Gastrointestinal Glossary of terms

Gastrointestinal Glossary of terms

Full Glossary ( pdf )



Area between the thorax and the hips that contains the digest, small intestine, big intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and irascibility.

Failure of the lower esophageal sphincter, a valve that separates the digest and the esophagus, to open.

Sudden attack of symptoms.

Developed after birth.

Ingestion of air travel.

Afferent nerves
Nerve fibers ( normally sensory ) that carry impulses from an organ or weave toward the genius and spinal anesthesia cord ( central nervous system ), or the information action centers of the intestinal nervous system, which is located within the walls of the digestive tract.

Absence of nerve cells.

Ambulatory care
Health services provided in a doctor ‘s position, or on an outpatient basis.

Ambulatory Endoscopy Center (AEC)
Medical facility that performs endoscopy procedures.

Amino Acids
A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in farseeing chains to form proteins. much referred to as the “ build up blocks ” of proteins.

Anal fissure
A cut in anal canal.

Anastomosis, intestinal
Reattachment of two portions of intestine in concert.

Drugs that suppress smooth brawn compression in the gastrointestinal tract.

The open of the rectum.

Autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions of home organs such as the intestine.


A metallic, chemical, chalky, fluent used to coat the inside of organs so that they will show up on an x-ray.

Basic science
The fundamental set about to understand how systems work. basic research takes place in the lab and much involves the study of molecules and cells.

Secretions of the liver that help in digestion and preoccupation, and induce peristalsis.

Biliary tract
Gall bladder and the bile ducts.

Biomedical model
The model of illness and disease in Western aesculapian education and research. It has two assumptions : ( 1 ) reductionism – that all conditions can be linearly reduced to a single cause, and ( 2 ) dualism – where illness and disease are divided either to an “ organic ” disorder having an objectively defined cause, or a “ functional ” disorder, with no particular cause or pathophysiology. The biomedical model is not sufficient to explain the functional GI disorders. [ Rome II ]

Tissue sample.

Biopsychosocial model
A model that proposes that illness and disease resultant role from simultaneously interacting systems at the cellular, tissue, organismal, interpersonal, and environmental level. It incorporates the biological aspects of the disorder with the unique psychosocial features of the individual, and helps explain the unevenness in symptom expression among individuals having the same biological condition.

A march in a clinical survey that conceals a treatment from the patient and/or research worker.

Audible rumbling abdominal sounds due to gasoline gurgling with liquid as it passes through the intestines.

The intestines.

Brain-gut axis
The continuous back and away exchange of information and feedback that take topographic point between the gastrointestinal tract, and the brain and spinal anesthesia cord ( which together comprise the central nervous system ).


Capsule Endoscopy
A procedure that lets your sophisticate examine the line of the middle part of your gastrointestinal tract, which includes the three portions of the small intestine ( duodenum, jejunum, ileum ). Your doctor of the church will use a pill sized video condensation called which has its own lens and light generator and will view the images on a video recording monitor. You might hear your repair or other checkup staff refer to capsule endoscopy as small intestine endoscopy, capsule enteroscopy, or radio receiver endoscopy.

Celiac disease
An allergic reaction of the lining of the small intestine in reception to the protein gliadin ( a component of gluten ). Gliadin is found in pale yellow, rye, barley, and oats. Celiac disease is besides called celiac sprue, and gluten intolerance.

The basic unit of any exist organism. It is a small, reeking, compartment filled with chemicals and a complete copy of the organism ‘s genome .
Symptoms occurring over a hanker period of time.

Clinical significance
A conclusion that an intervention has an effect that is of virtual think of to patients and health caution providers.

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)
A gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. C. difficile is recognized as the major causative agentive role of colitis ( inflammation of the colon ) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic inhalation.

Cohort study
An experimental study in which outcomes in a group of patients that received an intervention are compared with outcomes in a alike group i, the cohort, either contemporary or historic, of patients that did not receive the interposition.

Removal of region or the stallion colon.

Inflammation of the colon.

