What Are Fermented Foods? – Heart Foundation

Fermented foods: the latest trend

Fermented foods and beverages are becoming increasingly popular. You can immediately find kombucha on tap in bars, sourdough bread in cafe and more varieties of yogurt, sauerkraut and kimchi in your local supermarket .Fermented foods in jars But what are the heart health benefits and should you be including them in your diet ? Fermented foods have been part of the human diet for centuries, and were initially produced as a way to preserve foods, improve flavor and eliminate food toxins. today, more people are turning to these foods for their likely health benefits 1, 2 .

What are fermented foods?

Fermented foods are foods and beverages that have undergone controlled microbial emergence and zymosis 1. agitation is an anaerobic process in which microorganisms like yeast and bacteria break down food components ( e.g. sugars such as glucose ) into other products ( e.g. organic acids, gases or alcohol ). This gives fermented foods their unique and desirable taste, olfactory property, texture and appearance.

There are thousands of different types of fermented foods, including :

  • cultured milk and yoghurt
  • wine
  • beer 
  • cider
  • tempeh
  • miso
  • kimchi
  • sauerkraut
  • fermented sausage.

Tempeh Tempeh is made from ferment soy beans. sourdough bread Sourdough boodle is made from fermented boodle. Most foods can be fermented from whole foods like vegetables, fruits, cereals, dairy, kernel, fish, eggs, legumes, nuts and seeds. While these foods are alimentary in their original form, through zymosis, they have the likely to carry extra health benefits – particularly when they contain probiotics and prebiotics .

What are probiotics?

many people know probiotics as ‘ good ’ or ‘ friendly ’ bacteria for the gut, with Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium being the most well-known. Probiotics are be microorganisms or bacteria that provide a health benefit to the human body 4, 5. Experts believe that most strains from normally studied species, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, benefit the gut by creating a more favorable gut environment 4. They besides agreed that probiotics support a goodly immune system, however, some strains may be more effective than others. respective other benefits such as supporting organ health ( e.g. lungs, generative, skin ) and climate are promising, but there is not enough testify to say that all probiotics have these effects 4. many fermented foods contain probiotics because they are added or they naturally occur in the food. For exercise, Lactobacilli is a probiotic stress that is normally found in yogurt and naturally lives on the airfoil of some foods such as vegetables and fruit. This means that not all fermented foods contain probiotics, particularly many commercially produced foods that are pasteurized, which kills any bacteria ( along with their associated health benefits ). Yoghurt in a bowl yogurt is made from fermented milk

What are prebiotics?

Prebiotics are food ingredients that the microorganisms in your body ( e.g. gut bacteria ) use or ‘ feed ’ on to grow and live, leading to health benefits 6. The most report and researched prebiotics to have documented health benefits in humans are the non-digestible oligosaccharides fructans and galactans. 6. adept sources of these include :

  • asparagus
  • garlic
  • onions
  • wheat
  • chicory
  • Jerusalem artichokes
  • tomato
  • barley
  • honey
  • rye
  • milk (human and cow’s milk).

however, most fruits and vegetables, and legumes contain some type of prebiotic 7. As with probiotics, prebiotics have primarily been associated with improving the gut environment 6. prebiotic food Garlic, onion, asparagus and leek are examples of prebiotic foods .

What are the benefits of fermented foods? 

Fermented foods have historically been valued for their improved shelf life and singular taste, olfactory property, texture and appearance. They besides allow us to consume differently inedible foods. For example, table olives must be fermented in arrange to remove their bitter-tasting phenolic resin compounds. many health benefits have been associated with ferment foods, including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, high rake blackmail, diabetes, fleshiness and excitement. They have besides been linked to better weight management, better temper and brain activity, increased bone health and
better recovery after exercise 1, 3. When looking at center health, probiotics may help to decrease total and low-density lipoprotein ( LDL ) cholesterol however the tell for this is still very limited 8. One explanation for all of these effects is the production of bioactive peptides, vitamins and other compounds produced by the microorganisms involved in agitation and have samara roles in the body, such as blood health, boldness function and unsusceptibility. It ’ s crucial to remember that these health benefits are likely dependent on the type of fermented food and microorganisms involved. For example, yogurt consumption has been associated with repress gamble of type 2 diabetes 9-11, while fermented milk that contains Lactobacillus helveticus has been associated with reduce muscle discomfort 12.

Kombucha in a jar Kombucha is made from ferment green or black tea .

How can I eat more fermented foods?

Although fermented foods may sound fancy, the practice of zymosis is actually simple and low-cost. It alone requires a few ingredients and when done at home, can save you a draw of money, while adding kind, fresh flavours and interest textures to your diet. Vegetables such as boodle, beetroot, radish, turnip and carrots are some of the easiest foods to ferment at home, as the bacteria populate on the airfoil does the ferment for you. Try making your own sauerkraut, kimchi and pickled seasonal vegetables, including prebiotic-rich foods such as onion and garlic to add flavour and excess health benefits. This is a great way to experience the benefits of fermented foods while including more vegetables in your diet. Despite fermented foods being alimentary foods, there is no individual food that improves our heart health – it is our overall diet. Fermented foods are best eat in the context of a heart-healthy eat design that emphasises vegetables, yield, whole grains in place of polished grains, legumes, nuts, seeds and greasy fish. Kimchi in a bowl Kimchi is made from sour boodle .Find out more about healthy eating Jeanette Rapson, NZRD

Jeanette Rapson, NZRD

Cooking Curriculum Project Coordinator

I am presently completing my PhD research at Massey University on vegetables as beginning foods for babies. 1. Marco, M.L., et al., Health benefits of fermented foods : microbiota and beyond. current opinion in biotechnology, 2017. 44:94-102. 2. Bell, V., J. Ferrão, and T. Fernandes, Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks. Foods, 2017. 6 ( 8 ) :65. 3. Şanlier, N., B.B. GÖkcen, and A.C. Sezgin, Health benefits of fermented foods. critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 2017:1-22. 4. Hill, C., et al., Expert consensus document : The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the telescope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2014. 11 ( 8 ) :506. 5. hotel, A.C.P. and A. Cordoba, Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. prevention, 2001. 5 ( 1 ) :1-34. 6.Gibson, G.R., et al., Expert consensus document : The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics ( ISAPP ) consensus instruction on the definition and oscilloscope of prebiotics. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2017. 14 ( 8 ) :491. 7. Al-Sheraji, S.H., et al., Prebiotics as functional foods : a review. Journal of Functional Foods, 2013. 5 ( 4 ) :1542-1553. 8. Cho, Y.A., Effect of Probiotics on Blood Lipis Concentrations : A meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Medicine, 2015. 94 ( 43 ) : e1714 9. Chen, M., et al., Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes : 3 cohorts of US adults and an update meta-analysis. BMC medicine, 2014. 12 ( 1 ) :215.

9. Eussen, S.J., et al., Consumption of dairy foods in relative to impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus : the Maastricht Study. british Journal of Nutrition, 2016. 115 ( 8 ) :1453-1461. 10. Soedamah-Muthu, S.S., et al., Consumption of dairy products and associations with incident diabetes, CHD and mortality in the Whitehall II study. british Journal of Nutrition, 2013. 109 ( 4 ) :718-726. 11. Iwasa, M., et al., Fermented milk improves glucose metabolism in exercise-induced muscle damage in youthful healthy men. Nutrition journal, 2013. 12 ( 1 ) :83 .

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