For the beverage known as water kefir, see Tibicos. For other uses, see Kaffir ( disambiguation ) “ Kefir grains ” redirects here. For water kefir grains, see Tibicos
Kefir ( besides spelled as kephir or kefier, russian : Кефир ; Adyghe : Къундэпс ; Karachay-Balkar : Гыпы ) ( kə-FEER ), [ 1 ] [ 2 ] is a ferment milk drink similar to a thin yogurt or ayran that is made from kefir grains, a specific type of mesophilic symbiotic culture. The drink originated in the North Caucasus, in particular the Elbrus environs along the upper mountainous regions of Circassia, Karachay and Balkaria from where it came to Russia, [ 3 ] [ 4 ] and from there it spread to Europe and the United States, where it is prepared by inoculating the milk of cows, goats, or sheep with kefir grains. [ 5 ]
origin and etymology [edit ]
The give voice kefir, known in the russian linguistic process ( кефир ) since at least 1884, [ 6 ] is possibly of North Caucasian origin, [ 7 ] as etymology dictionararies mention the origin of the word to be possibly deriving from a caucasian terminology. [ 8 ] Another opinion is that it comes from Adyghe кIэй ‘barrel ‘ and фыр ‘to sour ‘. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] traditional kefir was made in goatskin bags that were hung near a doorway ; the bags would be knocked by anyone passing through to keep the milk and kefir grains well shuffle. [ 11 ] Among people of circassian lineage all over the earth, it is called qundəps ( Adyghe : къундэпс, Adyghe pronunciation : [ qwəndaps ] ). [ 12 ] In Karachay-Balkar it is called gıpı, which may have a connection with gıbıt ( wineskin ). It was under the appoint “ wineskin ” that North Caucasian kefir was distributed in the moment half of the nineteenth hundred and at the beginning of the twentieth hundred. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Kefir spread from the erstwhile Soviet Union to the lie of Europe, Japan, and the United States by the early twenty-first hundred. [ 7 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ]
Bek-Mirza Baychorov and Irina Sakharova. First distributors of kefir to Russia. The fatherland of kefir is considered to be “ the vicinity of Elbrus along the upper reaches of the Kuban ”, [ 3 ] and the invention of kefir sourdough belongs to Circassians [ 17 ] [ 12 ] [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] or Karachay – Balkars. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] There has been controversy on which one of the two foremost invented it, as nationalists of both sides claimed their side was the original inventor. The cauliflower-like grains of kefir culture were thought of as having amazing healing powers as far back as the eighteenth hundred, and big care was taken by the North caucasian families who bequeathed from coevals to generation as a source of family wealth. It ‘s inactive believed in North white tradition that it ‘s forbidden to give kefir grains to anyone because it makes the spirits angry. So the North caucasian people found a way to get kefir grains, they ″bogusly steal″ them from their neighbors by anterior agreement, so spirits would n’t know about this. [ 14 ] Word of this potent food and medicine spread to areas far from the Caucasus, and at the beginning of the twentieth century, the All-Russian Physician ‘s Society asked two brothers Blandov, who owned tall mallow manufacturing factories in the Northern Caucasus, for help oneself in obtaining the culture grains of kefir. One of the brothers, Nikolai Blandov, persuaded a young employee, Irina Timofeevna Sakharova, to use her beauty to gain access to the much-desired grain. She, consequently, traveled to the Narsana where she attempted to interest a local uzden, Bek-Mirza Baychorov, to assist her in this plot. When he declined to give up any of the valued substance she left to return, only to be captured by agents of the Bek-Mirza, who did n’t want to give up the kefir and did not wish to lose the bearing of the adorable Irina either. [ 24 ] Finding herself back in his presence and facing a proposal of marriage into the bargain she remained dumb until a rescue deputation arranged by her employers freed her. She promptly brought the prince before the Tsar ‘s court where she accepted grains of kefir as the settlement of her suit for abduction. In September 1908 Irina Sakharova brought the first bottles of kefir to Moscow for sale where it was at first used for medicative purposes. In 1973, Irina, then 85, was sent a letter from the Minister of the Food Industry of the Soviet Union, acknowledging her great part in bringing kefir to the russian people. [ 25 ] besides, according to Alimurat Tekeyev ( great-grandson of Bek-Mirza Baychorov, owner of a patent for the manufacture of ayran ), letters from Irina Timofeevna refute the fact of abduction : “ My great-grandfather, realizing what would become the most valuable gift for Irina, gifted kefir fungus to her ”. then Irina Timofeevna wrote : “ Bek-Mirza and I left the populace a huge health-improving heritage of millions. If Bek-Mirza is no longer with us – his ageless memory ”. In fact, Bekmyrza Baichorov continued to engage in animal farming and supplied the caucasian breed of sheep for the celebrated parisian Maxim restaurant, ampere well as to restaurants of Moscow .