The big intestine.

Colonoscopy is a fiber-optic ( endoscopic ) routine in which a thin, elastic, lighted viewing tube ( a colonoscope ) is threaded up through the rectum for the determination of inspecting the entire colon and rectum and, if there is an abnormality, taking a weave sample of it ( biopsy ) for examen under a microscope, or removing it.

A surgically created hatchway of the colon to the abdominal wall, allowing the diversion of faecal waste.

Conditions existing at birth, but not through heredity.

Contrast radiology (GI)
A test in which a contrast fabric ( i, Barium ) is used to coat the rectum, colon, and lower part of the small intestine so they show up on an x-ray.

( See Randomized controlled trial ) A standard of comparison which can be a conventional practice, a placebo, or no treatment.

Control group
A group of patients that serves as the basis of comparison when assessing the effects of the intervention of sake that is given to the patients in the treatment group.

Reduced fecal matter frequency, or hard stools, difficulty spend stools, or irritating intestine movements.

A hormone associated with the physical effects of the stress answer within the consistency.

Crohn’s disease
A form of inflammatory intestine disease.

A type of protein released by cells of the immune system, which act through specific cell receptors to regulate immune responses.


An excessive loss of fluids in the torso.

A disease in which blood glucose ( rake sugar ) levels are above normal. Type 2 diabetes, besides known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ( NIDDM ), is the most common form of diabetes.

The muscle wall between the breast and the abdomen.

Passing frequent and easy stools that can be watery. Acute diarrhea goes away in a few weeks, and becomes chronic when it lasts longer than 4 weeks.

Expansion of an harmonium or vessel.

A disturbance in regular or normal serve. An abnormal stipulate.

A well up of the abdomen.

Occurs when a diverticulum become infected or annoy.

Diverticula (diverticulosis)
Small pouches in the colon.

Double blinding
A procedure in a clinical study that conceals the discussion from both the patient and the investigator.

The beginning partially of the small intestine.

The sensation of food perplex in the esophagus


The extent to which an intervention does people more dependable than injury under general or act conditions.

Efficacy The extent to which an intervention improves the result for people under ideal circumstances. Testing efficacy means finding out whether something is able of causing an effect at all.

Efferent nerves
Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord ( central skittish system ), which cause a muscle or gland to officiate.

Chemicals that break down into ions ( atoms ) in the body ‘s fluids and are necessity to regulating many body functions.

A sparse, flexible tube with a light and a lens on the end used to look into the esophagus, digest, duodenum, little intestine, colon, or rectum.

A routine that uses an endoscope to diagnose or treat a condition. There are many types of endoscopy ; examples include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, gastroscopy, enteroscopy, and esophogogastroduodenoscopy ( EGD ).

Enteral nutrition
Food provided through a pipe placed in the nose, stomach, or small intestine.

An pique of the humble intestine.

Inflammation of the intestines ganglion : A multitude of heart cells.

Examination of the inside of the small intestine using an endoscope.

Enteric nervous system (ENS)
Autonomic skittish system within the walls of the digestive tract. The ENS regulates digestion and the muscle contractions that eliminate firm waste.

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis
A rare disease characterized by food-related reactions, infiltration of certain white rake cells ( eosinophils ) in the GI tract, and an increase in the number of eosinophils in the rake.

The report of the distribution of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this report to the control of health problems.

The inner and outer weave covering digestive nerve pathway organs.

An irritation of the esophagus.

The organ that connects the mouth to the stomach.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
Examination of the at heart of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum using an endoscope. ( besides called Gastroscopy or Upper Endoscopy )


Findings based on the use of current best attest from scientific and medical research.


Failure to thrive (Pediatric)
A circumstance that occurs when a baby does not grow normally.

Tending to occur in more members of a family than expected by luck alone.

A hard mass of dried feces.

Waste eliminated from the bowels.

An abnormal passage between two organs or between an organ and the outside of the body.

5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
See Serotonin.

