider intake of daily multivitamin and extra vitamin D, as these have potential health benefits.[19]

early than nutrition, the scout recommends frequent physical practice and maintaining a healthy soundbox system of weights. [ 19 ]

Others [edit ]

David L. Katz, who reviewed the most prevailing popular diets in 2014, noted :

The slant of testify powerfully supports a subject of healthful eating while allowing for variations on that composition. A diet of minimally processed foods close to nature, predominantly plants, is decisively associated with health promotion and disease prevention and is consistent with the salient components of apparently distinct dietary approaches. Efforts to improve populace health through diet are forestalled not for privation of cognition about the optimum prey of Homo sapiens but for distractions associated with exaggerated claims, and our bankruptcy to convert what we reliably know into what we routinely do. Knowledge in this case is not, as of yet, power ; would that it were thus. [ 25 ]

Marion Nestle expresses the mainstream view among scientists who study nutrition : [ 26 ] : 10

The basic principles of good diets are so bare that I can summarize them in just ten words : eat less, move more, consume lots of fruits and vegetables. For extra clearing, a five-word modifier helps : go easily on trash foods. Follow these precepts and you will go a long way toward preventing the major diseases of our overfed society—coronary affection disease, certain cancers, diabetes, stroke, osteoporosis, and a master of ceremonies of others …. These precepts constitute the bottom occupation of what seem to be the far more complicate dietary recommendations of many health organizations and national and external governments—the forty-one “ key recommendations ” of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, for model. … Although you may feel as though advice about nutriment is constantly changing, the basic ideas behind my four precepts have not changed in half a century. And they leave enough of room for enjoying the pleasures of food. [ 27 ] : 22

historically, a healthy diet was defined as a diet comprising more than 55 % of carbohydrates, less than 30 % of adipose tissue and about 15 % of proteins. [ 28 ] This scene is presently shifting towards a more comprehensive frame of dietary needs as a global motivation of versatile nutrients with complex interactions, rather of per alimentary type needs. [ 12 ]

specific conditions [edit ]

In accession to dietary recommendations for the general population, there are many particular diets that have chiefly been developed to promote better health in specific population groups, such as people with high rake pressure ( such as abject sodium diets or the more specific DASH diet ), or people who are corpulence or corpulent ( burden control diets ). Some of them may have more or less attest for beneficial effects in normal people as well. [ citation needed ]

high blood pressure [edit ]

A gloomy sodium diet is beneficial for people with high blood atmospheric pressure. A Cochrane review published in 2008 concluded that a long-run ( more than four weeks ) abject sodium diet usefully lowers lineage imperativeness, both in people with high blood pressure ( high blood atmospheric pressure ) and in those with normal lineage blackmail. [ 29 ]

The DASH diet ( dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension ) is a diet promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ( part of the NIH, a United States government administration ) to control high blood pressure. A major sport of the plan is limiting consumption of sodium, [ 30 ] and the diet besides broadly encourages the consumption of nuts, whole grains, fish, poultry, fruits, and vegetables while lowering the consumption of loss meats, sweets, and boodle. It is besides “ rich in potassium, magnesium, and calcium, ampere well as protein ”. The Mediterranean diet, which includes limiting consumption of red kernel and using olive vegetable oil in cooking, has besides been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes. [ 31 ]

fleshiness [edit ]

Most people who are corpulence or corpulent can use dieting in combination with physical exercise to lose weight. Diets to promote system of weights passing are divided into four categories : low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very moo calorie. [ 32 ] A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no dispute between the chief diet types ( broken calorie, broken carbohydrate, and low adipose tissue ), with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss in all studies. [ 32 ] After two years, all of the diets in the studies that reduced calories resulted in equal slant loss regardless of whether changes in fat or carbohydrate consumption were emphasized. [ 33 ]

Gluten-related disorders [edit ]

Gluten, a concoction of proteins found in wheat and related grains including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids ( such as spell, kamut, and triticale ), [ 34 ] causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis, and pale yellow allergy. [ 35 ] In these people, the gluten-free diet is the only available discussion. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ]

epilepsy [edit ]