agitation [edit ]
Kefir grains, a symbiotic matrix of bacteria and yeasts traditional kefir is fermented at ambient temperatures, generally overnight. agitation of the lactose yields a sour, carbonated, slenderly alcoholic beverage, with a consistency and taste similar to beverage yogurt. [ 26 ] The kefir grains initiating the agitation are initially created by auto-aggregations of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces turicensis, which then gets the come on adhered by multiple biofilm producers to become a three dimensional microcolony. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The biofilm is a matrix of heteropolysaccharides called kefiran, which is composed of peer proportions of glucose and galactose. [ 7 ] It resembles small cauliflower grains, with color ranging from white to creamy chicken. A building complex and highly variable symbiotic community can be found in these grains, which can include acetic acid bacteria ( such as A. aceti and A. rasens ), yeasts ( such as Candida kefyr and S. cerevisiae ) and a number of Lactobacillus species, such as L. parakefiri, L. kefiranofaciens ( and subsp. kefirgranum [ 29 ] ), L. kefiri, [ 30 ] etc. [ 7 ] While some microbes predominate, Lactobacillus species are always present. [ 31 ] The microbe vegetation can vary between batches of kefir due to factors such as the kefir grains rising out of the milk while fermenting or curds forming around the grains, equally well as temperature. [ 32 ] Additionally, Tibetan kefir composition differs from that of the Russian kefir, Irish kefir, Taiwan kefir and Turkey fermented beverage with kefir. [ 7 ] In holocene years, the use of freeze-dry starter culture has become common due to constancy of the zymosis leave, because the species of microbes are selected in lab conditions, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as easy department of transportation. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] [ 35 ] During agitation, changes in the composition of ingredients occur. Lactose, the sugar present in milk, is broken down by and large to lactic acerb ( 25 % ) by the lactic acid bacteria, which results in acidification of the intersection. [ 31 ] Propionibacteria far break down some of the lactic acidic into propionic acidic ( these bacteria besides carry out the like agitation in Swiss tall mallow ). early substances that contribute to the flavor of kefir are pyruvic acidic, acetic acid, diacetyl and acetoin ( both of which contribute a “ buttery ” spirit ), citric acidic, acetaldehyde, and amino acids resulting from protein dislocation. [ 36 ]
Low lactose contentedness [edit ]
The slow-acting yeasts, late in the zymosis summons, break lactose down into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. [ citation needed ] As a result of the agitation, very little lactose remains in kefir. [ citation needed ] People with lactose intolerance are able to tolerate kefir, provided the count of live bacteria present in this beverage consumed is high enough ( i.e., zymosis has proceeded for adequate meter ). It has besides been shown that fermented milk products have a slower transit time than milk, which may far improve lactose digestion. [ 37 ]
Alcohol/ethanol content [edit ]
Kefir contains ethanol, [ 38 ] which is detectable in the blood of human consumers. [ 39 ] [ dubious – discuss ] The level of ethyl alcohol in kefir can vary by product method. A 2016 cogitation of kefir sold in Germany showed an ethyl alcohol flat of only 0.02 g per liter, which was attributed to agitation under control conditions allowing the emergence of Lactobacteria merely, but excluding the growth of other microorganisms that form much higher amounts of ethyl alcohol. [ 40 ] A 2008 study of german commercial kefir found levels of 0.002-0.005 % of ethyl alcohol. [ 41 ] Kefir produced by minor dairies in Russia early in the twentieth century had 1-2 % ethyl alcohol. [ 41 ] Modern processes, which use shorter agitation times, result in much lower ethyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2–0.3 %. [ citation needed ]
nutriment [edit ]
composition [edit ]
Kefir products contain nutrients in varying amounts from negligible to significant, including dietary minerals, vitamins, substantive amino acids, and conjugated linoleic acerb, [ 42 ] in amounts like to fresh cow, capricorn, or sheep milk. [ 43 ] At a ph of 4.2 – 4.6, [ 44 ] kefir is composed chiefly of water and by-products of the zymosis procedure, including carbon paper dioxide and ethyl alcohol. [ 45 ]