Food allergy
An immune system response by which the body creates antibodies as a reaction to sealed food. Studies show that true food allergies are present in merely 1-2 % of adults.

Functional disorder
A functional disorder refers to a disorderliness or disease where the primary abnormality is an revision in the means the soundbox works ( physiologic officiate ). It characterizes a disorder that by and large can not be diagnosed in a traditional way ; that is, as an inflammatory, infectious, or geomorphologic abnormality that can be seen by normally used examination, x-ray, or blood test.


Related to the stomach.

Gastric Juices
Liquids produced in the digest to help break down food and kill bacteria.

An inflammation of the stomach line.

An contagion or excitation of the digest and intestines

A repair who specializes in digestive diseases or disorders.

The field of medicate concerned with the function and disorders of the digestive system.

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
The brawny tube from the sass to the anus, besides called the alimentary duct or digestive tract.

Nerve or muscle damage in the stomach leading to delayed gastric emptying.

Examination of the inside of the esophagus, abdomen, and duodenum using an endoscope.

Gastrostomy (G-tube)
A method acting of enteric feed in which a pipe is surgically or endoscopically introduced through the abdominal wall.

The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from rear to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.

The complete genetic material of an organism.

GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
besides called acid ebb, a discipline where the contents of the stomach regurgitates ( or backs up ) into the esophagus ( food pipe ), causing discomfort and sometimes esophageal injury.

Glial cell
A type of cellular telephone that surrounds heart cells and holds them in home. Glial cells besides insulate nerve cells from each other.

Gluten intolerance
See Celiac disease.



A class of medicines that reduce the measure of acid the stomach produces.

Health related quality of life
The impact an illness has on quality of life, including the individual ‘s perception of his or her illness.

Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures
Patient consequence measures that extend beyond traditional measures of deathrate and unwholesomeness, to include such dimensions as physiology, function, social natural process, cognition, emotion, sleep and rest, energy and life force, health percept, and general life sentence satisfaction. ( Some of these are besides known as health status, functional status, or quality of life measures. )

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
A bacteria that can damage digest and duodenal tissue, causing ulcers and stomach cancer.

Veins around or inside the anus or lower rectum that are swollen and inflamed.

Related to the liver.

Genetically transmitted or catching from parent to offspring.

The extent to which a trait is influenced by our genic constitution.

Hiatal hernia
A little open in the diaphragm that allows a depart of the digest to move up into the chest.

Lowered threshold to pain.

Increased watchfulness. An intensify state of paying attention to or focusing on particular things. May badly limit a person ‘s ability to focus on specific tasks or engage in reflective think when their focus is on scanning for threatening stimulation. A person with a functional GI disorder or dissoluteness may be hypervigilant when their focus is on scanning for bodily sensations or indications that signal symptom attack.


A surgically created opening of the abdominal wall to the ileum, allowing the diversion of faecal waste.

The lower one-third of the small intestine, adjoining the colon.

A immanent state of feeling ailing that may include disability of normal physiological and social function.

Tests that produce pictures of areas inside the body.

Imperforate anus
A birth defect in which the anal duct fails to develop, treated surgically.

Describes the occurrence of a disease or disorder in a population. It is a rate, showing how many new cases of a disease occurred in a population ( typically a susceptible population called the “ at-risk population ” ) during a specify interval of time ( normally expressed as number of newly cases per unit prison term per fixed number of people ; e.g., act of newfangled cases per 1,000 persons in one year ).

Redness, swelling, pain, and/or a feel of inflame in an area of the consistency. This is a protective chemical reaction to injury, disease, or excitation of the tissues.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
A set of chronic diseases characterized by irritation and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. The most park disorders are ulcerative colitis and Crohn ‘s disease.

Taking into the torso by mouth.

Transmitted through genes from parents to offspring.

Institutional review board (IRB)
In the U.S. a group of scientists, doctors, clergy, and consumers at each health caution facility that participates in a clinical trial. IRBs are designed to protect analyze participants. They review and must approve the action plan for every clinical test. They check to see that the trial is well designed, does not involve undue risks, and includes safeguards for patients.

Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC)
Specialized pacemaker cells found throughout the gastrointestinal tract that are required for convention gastrointestinal motility.

Interstitial cystitis
A durable condition besides known as painful bladder syndrome or frequency-urgency-dysuria syndrome. The wall of the bladder becomes inflamed or irritated, which affects the sum of urine the bladder can hold and causes scarring, stiffening, and bleeding in the bladder.

A structure supplied with intact nerves.

Anything mean to change the course of events for person ( for example, drug, operation, test, treatment, rede, etc. )

Intestinal mucosa
The surface line of the intestines where the cells absorb nutrients.

Intestinal pseudo-obstruction
Symptoms and signs of intestinal blockage, but no actual obstruction.

besides known as the bowels, or the long, tube-like harmonium in the human body that completes digestion or the breaking down of food. They consist of the belittled intestine and the bombastic intestine.

Symptoms that do n’t respond to common treatments.

In U.S. clinical trials, refers to a drug ( including a new drug, dose, combination, or route of administration ) or procedure that has undergo basic lab testing and received approval from the Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) to be tested in human subjects. A drug or procedure may be approved by the FDA for use in one disease or stipulate, but be considered investigational in other diseases or conditions. besides called experimental.

In vitro
In the lab ( outside the body ). The antonym of in vivo ( in the torso ).

In vivo
In the consistency. The opposite of in vitro ( outside the body or in the lab ).

Ischemic colitis
Colitis caused by decreased blood flow to the colon.


Jejunostomy (J-tube)
A method acting of enteric feed in which a tube is surgically placed in the belittled intestine.



Laboratory study
Research done in a testing ground. These studies may use test tubes or animals to find out if a drug, procedure, or treatment is likely to be useful. lab studies take put before any testing is done in humans.

Laboratory test
A medical routine that involves testing a sample of blood, urine, or other means from the consistency. Tests can help determine a diagnosis, plan treatment, check to see if treatment is working, or monitor the disease over time.

A boodle found normally in milk and dairy products.

Lactose intolerance
The inability to digest or absorb lactose.

The insertion of a sparse, lighted metro ( called a laparoscope ) through the abdominal wall to inspect the inside of the abdomen and remove tissue samples.

Large intestine
The retentive, tube-like organ that is connected to the modest intestine at one end and the anus at the other. The big intestine has four parts : cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal. partially digested food moves through the cecum into the colon, where water system and some nutrients and electrolytes are removed. The remaining material, firm waste called stool, moves through the colon, is stored in the rectum, and leaves the body through the anal canal and anus.

A compound that increases faecal body of water content.

A type of white blood cell. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune arrangement, including the output of antibodies and early substances that fight infection and diseases.


A examination that measures pressure or contractions in the gastrointestinal tract.

Mast cell
A type of immune system cell present in blood and tissue.

Mast cell degranulation
The free from within the cell of granules, or small pouch, containing chemicals that can digest microorganisms and activate other cells to fight infection.

Substances within the body, such as hormones, that can transmit messages to nerve or muscle tissue to stimulate a response.

A method of summarizing previous research by reviewing and combining results from multiple studies.

The motion of cells, etc. from one situation to another.

A disease or the incidence of disease within a population. Morbidity besides refers to adverse effects caused by a treatment.

Movement of subject within the gastrointestinal tract.

Originating in muscleman tissue.


Nasogastric tube (NG-tube)
A tube placed through a nasal consonant passage into the stomach.

Cells in the human consistency that are the build up blocks of the skittish system ( the system that records and transmits data chemically and electrically within a person ). Nerve cells, or neurons, are made up of a heart cell soundbox and respective extensions from the cell body that receive and transmit impulses from and to other nerves and muscles.

Having to do with nerves or the nervous system, including the brain and the spinal cord.

A member of a class of protein-like molecules made in the brain. Neuropeptides dwell of short chains of amino acids, with some operation as neurotransmitters and some operation as hormones.

