Determinants of Health | Healthy People 2020

  • What makes some people healthy and others unhealthy?
  • How can we create a society in which everyone has a chance to live a long, healthy life?

healthy People 2020 is exploring these questions by :

  • Developing objectives that address the relationship between health status and biology, individual behavior, health services, social factors, and policies.
  • Emphasizing an ecological approach to disease prevention and health promotion. An ecological approach focuses on both individual-level and population-level determinants of health and interventions.

About Determinants of Health

The rate of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health status are known as determinants of health.

Determinants of health fall under several broad categories : It is the interrelationships among these factors that determine individual and population health. Because of this, interventions that aim multiple determinants of health are most probable to be effective. Determinants of health pass beyond the boundaries of traditional health care and public health sectors ; sectors such as education, house, transportation, agribusiness, and environment can be crucial allies in improving population health. bet on to Top

Policymaking

Policies at the local anesthetic, state, and federal degree affect individual and population health. Increasing taxes on tobacco sales, for example, can improve population health by reducing the number of people using tobacco products. Some policies affect entire populations over extend periods of time while simultaneously helping to change individual behavior. For exemplar, the 1966 Highway Safety Act and the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act authorized the federal Government to set and regulate standards for motor vehicles and highways. This led to an increase in safety standards for cars, including seat belts, which in turn reduced rates of injuries and deaths from motive vehicle accidents. 1

Social Factors

social determinants of health reflect the sociable factors and forcible conditions of the environment in which people are born, live, learn, fun, workplace, and senesce. besides known as social and physical determinants of health, they impact a wide range of health, serve, and quality-of-life outcomes. Examples of social determinants include :

  • Availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as educational and job opportunities, living wages, or healthful foods
  • Social norms and attitudes, such as discrimination
  • Exposure to crime, violence, and social disorder, such as the presence of trash
  • Social support and social interactions
  • Exposure to mass media and emerging technologies, such as the Internet or cell phones
  • Socioeconomic conditions, such as concentrated poverty
  • Quality schools
  • Transportation options
  • Public safety
  • Residential segregation

Examples of physical determinants include :

  • Natural environment, such as plants, weather, or climate change
  • Built environment, such as buildings or transportation
  • Worksites, schools, and recreational settings
  • Housing, homes, and neighborhoods
  • Exposure to toxic substances and other physical hazards
  • Physical barriers, especially for people with disabilities
  • Aesthetic elements, such as good lighting, trees, or benches

Poor health outcomes are frequently made worse by the interaction between individuals and their social and physical environment. For model, millions of people in the United States live in places that have unhealthy levels of ozone or other air pollutants. In counties where ozone befoulment is high, there is frequently a higher prevalence of asthma in both adults and children compared with submit and home averages. Poor tune quality can worsen asthma symptoms, particularly in children. 2 back to Top

Health Services

Both access to health services and the quality of health services can impact health. healthy people 2020 immediately addresses access to health services as a subject area and incorporates quality of health services throughout a count of topic areas. miss of access, or limited access, to health services greatly impacts an individual ’ sulfur health condition. For model, when individuals do not have health insurance, they are less probable to participate in hindrance care and are more probably to delay checkup treatment. 3

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Barriers to accessing health services include :

  • Lack of availability
  • High cost
  • Lack of insurance coverage
  • Limited language access

These barriers to accessing health services lead to :

  • Unmet health needs
  • Delays in receiving appropriate care
  • Inability to get preventive services
  • Hospitalizations that could have been prevented

Individual Behavior

person behavior besides plays a character in health outcomes. For model, if an individual quits smoke, his or her risk of developing heart disease is greatly reduced. many public health and health manage interventions focus on changing individual behaviors such as substance abuse, diet, and physical natural process. positive changes in individual demeanor can reduce the rates of chronic disease in this state. Examples of individual demeanor determinants of health include :

  • Diet
  • Physical activity
  • Alcohol, cigarette, and other drug use
  • Hand washing

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Biology and Genetics

Some biological and genetic factors affect specific populations more than others. For example, older adults are biologically prone to being in poorer health than adolescents due to the physical and cognitive effects of aging. Sickle cell disease is a common exercise of a genetic determinant of health. Sickle cellular telephone is a condition that people inherit when both parents carry the gene for sickle cell. The gene is most coarse in people with ancestors from west african countries, Mediterranean countries, South or cardinal american countries, Caribbean islands, India, and Saudi Arabia. Examples of biological and genetic social determinants of health admit :

  • Age
  • Sex
  • HIV status
  • Inherited conditions, such as sickle-cell anemia, hemophilia, and cystic fibrosis
  • Carrying the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, which increases risk for breast and ovarian cancer
  • Family history of heart disease

References

1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Achievements in populace health, 1900–1999 motor-vehicle condom : A twentieth century public health accomplishment [ Internet ]. MMWR Weekly. 1999 May 14 ; 48 ( 18 ) ; 369–74 [ cited 2010 August 27 ]. available from : hypertext transfer protocol : //www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4818a1.htm. 2 State of the Air [ Internet ]. Washington, DC : American Lung Association. available from : hypertext transfer protocol : //www.stateoftheair.org. 3 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality ( AHRQ ). National healthcare disparities reputation, 2008. Rockville ( MD ) : U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, AHRQ ; 2009 Mar. Pub no. 09-002. available from : hypertext transfer protocol : //www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr08/nhdr08.pdf [ PDF – 2.6 MB ] .

Additional Resources

Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the opening in a generation : Health fairness through natural process on the social determinants of health [ Internet ]. Geneva : World Health Organization ; 2008 [ cited 2010 May 10 ]. available from : hypertext transfer protocol : //whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2008/WHO_IER_CSDH_08.1_eng.pdf [ PDF – 4.3 MB ]. Harris K, Holden C, Chen M. Background information on home indicators for social determinants of health. Paper presented to the Secretary ’ s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020, National Opinion Research Center ; January 5, 2010. Institute of Medicine. inadequate treatment : Confronting racial and cultural disparities in health. Washington, DC : National Academies Press ; 2003.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Draft reputation of the Secretary ’ s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020 on Social Determinants ; revised 2009 Sep 9. Wilkinson R, Marmot M, editors. social determinants of health : The solid facts [ Internet ]. 2nd erectile dysfunction. copenhagen : World Health Organization ; 2003 [ cited 2010 May 26 ]. available from : hypertext transfer protocol : //www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/98438/e81384.pdf [ PDF – 470 KB ]. back to Top

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