Hyperparathyroidism: Causes, Types, & Treatment

What Is Hyperparathyroidism ? hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid gland glands make besides much parathyroid gland hormone ( PTH ). The parathyroid gland glands are four pea-sized endocrine gland glands located in your neck, near or attached to the back of your thyroid. Endocrine glands secrete hormones necessary for the normal officiate of the body. Despite having similar names and being adjacent in your neck, the parathyroid gland glands and the thyroid gland are very different organs. PTH helps regulate the levels of calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus in your bones and blood.

Some people with this condition don ’ t experience any symptoms and don ’ t need discussion. Others have mild or severe symptoms that might require operating room.

What Are the Causes of Hyperparathyroidism?

In hyperparathyroidism, one or more of your parathyroid gland glands becomes hyperactive and makes excess PTH. This could be due to a tumor, gland enlargement, or other morphologic problems of the parathyroid gland glands. When your calcium levels are besides moo, your parathyroid gland glands react by increasing the production of PTH. This causes your kidneys and intestines to absorb a larger measure of calcium. It besides removes more calcium from your bones. PTH production returns to normal when your calcium level goes up again.

What Are the Types of Hyperparathyroidism?

There are three types of hyperparathyroidism : elementary, secondary, and third .

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

This type occurs when you have a problem with at least one of your parathyroid gland glands. common causes of parathyroid gland problems include benign growths on the gland and enlargement of at least two glands. In rare cases, a cancerous tumor causes this condition. An increase hazard of developing primary hyperparathyroidism besides occurs in people who :

  • have certain inherited disorders that affect several glands throughout the body, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia
  • have a long history of calcium and vitamin D deficiencies
  • have been exposed to radiation from cancer treatment
  • have taken a drug called lithium, which mainly treats bipolar disorder

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

This type occurs when you have an underlying condition that causes your calcium levels to be abnormally first gear. Most cases of junior-grade hyperparathyroidism are due to chronic kidney failure that results in moo vitamin D and calcium levels .

Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism

This type occurs when your parathyroid gland glands keep making excessively much PTH after your calcium levels return to normal. This type normally occurs in people with kidney problems.

What Are the Symptoms of Hyperparathyroidism?

Symptoms can vary from balmy to severe, depending on your type of hyperparathyroidism .

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Some patients don ’ t have any symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they can range from mild to severe. Milder symptoms may include :

  • fatigue
  • weakness
  • depression
  • body aches

More severe symptoms can include :

  • appetite loss
  • constipation
  • vomiting
  • nausea
  • excessive thirst
  • increased urination
  • confusion
  • memory problems
  • kidney stones

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

With this type, you may have bony abnormalities, such as fractures, swell joints, and bone deformities. early symptoms depend on the underlying cause, such as chronic kidney failure or severe vitamin D lack.

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How Is Hyperparathyroidism Diagnosed?

Your primary concern provider might suspect that you have hyperparathyroidism if everyday blood tests show high levels of calcium in your lineage. To confirm this diagnosis, your basal care supplier will need to perform other tests .

Blood Tests

extra blood tests can help your primary care provider make a more accurate diagnosis. Your primary care provider will check your lineage for high PTH levels, high alkaline phosphatase levels, and low levels of morning star .

Urine Tests

A urine test can help your elementary care supplier determine how hard your condition is and whether kidney problems are the causal agent. Your basal care provider will check your urine to see how much calcium it contains .

Kidney Tests

Your primary coil wish supplier might take X-rays of your abdomen to check for kidney abnormalities. You can find a primary care doctor near you through the Healthline FindCare tool .

What Are the Treatments for Hyperparathyroidism?

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

You might not need treatment if your kidneys are working fine, if your calcium levels are alone slightly high, or if your bone concentration is normal. In this casing, your primary coil manage supplier might monitor your condition once a year and check your blood-calcium levels twice a year. Your primary care provider will besides recommend watching how much calcium and vitamin D you get in your diet. You ’ ll besides need to drink enough of water to reduce your hazard of kidney stones. You should get regular drill to strengthen your bones. If treatment is necessity, surgery is the normally used discussion. surgical procedures involve removing enlarged parathyroid gland glands or tumors on the glands. Complications are rare and include damaged vocal cord nerves and long-run, abject levels of calcium. Calcimimetics, which act like calcium in the blood, are another treatment. These drugs can trick your glands into making less PTH. Primary manage providers prescribe these in some cases if operating room is abortive or not an choice. Bisphophonates, which keep your bones from losing calcium, can help reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Hormone substitution therapy can help bones hold on to calcium. This therapy can treat postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, although there are risks involved with drawn-out use. These include an increase risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease .

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

Treatment involves bringing your PTH level back to normal by treating the implicit in cause. Methods of treatment include taking prescription drug vitamin D for severe deficiencies and calcium and vitamin D for chronic kidney failure. You might besides need medication and dialysis if you have chronic kidney failure.

What Are the Complications Associated with Hyperparathyroidism?

If you suffer from hyperparathyroidism, you might besides have a discipline called osteoporosis which is besides sometimes referred to as “ thinning ” of the bone. Common symptoms include bone fractures and stature loss due to vertebral body ( spinal anesthesia column ) fractures. This can develop when overindulgence PTH production causes besides much calcium loss in your bones, making them weak. Osteoporosis typically occurs when you have excessively much calcium in your rake and not adequate calcium in your bones for a elongated period. osteoporosis puts you at a higher risk for bone fractures. Your primary coil care provider can check for signs of osteoporosis by taking bone X-rays or doing a bone mineral concentration test. This test measures calcium and bone mineral levels using special x-ray devices.

What Is the Long-Term Outlook?

According to the Cleveland Clinic, operating room can cure most cases of hyperparathyroidism. If you and your primary care provider opted to monitor your condition quite than treating it, making several healthy life style choices can help you battle symptoms. Drink plenty of water, and get regular drill. You should besides monitor the amount of calcium and vitamin D you consume .

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