A chemical in the skittish system that helps transmit messages.

NIH or National Institutes of Health
The focal point of biomedical research in the United States. NIH conducts research in its own laboratories ; supports the research of non-Federal scientists in universities, aesculapian schools, hospitals, and inquiry institutions throughout the country and afield ; helps in the train of research investigators ; and fosters communication of aesculapian data. Access the NIH Web site at hypertext transfer protocol : //

Describes a clinical test or other experiment in which the researchers know what treatments are being given to each study subject or experimental group. If homo subjects are involved, they know what treatments they are receiving.

A chemical compound ( such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, or minerals ) that make up foods.

The pickings in and consumption of food and early nourishing material by the torso.



P value
The phosphorus ( probability ) rate is a calculation used in studies to determine if the results are caused by probability or not. The lower the p-value, the more probable it is that the remainder between groups was caused by discussion. A phosphorus measure less than 0.05 is statistically significant and indicates that the result is not due to opportunity.

Pain threshold
The point at which a person becomes aware of trouble.

Examination by pressing on the coat of the body to feel the organs or tissues underneath.

Parenteral nutrition
The slowly infusion of a solution of nutrients into a vein through a catheter, which is surgically implanted. This may be fond, to supplement food and alimentary inhalation, or total ( TPN, sum parenteral nutrition ), providing the sole source of energy and alimentary consumption for the patient.

The origin and development of a disease or perturb.

The study of the fundamental nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions and the geomorphologic and functional changes that resultant role.

Changes or alterations in affair that accompany a particular syndrome or disease, by and large as distinguished from structural defects.

Having to do with the pelvis ( the lower share of the abdomen located between the hep bones ).

Peptic ulcer
A sensitive in the trace of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, normally caused by most normally by the bacteria Helicobacter pylorus ( H. pylorus ) or use of NSAID medications. An ulcer in the stomach is a gastric ulcer ; an ulcer in the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer.

The area of the body between the anus and the vulva in females, and between the anus and the scrotum in males.

The study of the functions or critical processes of living things.

Pilot study
The initial survey examining a raw method or treatment.

A benign increase involving the liner of the GI nerve pathway ( noncancerous tumors or neoplasms ). They can occur in several locations in the gastrointestinal nerve pathway but are most common in the colon. They vary in size from less than a quarter of an edge to respective inches in diameter. They look like small bumps growing form the liner of the intestine and protruding into the lumen ( intestine cavity ). They sometimes grow on a “ stalk ” and look like mushrooms. many patients have several polyps scattered in different parts of the colon.

After meals.

The proportion of people in the entire population who are found to be with a disease or disorder at a certain point in clock time ( sometimes called a “ crisscross section ” ), without respect to when they first got the disease.

Primary care
First contact checkup care to patients.

Primary care physician
A doctor who manages a person ‘s health care over time. A elementary care repair is able to give a broad range of manage, including prevention and treatment, and can refer a patient to a specialist.

Primary lactase deficiency
When a person is born with the inability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and milk products. Lactose ca n’t be digested because there is not enough of an enzyme, called lactase, in the body. Consuming milk and dairy products causes diarrhea, bloat, gas, and discomfort. This lack can besides develop over time, as the sum of lactase in the consistency decreases with age.

A solicitation of current research reports, normally presented as brief abstracts, from a scientific meeting.

Progressive muscle relaxation
Voluntary relaxation through taxonomic tense and relax of different muscleman groups.

Drugs that enhance propulsion of contents through the catgut.

Prospective study
A study that utilizes carefully defined protocols to determine an result that is unknown ahead.

A protein that digests other proteins.

A big complex molecule made up of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins perform a across-the-board diverseness of activities in the cellular telephone.

An action design for a clinical trial. The design states what the study will do, how, and why. It explains how many people will be in it, who is eligible to participate, what study agents or other interventions they will be given, what tests they will receive and how much, and what data will be gathered.

Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)
The strongest class of drugs for inhibiting acerb secretion in the abdomen.


