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pictorial representation of a facial construction using punctuation marks, numbers and letters
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An emoticon (, ə-MOH-tə-kon, rarely pronounced ), [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] short circuit for “ emotion picture ”, [ 5 ] besides known simply as an emote, [ citation needed ] is a graphic theatrical performance of a facial expression using characters —usually punctuation marks, numbers, and letters—to express a person ‘s feelings, mood or chemical reaction, or as a time-saving method.

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The first ASCII emoticons are by and large credited to calculator scientist Scott Fahlman, who proposed what came to be known as “ smileys ” – :-) and :-( – in a message on the bulletin board system ( BBS ) of Carnegie Mellon University in 1982. In western countries, emoticons are normally written at a justly angle to the commission of the text. Users from Japan popularized a kind of emoticon called kaomoji, utilizing the Katakana character sic, that can be understood without tilting one ‘s head to the left. This style arose on ASCII NET of Japan in 1986. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] As SMS mobile textbook message and the Internet became widespread in the late 1990s, emoticons became increasingly popular and were normally used in texting, Internet forums, and e-mails. Emoticons have played a significant character in communication through engineering, and some devices and applications have provided conventionalized pictures that do not use text punctuation. They offer another roll of “ tone ” and feeling through texting that portrays specific emotions through facial gestures while in the midst of text-based cyber communication. [ 8 ] Emoticons were the precursors to modern emojis, which have been in a country of continuous development for a kind of digital platforms .

history [edit ]

Precursors [edit ]

Le Charivari, text of a legal ruling against it in the shape of a pear, 1834. Cover of the french cartridge holder, text of a legal predominate against it in the form of a pear, 1834. modern emoticons were not the inaugural instances of : ) or : – ) being used in text. In 1648, poet Robert Herrick wrote the lines :

Tumble me down, and I will sit
Upon my ruins, ( smiling so far : )

Herrick ‘s work predated any other recorded practice of brackets as a smiling confront by around 200 years. however, experts have since weighed whether the inclusion of the colon in the poem was consider and if it was meant to represent a smiling confront. english professor Alan Jacobs argued that “ punctuation, in general, was unsettled in the seventeenth hundred … Herrick was improbable to have consistent punctuational practices himself, and even if he did he could n’t expect either his printers or his readers to share them. ” [ 9 ] Precursors to modern emoticons have existed since the nineteenth hundred. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] The National Telegraphic Review and Operators Guide in April 1857 documented the manipulation of the number 73 in Morse code to express “ love and kisses ” [ 13 ] ( late reduced to the more ball “ best regards ” ). Dodge’s Manual in 1908 documented the reintroduction of “ love and kisses ” as the number 88. New Zealand academics Joan Gajadhar and John Green comment that both Morse code abbreviations are more compendious than modern abbreviations such as LOL. [ 14 ]
transcript of a address by Abraham Lincoln in 1862 The transcript of one of Abraham Lincoln ‘s speeches in 1862 recorded the consultation ‘s chemical reaction as : “ ( applause and laugh ; ) ”. [ 10 ] [ 15 ] There has been some debate whether the glyph in Lincoln ‘s manner of speaking was a misprint, a legitimate punctuation construct, or the first emoticon. [ 16 ] Linguist Philip Seargeant argues that it was a simple typeset error. [ 17 ] In the late 1800s, an model of “ typographic art ” appeared in the U.S. satirical magazine Puck, using punctuation to represent the emotions of joy. melancholy, indifference, and astonishment. [ 17 ]
Puck[17] “ typographic art ” published in the March 30, 1881 exit of In a 1912 essay titled “ For Brevity and Clarity ”, American author Ambrose Bierce suggested facetiously [ 10 ] [ 15 ] that a bracket could be used to represent a smiling face, proposing “ an improvement in punctuation ” with which writers could convey cachinnation, brassy or immoderate laugh : “ it is written thus ‿ and presents a smiling mouth. It is to be appended, with the full stop, to every jesting or dry sentence ”. [ 10 ] [ 18 ] In a 1936 Harvard Lampoon article, writer Alan Gregg proposed combining brackets with versatile other punctuation marks to represent assorted moods. Brackets were used for the sides of the talk or cheek, with other punctuation used between the brackets to display versatile emotions : ( – ) for a smile, ( — ) ( showing more “ teeth ” ) for laughter, ( # ) for a frown and ( * ) for a wink. [ 10 ] [ 19 ] Emoticons had already come into use in sci-fi fandom in the 1940s, [ 20 ] [ verification needed ] although there seems to have been a relapse in cultural continuity between the communities. [ citation needed ] The September 1962 publish of MAD magazine included an article titled “ Typewri-toons ”. The piece, featuring typewriter-generated artwork credited to “ Royal Portable ”, was wholly made up of repurposed typography, including a capital letter P having a bigger burst than a capital I, a lowercase b and five hundred discussing their pregnancies, an asterisk on top of a letter to indicate the letter had barely come inside from snow, and a classroom of small letter north ‘s interrupted by a small letter heat content “ raising its pass ”. [ 21 ] Two extra “ Typewri-toons ” articles subsequently appeared in Mad, in 1965 and 1987. [ non-primary source needed ] A farther exemplar attributed to a Baltimore Sunday Sun columnist appeared in a 1967 article in Reader’s Digest, using a hyphen and right bracket to represent a tongue in one ‘s buttock : — ). [ 10 ] [ 15 ] [ 22 ] Prefiguring the modern “ smiley ” emoticon, [ 10 ] [ 17 ] writer Vladimir Nabokov told an interviewer from The New York Times in 1969, “ I often think there should exist a limited typographic sign for a smile – some kind of concave scratch, a supine round bracket, which I would now like to trace in reply to your interrogate. ” [ 23 ]

