Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) – Symptoms and causes

Overview

hemolytic azotemic syndrome ( HUS ) is a condition that can occur when the small blood vessels in your kidneys become damaged and inflamed. This damage can cause clots to form in the vessels. The clots clog the percolate system in the kidneys and lead to kidney failure, which could be dangerous .
Anyone can develop HUS, but it is most common in unseasoned children. In many cases, HUS is caused by infection with certain strains of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) bacteria. The beginning symptom of this shape of HUS is several days of diarrhea, which is often but not always bally .
HUS may besides be caused by other infections, sealed medications or conditions such as pregnancy, cancer or autoimmune disease. In some cases, HUS is the result of certain genetic mutations. These forms of HUS normally do not cause diarrhea. .

HUS is a dangerous discipline. But timely and allow discussion normally leads to a full convalescence for most people, particularly young children .

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of HUS may vary, depending on the induce. Most cases of HUS are caused by infection with certain strains of E. coli bacteria, which beginning affect the digestive nerve pathway. The initial signs and symptoms of this form of HUS may include :

  • Diarrhea, which is often bloody
  • Abdominal pain, cramping or bloating
  • Vomiting
  • Fever

All forms of HUS — no matter the campaign — price the blood vessels. This price causes crimson blood cells to break down ( anemia ), blood clots to form in the blood vessels and kidney damage. Signs and symptoms of these changes include :

  • Pale coloring, including loss of pink color in cheeks and inside the lower eyelids
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Easy bruising or unexplained bruises
  • Unusual bleeding, such as bleeding from the nose and mouth
  • Decreased urination or blood in the urine
  • Swelling (edema) of the legs, feet or ankles, and less often in the face, hands, feet or entire body
  • Confusion, seizures or stroke
  • High blood pressure

When to see a doctor

See your doctor immediately if you or your child experiences bloody diarrhea or several days of diarrhea followed by :

  • Decreased urine output
  • Swelling
  • Unexplained bruises
  • Unusual bleeding
  • Extreme fatigue

Seek emergency caution if you or your child does n’t urinate for 12 hours or more .

Causes

The most coarse induce of HUS — particularly in children under the senesce of 5 — is infection with certain strains of E. coli bacteria. E. coli refers to a group of bacteria normally found in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. Most of the hundreds of types of E. coli are convention and harmless. But some strains of E. coli lawsuit diarrhea.

Some of the E.coli strains that lawsuit diarrhea besides produce a toxin called Shiga toxin. These strains are called Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, or STEC. When you are infected with a striving of STEC, the Shiga toxin can enter your bloodstream and campaign damage to your rake vessels, which may lead to HUS. But most people who are infected with E. coli, even the more dangerous strains, do n’t develop HUS .
other causes of HUS can include :

  • Other infections, such as infection with pneumococcal bacteria, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or influenza
  • The use of certain medications, especially some of the medications used to treat cancer and some of the medications used to suppress the immune system of organ transplant recipients
  • Rarely, HUS may occur as a complication of pregnancy or health conditions such as autoimmune disease or cancer

An uncommon type of HUS — known as atypical HUS — can be passed down genetically to children. People who have inherited the mutated gene that causes this shape of HUS wo n’t necessarily develop the condition. But the mutate gene might be activated after exposure to a trigger, such as an infection, the use of certain medications or a chronic health condition .

Risk factors

The majority of HUS cases are caused by infection with certain strains of E. coli bacteria. exposure to E. coli can occur when you :

  • Eat contaminated meat or produce
  • Swim in pools or lakes contaminated with feces
  • Have close contact with an infected person, such as within a family or at a child care center.

The risk of developing HUS is highest for :

  • Children 5 years of age or younger
  • Adults 65 years of age or older
  • People who have a weakened immune system
  • People with certain genetic changes that make them more susceptible to HUS

Complications

HUS can cause dangerous complications, including :

  • Kidney failure, which can be sudden (acute) or develop over time (chronic)
  • High blood pressure
  • Stroke or seizures
  • Coma
  • Clotting problems, which can lead to bleeding
  • Heart problems
  • Digestive tract problems, such as problems with the intestines, gallbladder or pancreas

Prevention

kernel or produce contaminated with E. coli wo n’t necessarily look, feel or smell bad. To protect against E. coli contagion and other foodborne illnesses :

  • Avoid unpasteurized milk, juice and cider.
  • Wash hands well before eating and after using the restroom and changing diapers.
  • Clean utensils and food surfaces often.
  • Cook meat to an internal temperature of at least 160 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Defrost meat in the microwave or refrigerator.
  • Keep raw foods separate from ready-to-eat foods. Don’t place cooked meat on plates previously contaminated by raw meat.
  • Store meat below produce in the refrigerator to reduce the risk of liquids such as blood dripping on produce.
  • Avoid unclean swimming areas. Don’t swim if you have diarrhea.

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Category : Health

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