typical of milk, respective dietary minerals are found in kefir, such as calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, copper, molybdenum, manganese, and zinc in amounts that have not been standardized to a reputable food database. [ 45 ] besides similar to milk, [ 43 ] kefir contains vitamins in variable amounts, including vitamin A, vitamin B1 ( vitamin b1 ), vitamin B2 ( vitamin b2 ), vitamin B3 ( niacin ), vitamin B6 ( vitamin b6 ), vitamin B9 ( folic acid ), vitamin B12 ( vitamin b12 ), vitamin C, vitamin D, and vitamin E. [ 45 ] Essential amino acids found in kefir include methionine, cysteine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine, and valine, [ 45 ] as for any milk merchandise. [ 43 ]
Microbiota [edit ]
probiotic bacteria found in kefir products include : Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, and Leuconostoc species. [ 31 ] [ 42 ] [ 46 ] Lactobacilli in kefir may exist in concentrations varying from approximately 1 million to 1 billion colony-forming units per milliliter, and are the bacteria responsible for the synthesis of the polysaccharide kefiran. [ 5 ] In addition to bacteria, kefir often contains strains of yeast that can metabolize lactose, such as Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Saccharomyces fragilis, adenine good as strains of yeast that do not metabolize lactose, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Kazachstania unispora. [ 31 ] The nutritional significance of these strains is unknown .
production [edit ]
90 grams of kefir grains Kefir production Kefir is made by adding kefir grains to milk typically at a symmetry of 2–5 % grains-to-milk. The concoction is then placed in a corrosion-resistant container, such as a glass jolt, and stored preferably in the dark to prevent degradation of light-sensitive vitamins. After a menstruation between 12–24 hours of agitation at meek temperature, ideally 20–25 °C ( 68–77 °F ), [ 36 ] the grains are strained from the milk using a corrosion-resistant ( stainless sword or plastic ) utensil and kept to produce another batch. During the zymosis summons the grains enlarge and finally split forming new units. The resulting ferment liquid may be drink, used in recipes, or kept away in a seal container for extra time to undergo a secondary zymosis. Because of its acidity the beverage should not be stored in reactive metallic containers such as aluminum, copper, or zinc, as these may leach into it over meter. The shelf life, unrefrigerated, is up to thirty days. [ 47 ] The russian method permits production of kefir on a larger scale and uses two fermentations. The first tone is to prepare the cultures by inoculating milk with 2–3 % grains as trace. The grains are then removed by filtration and 1–3 % of the resulting liquid mother polish is added to milk and fermented for 12 to 18 hours. [ 48 ] Kefir can be made using freeze-dry cultures normally available in powder form from health food stores. A part of the resulting kefir can be saved to be used a numeral of times to propagate far fermentations but ultimately does not form grains. In Taiwan, researchers were able to produce kefir in lab using microorganisms isolated from kefir grains. They report that the resulting kefir drink had chemical properties similar to homemade kefir. [ 49 ]
milk types [edit ]
Kefir grains will ferment the milk from most mammals and will continue to grow in such milk. typical animal milks used include cow, capricorn, and sheep, each with varying organoleptic ( flavor, olfactory property, and texture ) and nutritional qualities. Raw milk has been traditionally used. milk boodle is not necessity for the deduction of the polysaccharide that makes up the grains ( kefiran ), and rice hydrolysate is a suitable option medium. [ 50 ] Additionally, kefir grains will reproduce when fermenting soy sauce milk, although they will change in appearance and size due to the differing proteins available to them. [ 51 ] A variation of kefir grains that thrive in sugary urine besides exists, see urine kefir ( or tibicos ), and can vary markedly from milk kefir in both appearance and microbial typography .
culinary [edit ]
As it contains Lactobacillus bacteria, kefir can be used to make a sourdough bread. It is besides utilitarian as a buttermilk substitute in baking. Kefir is one of the independent ingredients in borsch in Lithuania, besides known in Poland as Lithuanian cold soup ( chłodnik litewski ), and other countries. Kefir-based soup okroshka is common across the former Soviet Union. Kefir may be used in position of milk on grain, granola, milkshakes, salad dress, ice cream, smoothies and soup .
See besides [edit ]
other fermented dairy products [edit ]
other fermented beverages [edit ]
References [edit ]
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