invention of : – ) and : – ( [edit ]

Carnegie Mellon computer scientist Scott Fahlman is generally credited with the invention of the digital text-based emoticon in 1982. [ 17 ] [ 24 ] [ 11 ] Carnegie Mellon ‘s bulletin board system ( BBS ) was a forum used by students and teachers for discussing a variety of topics, where jokes frequently created misunderstandings. [ 25 ] As a response to the trouble of conveying humor or sarcasm in plain text, [ 11 ] Fahlman proposed colon– hyphen –right bracket :-) as a label for “ undertake humor ”. [ 26 ] The manipulation of ASCII symbols, a standard set of codes representing typographic marks, was essential to allow the symbols to be displayed on any calculator. [ 25 ] Fahlman sent the following message [ a ] after an incident where a humorous warn about a mercury spill in an elevator was misunderstood as dangerous : [ 15 ] [ 17 ] [ 28 ]

19-Sep-82 11:44    Scott E  Fahlman             :-)
From: Scott E  Fahlman 
 
I propose that the following character sequence for joke markers:
        
:-)
        
Read it sideways.  Actually, it is probably more economical to mark
things that are NOT jokes, given current trends.  For this, use
        
:-(

other suggestions on the forum included an asterisk * and an ampersand &, the former mean to represent a person doubled over in laugh, [ 29 ] [ 28 ] adenine well as a percentage signboard % and a british pound sign of the zodiac #. [ 30 ] Within a few months, the smiley had spread to the ARPANET [ 31 ] [ non-primary source needed ] and Usenet. [ 32 ] [ non-primary source needed ]

late evolution [edit ]

