Low sodium levels (hyponatremia): Symptoms and causes

Hyponatremia occurs when sodium levels in the lineage are excessively low. Symptoms include lethargy, confusion, and fatigue. It can result from underlying conditions, such as kidney failure, or early factors, such as drinking besides much water or taking certain medications. sodium is an electrolyte that plays an essential function in regulating the levels of water and other substances in the body. The definition of a low sodium degree is below 135 milliequivalents per liter ( mEq/L ). As the condition worsens, people may experience symptoms, such as :

  • vomiting
  • muscle twitches
  • seizures

Severe hyponatremia occurs when levels drop below 125 mEq/L. Health issues arising from extremely abject sodium levels may be black. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder that doctors meet. Research suggests that approximately 1.7 percentage of people in the United States have the condition. It is more prevailing among people with cancer.


Tired and fatigues businessman in back of tax or car rubbing bridge of nose under glasses because of stress and exhaustion plowshare on PinterestHyponatremia can cause fatigue and headaches. Mild hyponatremia may not cause symptoms. When symptoms occur they include :

  • confusion
  • sluggishness
  • a headache
  • fatigue and low energy
  • nausea
  • restlessness

If the condition worsens, it can cause severe symptoms, peculiarly in older adults. Severe symptoms may include :

  • vomiting
  • muscle weakness, spasms, and twitching
  • seizures
  • coma

hyponatremia can result in death in extreme cases .

What are the causes?

other aesculapian conditions and factors that can cause sodium levels to fall include :

  • diarrhea or vomiting
  • heart failure
  • kidney disease
  • liver disease
  • medication use
  • syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

People with SIADH produce excessive levels of the anti-diuretic hormone ( ADH ), which can lower sodium levels early causes include :

  • Drinking too much water.
  • Drug use. Taking the recreational drug ecstasy increases the risk of severe hyponatremia in some cases. Hyponatremia from ecstasy use can be fatal, especially in females.
  • Hormone disorders. These include Addison’s disease, which reduces the body’s production of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone and hypothyroidism, which is characterized by low levels of thyroid hormone.

Risk factors

parcel on PinterestSome medications may increase the risk of hyponatremia. Certain factors increase the risk of developing hyponatremia, including :

  • age
  • having specific conditions, such as SIADH or kidney, heart, or liver disease
  • taking certain diuretics, antidepressants, or pain medications
  • taking ecstasy
  • drinking excessive amounts of water
  • intense exercise, which may cause people to drink lots of water quickly

Diagnosis and when to see a doctor

People who are at risk of hyponatremia or develop symptoms should see their doctor right away as they may need pressing medical treatment.

People with symptoms including vomit, seizures, or loss of consciousness want contiguous attention. They should call an ambulance or go to the nearest hand brake department. To diagnose low sodium levels, a doctor will take a aesculapian history, perform a physical examination, and ordering a blood test. If the blood test shows moo sodium levels, the repair will typically need to perform extra tests to determine the lawsuit.


discussion for hyponatremia involves :

Restoring blood sodium levels

Those who have mild to moderate hyponatremia resulting from life style factors or medication may be able to increase sodium to normal levels by :

  • drinking less fluids (often less than 1 quart per day)
  • adjusting medication dose or switching medications

Individuals with dangerous symptoms much require hospitalization and an intravenous ( IV ) sodium discussion to get their sodium levels back to normal. They may besides require drugs to treat seizures or other hyponatremia symptoms .

Treating the underlying cause

Where the underlying cause of hyponatremia is a aesculapian condition or hormonal perturb, people will normally need far treatment. For example, people with liver-colored, kidney, or center problems may receive medications or operating room. Kidney problems often require dialysis, and people with liver-colored or heart conditions may need a transplant. People with a thyroid disorder can typically manage their symptoms and prevent hyponatremia and other complications with medications and life style changes. SIADH normally requires ongoing treatment to prevent hyponatremia. Individuals with the condition may need to restrict fluent intake, take salt tablets, or habit medications.


parcel on PinterestSports drinks containing electrolytes can help prevent low blood sodium levels after intense exercise. To avoid first gear rake sodium levels :

  • avoid drinking excessive amounts of water
  • consume sports drinks during intense exercise
  • do not take ecstasy
  • seek treatment for medical conditions
  • discuss medication use with a doctor
  • seek medical care if vomiting or diarrhea persist


The mentality for people with low sodium levels depends on the austereness of the condition and the fundamental cause.

Acute hyponatremia, which develops quickly, is more hard than chronic cases, which have a longer attack time. In dangerous cases, hyponatremia can be fatal. To improve their mentality, people should be mindful of the symptoms of hyponatremia and seek prompt medical attention if they experience any of them. Those at gamble of broken sodium levels should be particularly argus-eyed .

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