Quality of life
Perception of ability to meet day by day needs, forcible activities, wellbeing.


Radiation proctitis
Bleeding, mucous and bloody acquit, spasm of the rectal rampart, urgency, and dissoluteness due radiation-induced damage to the rectum. late symptoms result from scar of the rectal and anal muscles with personnel casualty of some of the modest blood vessels. The rectum becomes stiff and balker ( nonstretchable ) and abnormal blood vessels may develop.

Random allocation
A method acting where all participants in a cogitation have the like chance of being assigned to a study group, preferably than allotment being assigned by the investigators, clinicians, or participants.

Randomized controlled trial
A survey in which people are allocated at random to receive one of several clinical interventions. One intervention is regarded as a criterion of comparison or control.

A social organization in each cellular telephone that selectively receives and binds a specific meaning, such as a neurotransmitter.

The lower end of the large intestine, leading to the anus.

Resistant to treatment.

Resection, intestinal
The surgical removal of a diseased helping of the intestines.

Retrospective study
A study in which known outcomes are examined in hindsight using existing records. A retrospective study is normally less dependable than a prospective analyze.

A process in which chemical neurotransmitters, after transmitting their message, are taken up again by heart endings, broken down, and inactivated.


Feeling of fullness.

Scientific knowledge
The current fix of peer-evaluated consensus models about how natural phenomenon function, which frequently differ between groups of researchers at the inquiry frontier.

Scientific progress
The accumulative emergence of a system of cognition over time, in which useful features are retained and nonuseful features are abandoned, based on the rejection or confirmation of testable cognition.

An visualize method acting in which a meek dose of a radioactive meaning is swallowed to show how material moves through the GI tract.

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT)
A chemical neurotransmitter ( a chemical that acts on the nervous organization to help transmit messages along the nervous system ). It is found in the intestinal wall and the central nervous system. It is now wide understood that 95 % of the serotonin in the body resides in the catgut.

Sigmoid colon
The s-shaped section of the colon that connects to the rectum.

Examination of the inside of the sigmoid colon and rectum using an endoscope — a thin, lighted pipe ( sigmoidoscope ). Samples of tissue or cells may be collected for examination under a microscope. besides called proctosigmoidoscopy. Skin test
A examination for an immune response to a compound by placing it on or under the skin.

Small intestine
The part of the digestive tract that is located between the stomach and the bombastic intestine.

Psychological needs expressed as physical symptoms.

Ring of muscle that opens and closes and acts as a valve in respective “ check points ” of the GI tract.

Spinal cord
A column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the back. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, and is enclosed within the vertebra ( back bones ). The spinal anesthesia cord and the mind make up the central aflutter system, and spinal anesthesia cord nerves carry most messages between the brain and the rest of the body.

Squamous cell
A flat cell that looks like a pisces scale under a microscope. Squamous cells cover internal and external surfaces of the soundbox.

Abnormal tapered of a tubular part of the body.

A set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased probability of developing the disease.

Affecting the integral body.


Tertiary care
Medical concern in a highly specify center.

Translational science
Conversion of basic skill discoveries into the virtual applications that benefit people.


Ulcerative colitis
A shape of incendiary intestine disease that causes ulcers and ignition in the inside line of the colon and rectum.

An visualize method acting in which high-frequency sound waves are used to outline a part of the body.

Upper endoscopy
Examination of the at heart of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum using an endoscope.

Upper GI series
X-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.


The extent to which a standard accurately reflects the concept that it is intended to measure.

Valsalva maneuver
Voluntary increasing imperativeness in the abdominal cavity with the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to bear down on the rectum to facilitate defecation.

Tiny finger-like projections on the open of the little intestine that help absorb nutrients.

Visceral hypersensitivity
Enhanced perception, or over-responsiveness within the gut — even to normal events.





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The preceding information is intended alone to provide general information and not as a definitive basis for diagnosis or treatment in any finical casing. It is very authoritative that you consult your repair about your particular stipulate .

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