“ Smiley ” emoticons ( colon, hyphen and bracket ) have become integral to digital communications, [ 12 ] and have inspired a assortment of other emoticons, [ 11 ] including the “ flash ” face using a semicolon ;-), [ 34 ] the “ surprise ” face with a letter o in invest of a bracket :-o, and XD, a ocular representation of the Face with Tears of Joy emoji or the acronym LOL. The 1997 book Smileys by David Sanderson included over 650 unlike emoticons, and James Marshall ‘s on-line dictionary of emoticons listed over two thousand in the early on 2000s. A research worker at Stanford University surveyed the emoticons used in four million Twitter messages and found that the smiling emoticon without a hyphenate “ nose ” :) was much more park than the original version with the hyphenate :-). Linguist Vyvyan Evans argues that this represents a chemise in custom by younger users as a form of covert prestige : rejecting a standard use in order to demonstrate in-group membership. Inspired by Fahlman ‘s idea of using faces in language, the Loufrani family established The Smiley Company in 1996. [ 37 ] Nicolas Loufrani developed hundreds of different emoticons, including 3D versions. His designs were registered at the United States Copyright Office in 1997 and appeared on-line as .gif files in 1998. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ] These were the first base graphic representations of the originally text-based emoticon. [ 41 ] He published his icons deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as emoticons created by others, along with their ASCII versions, in an on-line Smiley Dictionary in the early 2000s. [ 38 ] This dictionary included over 3,000 unlike smileys [ 42 ] and was published as a book called Dico Smileys in 2002. [ 38 ] [ 43 ] Fahlman has stated that he sees emojis as “ the outside descendants of this thing I did. ” [ 44 ] The original smileys were sold by Fahlman as non-fungible tokens for $ 237,500 in 2021. [ 45 ]

Styles [edit ]

western [edit ]

normally, emoticons in western stylus have the eyes on the leave, followed by the intrude and the talk. The two-character version :) which omits the nose is besides identical democratic. The most basic emoticons are relatively consistent in phase, but each of them can be transformed by being rotated ( making them bantam ambigrams ), with or without a hyphenate ( nose ). There are besides some possible variations to emoticons to get new definitions, like changing a character to express a raw find, or slightly change the temper of the emoticon. For example, :( equals sad and :(( equals very sad. Weeping can be written as :'(. A bloom can be expressed as :">. Others include blink ;), a smile :D, smug :->, and can be used to denote a chat up or joking shade, or may be implying a moment mean in the sentence preceding it. [ 46 ] ;P, such as when blowing a boo. An much use combination is besides <3 for a kernel, and for a broken heart. :O is also sometimes used to depict shock. :/ is used to depict melancholy, disappointment, or disapproval. :| is used to depict a neutral face.
A wide smile is sometimes shown with rumple eyes to express further entertainment ; XD and the addition of further `` D '' letters can suggest laughter or extreme entertainment e.g. XDDDD. The same is dependable for X3 but the three represents an animal 's mouth. There are early variations including >:( for anger, or >:D for an evil grin, which can be, again, used in reverse, for an dysphoric angry font, in the supreme headquarters allied powers europe of D:<. =K for vampire teeth, :s for grimace, and :P tongue out, can be used to denote a dally or joking timbre, or may be implying a second mean in the conviction preceding it. [ 46 ] As computers offer increasing built-in support for non-Western writing systems, it has become possible to use early glyph to build emoticons. The ' shrug ' emoticon, ¯\_(ツ)_/¯, uses the glyph ツ from the japanese katakana writing system. An equal sign is frequently used for the eyes in invest of the colon, seen as =), without changing the entail of the emoticon. In these instances, the hyphenate is about always either omitted or, occasionally, replaced with an `` oxygen '' as in =O). In most circles it has become acceptable to omit the hyphenate, whether a colon or an adequate augury is used for the eyes, [ 47 ] but in some areas of use people still prefer the larger, more traditional emoticon :-) or :^). One linguistic learn has indicated that the consumption of a nose in an emoticon may be related to the exploiter 's old age, with younger people less likely to use a nose. [ 48 ] Similar-looking characters are normally substituted for one another : for case, o, O, and 0 can all be used interchangeably, sometimes for subtly different effect or, in some cases, one character of character may look better in a sealed baptismal font and consequently be preferred over another. It is besides common for the exploiter to replace the round brackets used for the mouth with other, similar brackets, such as ] rather of ). Some variants are besides more common in certain countries due to keyboard layouts. For model, the smiley =) may occur in Scandinavia, where the key for = and ) are placed right beside each other. however, the :) variant is without a doubt the dominant matchless in Scandinavia, making the =) version a curio. diacritic marks are sometimes used. The letters Ö and Ü can be seen as an emoticon, as the erect adaptation of :O ( meaning that one is surprised ) and :D ( meaning that one is very happy ) respectively. Some emoticons may be read right to left alternatively, and in fact, can only be written using standard ASCII keyboard characters this way beat ; for exemplar D: which refers to being shocked or anxious, opposition to the big smile of :D. On the russian-speaking Internet, the right parenthesis ) is used as a smiley. multiple parentheses )))) are used to express greater happiness, entertainment or laughter. It is normally placed at the conclusion of a sentence. The colon is omitted due to being in a lesser-known placement on the ЙЦУКЕН keyboard layout .

