modern science and music have increased the homo life-span, largely via decreasing the rate of infectious diseases and child mortality. The apparent result of modern life style has been durable bad-repercussions upon human life through modification of gene expressions via epigenetic changes. These changes are made upon a nucleotide of DNA or on histones, the proteins surrounding the deoxyribonucleic acid, without altering the genic sequence. Humans have quickly acquired several chronic diseases, chiefly through the life style modifications, such as, the sedentary life style, consumption of processed foods and drugs, increased psychological tension, excessive hygiene and through the exposure to environmental toxins, and pesticides in foods ( 1 ). Human DNA is tightly packed to a fundamental unit called nucleosomes. A nucleosome consists of 146 base pair of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histone proteins ( two copies of the histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 ). Methylation of DNA ( by and large at the cytosine remainder ) and the reversible modifications of histones ( such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination ) are the crucial epigenetic inscriptions that can alter the expression levels of genes, resulting in a diseased phenotype. For model, some of these epigenetic modifications can be resulted in a decrease expression of anti-cancer genes, and an increased formula of cancer promoting genes ( 2 ). These altered epigenetic patterns in humans are chiefly assimilated by a broad range of environmental factors. And importantly, some of these epigenetic characteristics are transmitted to descendants by heredity. From the preconceptual environment to the parturition of the baby, several parental factors ( parental diet, smoking, mental health and the social environment ) can alter the epigenetic visibility towards a pathological phenotype in the offspring. furthermore, the paternal factors ( alcohol consumption, and exposure to toxic chemicals such as vinclozolin and chromium chloride ) are known to cause a chaotic epigenetic traffic pattern in sperms that lead to trans-generational carcinogenesis ( 2, 3 ). The type of child birth ( cesarean delivery section or vaginal delivery ), and the maternal care during the childhood besides influences the epigenetic alterations in the growing child. importantly, in the phase of adulthood, following a healthy life style such as consumption of healthy-diet, regular exercise, alimony of the convention vegetation of the human body, and the practice of alternate medicine ( ayurveda, yoga, taichi, reiki, acupuncture, body massages, and naturopathy ) are known to bring about an improved human health through beneficial environment-epigenome interactions ( 2 ). Whereas, exposures to environmental toxins are like heavy metals ( arsenic, nickel and cadmium ), plastics ( Bisphenol A and phthalates ), and the usage of drugs of maltreatment ( opiates, amphetamines, alcohol and nicotine ) resulted in damaging epigenetic alterations ( 4 ). Factors such as diet, seasonal worker changes, including the alterations in the sleep convention, fiscal condition, psychological try, social interactions, custom of curative drugs, and exposure to electromagnetic radiations from electronic gadgets or diseases might have beneficial or harmful effects depending on the specific nature of the epigenetic modifications ( 5, 6 ). numerous scientific studies have evidenced that the epigenetic maladaptations in humans have resulted in type-2 diabetes mellitus, fleshiness, and cancers, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune and neurological disorders like Huntington, Alzheimer, Parkinson and schizophrenia ( 7, 8 ). The following two clinical studies ( 9, 10 ) explain the importance of life style modifications, and its implications on epigenetic modifications.
- The variations in the lifestyles and habitats on two different african population groups ( the active rain forest hunter-gatherers and the sedentary farmers ), whose ancestors diverged about 60,000 years ago, had a critical impact on their patterns of DNA methylation variation, resulted in different biological functions, particularly on the immune mechanism. This study indicates that the urbanization likely has an determine on the growth of autoimmune disorders ( 9 ) .
- On the other hand, an increased physical activity entirely had a golden impact on the survival outcomes of breast cancer patients, through epigenetic rule of tumor suppressor genes ( 10 ) .
hence, it is time to realize that, our current life style will influence the health of our inheritors. Although in our ‘ modern ’ environment, we can not wholly avoid the exposure to electromagnetic radiations, vent contamination, and foods contaminated with chemical pesticides. It is an immediate indigence to adapt a healthy life style, such as increase physical activities ( preferably, without using machines ), even rest blueprint, healthy social interactions, a reduced screen prison term with electronic gadgets, regular consumption of unprocessed foods, such as raw vegetables, fruits, nuts. At the lapp time, one must avoid work foods, and the exposure to toxic materials like plastics ( ). furthermore, to maintain a commodity epigenetic trait, and to preserve our homo descendants, we should strictly follow the rational use of remedy drugs, and avoid the irrational consumption of antibiotics to maintain the beneficial human microbiome in our body. Since the epigenetic changes are transmitted to descendants by heredity, it is time for us to realize and adapt a ‘ natural-way ’ of life style, quite than a ‘ modern ’ life style to maintain a healthy epigenetic environment, and to preserve our human descendants. future, more retrospective and prospective studies are needed to examine the safe life style and the goodly epigenetic changes that are contributing in human population .