Vitamins and minerals

A goodly balanced diet containing a variety of foods should provide all the vitamins your body needs to work properly .
There are 2 types of vitamins, fat-soluble and water-soluble .

Fat-soluble vitamins

fat-soluble vitamins are chiefly found in foods that are high in natural fatten – such as dairy, eggs and greasy fish .
You do n’t need to eat these types of food every day to get adequate of these vitamins. Every meter you eat these foods your body stores them in your liver and body adipose tissue for future habit.

fat-soluble vitamins include :

  • vitamin A
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E
  • vitamin K

Vitamin A

Vitamin A ( besides known as vitamin a1 ) has several crucial functions, including :

  • helping your immune system to fight infections
  • helping your vision in dim light
  • keeping your skin healthy

estimable sources of vitamin A include :

  • cheese
  • eggs
  • oily fish
  • fortified low-fat spreads
  • milk and yoghurt

Vitamin D

Vitamin D helps to regulate the sum of calcium and phosphate in the body, crucial for bone, teeth and muscleman health .
Vitamin D is made by our peel from sunlight and is besides found in modest amounts in some foods .
beneficial sources of vitamin D include :

  • oily fish – such as salmon, herring and mackerel
  • red meat and offal – such as liver and kidney
  • egg yolks
  • fortified cereals, soya products and spreads

Since vitamin D is found in merely a small number of foods. In Scotland everyone over the age of 5 should consider taking a supplement with vitamin D, particularly over the winter. Therefore, everyone aged over one class – including fraught and breastfeeding women – should consider taking a daily accessory containing 10 micrograms of vitamin D .
Between April and September, the majority of people aged 5 years and above will credibly get enough vitamin D from sunlight when they are outdoors. They might choose not to take a vitamin D addendum during these months .
Some population groups ( with identical little or no sunlight exposure ) will not obtain enough vitamin D from sunlight and are at greater hazard of vitamin D lack. This includes :

  • people who are seldom outdoors such as frail or housebound individuals and those who are confined indoors e.g. in institutions such as care homes
  • people who habitually wear clothes that cover most of their skin while outdoors
  • people from minority ethnic groups with dark skin such as those of African, African-Caribbean and South Asian origin

These people should take a daily addendum containing 10 micrograms vitamin D throughout the year .
Given the uncertainty of reproducible sunlight in Scotland and the risks of exposing infants 0-6 months to the sun, it may be advisable for pregnant and wet women to take a daily append throughout the year .

Staying safe in the sun

In Scotland, 10 to 15 minutes of unprotected sun exposure is safe for all. After sunscreen is correctly applied, vitamin D synthesis is blocked .
Staying in the sun for elongated periods without the protection of sunscreen increases the hazard of hide cancer .

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that helps to :

  • repair damaged cells and protect them from free-radicals
  • keep your skin and eyes healthy
  • strengthen your immune system

good sources of vitamin E include :

  • plant-based oils – such as olive and rapeseed
  • nuts and seeds
  • cereals and cereal products

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is important for healthy bones and lineage clot, an all-important depart of curative .
full sources of vitamin K include :

  • green leafy vegetables – such as broccoli and spinach
  • plant-based oils
  • nuts and seeds
  • meat
  • dairy products
  • soya beans

Water-soluble vitamins

Unlike fat-soluble vitamins, you need to consume water-soluble vitamins more much. Your soundbox ca n’t store these for future use and gets rid of any excess when you pass urine .
water-soluble vitamins include :

  • vitamin C
  • B vitamins
  • folic acid

They ‘re found in :

  • fruit and vegetables
  • grains
  • dairy foods

Being water soluble, these vitamins can be lost or destroyed through heating system, dissolving or exposure to air. To keep as many of these as possible, choose to steam or grill these foods alternatively of boiling ( unless you ‘re making soups or stews with the fluid ) .

Vitamin C

Vitamin C ( besides known as ascorbic acidic ) helps to :

  • protect and keep cells healthy
  • maintain healthy connective tissue
  • heal wounds

Vitamin C is found in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables. estimable sources include :

  • citrus fruit – including oranges and grapefruit
  • red and green peppers
  • potatoes
  • strawberries, blueberries and blackberries
  • green leafy vegetables – such as broccoli and brussels sprouts

Vitamin B1 (thiamin)

Thiamin is besides known as vitamin B1. It helps the other B vitamins to break down and release energy from food and keep your anxious system healthy .
Thiamin is found in most types of food. thoroughly sources include :

  • meat and fish – such as pork and trout
  • vegetables – such as peas, asparagus and squash
  • fresh and dried fruit
  • eggs
  • wholegrain breads
  • some fortified breakfast cereal

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Riboflavin is besides known as vitamin B2. It helps to keep your skin, eyes and skittish arrangement healthy and release department of energy from the food you eat .
good sources of vitamin b2 include :

  • milk
  • eggs
  • fortified breakfast cereals
  • rice

Vitamin B3 (niacin)

Niacin is besides known as vitamin B3. It helps to release department of energy from the foods you eat and keep your bark and skittish system goodly .
There are 2 forms of niacin – nicotinic acidic and nicotinamide – both of which are found in food .
good sources of niacin admit :

  • meat
  • fish
  • wheat flour
  • eggs
  • milk

Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acidic helps to release energy from the food we eat. It ‘s found naturally in most meats, vegetables and wholegrains, including :

  • chicken and beef
  • potatoes
  • tomatoes and broccoli
  • kidney
  • eggs
  • wholegrains – such as brown rice and wholemeal bread
  • porridge

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

vitamin b6 is besides known as vitamin B6. It helps the consistency to :

  • use and store energy from protein and carbohydrates in food
  • form the substance that carries oxygen around the body (haemoglobin) in your blood

beneficial sources of vitamin B6 include :

  • lean meat – such as chicken or turkey
  • fish
  • whole cereals – such as oatmeal, brown rice and wholegrain bread
  • eggs
  • vegetables
  • soya beans
  • peanuts
  • milk
  • potatoes

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Biotin is besides known as vitamin B7 and is only needed in small amounts. It helps your body process ( metabolize ) fat .
As the bacteria in your intestine make biotin, you may not need any extra biotin from your diet. however, it ‘s still crucial to eat a healthy and change diet .

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 helps your consistency :

  • make red blood cells and keep the nervous system healthy
  • release energy from the food we eat
  • process folic acid

good sources include :

  • meat
  • fish – such as salmon and cod
  • shellfish
  • dairy foods
  • eggs
  • some fortified breakfast cereals

Vitamin B12 is not found naturally in plants and grains. If you ‘re vegan, you should consider taking a B vitamin supplement to reduce the risk of developing vitamin B12 insufficiency anemia .

Folic acid

Folic acerb ( besides known as vitamin bc ) works with vitamin B12 to form healthy loss lineage cells .
It can besides help to reduce the hazard of central nervous organization defects – such as spina bifida – in unborn babies.

good sources of folic acidic include :

  • broccoli
  • brussels sprouts
  • liver
  • spinach
  • asparagus
  • peas
  • chickpeas
  • fortified breakfast cereals

If you do n’t have enough folic acid in your diet you ‘re at risk of developing vitamin bc insufficiency anemia .
More about folic acid before and during pregnancy

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Category : Health

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