The ketogenic diet is a treatment to reduce epileptic seizures for adults and children when managed by a health care team. [ 39 ]

research [edit ]

preliminary research indicated that a diet high in yield and vegetables may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and death, but not cancer. [ 40 ] Eating a healthy diet and getting adequate exercise can maintain body weight unit within the convention range and reduce the risk of fleshiness in most people. [ 41 ] A 2021 scientific review of testify on diets for lowering the hazard of atherosclerosis found that : [ 42 ]

low consumption of salt and foods of animal origin, and increased intake of plant-based foods—whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts—are linked with reduce atherosclerosis gamble. The same applies for the replacement of butter and other animal/tropical fats with olive vegetable oil and early unsaturated-fat-rich petroleum. [ … ] With regard to meat, new evidence differentiates processed and red meat—both associated with increase CVD risk—from poultry, showing a neutral relationship with CVD for moderate intakes. [ … ] New data endorse the refilling of most high glycemic index ( GI ) foods with both whole granulate and low GI cereal foods .

unhealthy diets [edit ]

An unhealthy diet is a major hazard factor for a number of chronic diseases including : high blood blackmail, high cholesterol, diabetes, abnormal blood lipids, fleshy / fleshiness, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. [ 43 ] The World Health Organization has estimated that 2.7 million deaths each year are attributable to a diet low in fruit and vegetables during the twenty-first century. [ 44 ] Globally, such diets are estimated to cause about 19 % of gastrointestinal cancer, 31 % of ischemic kernel disease, and 11 % of strokes, [ 6 ] frankincense making it one of the leading preventable causes of death global, [ 45 ] and the 4th leading risk factor for any disease. [ 46 ] As an example, the western form diet is “ rich people in red kernel, dairy products, processed and artificially sweetened foods, and salt, with minimal intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, legumes, and hale grains, ” contrasted by the Mediterranean diet which is associated with less morbidity and mortality. [ 47 ]

Fad diet [edit ]

Some publicize diets, much referred to as fad diets, make exaggerated claims of fast weight loss or other health advantages, such as longer life or detoxification without clinical tell ; many fad diets are based on highly restrictive or strange food choices. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] Celebrity endorsements ( including celebrity doctors ) are frequently associated with such diets, and the individuals who develop and promote these programs frequently profit well. [ 26 ] : 11–12 [ 51 ]

Public health [edit ]

Consumers are generally aware of the elements of a healthy diet, but find nutrition labels and diet advice in popular media confusing. [ 52 ] Fears of high cholesterol were frequently voiced up until the mid-1990s. Later research shows that the eminence between high- and low-density lipoprotein ( ‘good ‘ and ‘bad ‘ cholesterol, respectively ) is full of life when considering the likely ill effects of cholesterol. Different types of dietary fat have unlike effects on blood levels of cholesterol. For case, polyunsaturated fats tend to decrease both types of cholesterol ; monounsaturated fats tend to lower LDL and raise HDL ; saturated fats tend to either arouse HDL, or raise both HDL and LDL ; [ 53 ] [ 54 ] and trans fatty tend to raise LDL and lower HDL. Dietary cholesterol is only found in animal products such as kernel, eggs, and dairy. The effect of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol levels is controversial. Some studies have found a connection between cholesterol consumption and serum cholesterol levels. [ 55 ] early studies have not found a link between eating cholesterol and blood levels of cholesterol. [ 56 ] Vending machines in particular have come under fire as being avenues of entry into schools for junk food promoters, but there is short in the way of regulation and it is unmanageable for most people to properly analyze the real merits of a company referring to itself as “ healthy. ” The Committee of Advertising Practice in the United Kingdom launched a proposal to limit media advertising for food and balmy drink products high in fat, salt or sugar. [ 57 ] The british Heart Foundation released its own government-funded advertisements, labeled “ Food4Thought ”, which were targeted at children and adults to discourage insalubrious habits of consuming junk food. [ 58 ] From a psychological and cultural position, a healthier diet may be difficult to achieve for people with poor eating habits. [ 59 ] This may be due to tastes acquired in childhood and preferences for sugary, salty and fatty foods. [ 60 ] In 2018, the UK chief medical officer recommended that sugar and salt be taxed to discourage consumption. [ 61 ] The UK politics 2020 Obesity Strategy encourages healthier choices by restricting point-of-sale promotions of less-healthy foods and drinks. [ 62 ]

early animals [edit ]

Animals that are kept by humans besides benefit from a goodly diet, but the requirements of such diets may be identical different from the ideal human diet. [ 63 ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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