Japanese (kaomoji)

[edit ]

A Kaomoji paint in Japan Users from Japan popularized a style of emoticons ( 顔文字, kaomoji, literature. 'face characters ' ) that can be understood without tilting one 's head. This style arose on ASCII NET, an early japanese on-line service, in the 1980s. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] They frequently include japanese typography ( katakana ) in summation to ASCII characters, and in line to Western-style emoticons, tend to emphasize the eyes, rather than the mouth. [ 50 ] Wakabayashi Yasushi is credited with inventing the original kaomoji (^_^) in 1986. [ 50 ] Similar-looking emoticons were used on the Byte Information Exchange ( BIX ) around the same time. [ 51 ] Whereas western emoticons were first used by US calculator scientists, kaomoji were most normally used by young girls and fans of japanese comics ( manga ). linguist Ilaria Moschini suggests this is partially due to the kawaii ( 'cuteness ' ) aesthetic of kaomoji. [ 50 ] These emoticons are normally found in a format like to (*_*). The star indicate the eyes ; the central character, normally an underscore, the sass ; and the parentheses, the draft of the face. different emotions can be expressed by changing the character representing the eyes : for exercise, `` triiodothyronine '' can be used to express war cry or sadness : (T_T). T_T may besides be used to mean `` unimpressed ''. The emphasis on the eyes in this stylus is reflected in the common usage of emoticons that use merely the eyes, e.g. ^^. Looks of stress are represented by the likes of (x_x), while (-_-;) is a generic emoticon for nervousness, the semicolon representing an anxiety-induced fret drop ( discussed far below ). /// can indicate embarrassment by symbolizing blushful. [ 52 ] Characters like hyphens or periods can replace the underline ; the menstruation is much used for a smaller, `` cunning '' mouthpiece, or to represent a nose, e.g. (^.^). alternatively, the mouth/nose can be left out wholly, e.g. (^^). Parentheses are sometimes replaced with braces or square brackets, e.g. {^_^} or [o_0]. many times, the parentheses are left out completely, e.g. ^^, >.< , o_O, O.O, e_e, or e.e. A quotation cross off ", apostrophe ', or semicolon ; can be added to the emoticon to imply understanding or overplus, in the same way that a sweat drop is used in manga and zanzibar copal. Microsoft IME 2000 ( japanese ) or later supports the input of emoticons like the above by enabling the Microsoft IME Spoken Language/Emotion Dictionary. In IME 2007, this support was moved to the Emoticons dictionary. such dictionaries allow users to call up emoticons by typing words that represent them. Communication software allowing the consumption of Shift JIS encoded characters preferably than fair ASCII allowed for the development of more kaomoji using the unfold character set including hiragana, katakana, kanji, symbols, Greek and Cyrillic rudiment, such as (^ム^), (`Д´) or (益). mod communication software broadly utilize Unicode, which allows for the incorporation of characters from other languages and a kind of symbols into the kaomoji, as in (◕‿◕✿) (❤ω❤) (づ ◕‿◕ )づ (▰˘◡˘▰). [ 53 ] further variations can be produced using Unicode combining characters, as in ٩(͡๏̯͡๏)۶ or ᶘᵒᴥᵒᶅ.

combination of japanese and western styles [edit ]

English-language zanzibar copal forums adopted those Japanese-style emoticons that could be used with the standard ASCII characters available on western keyboards. Because of this, they are frequently called `` zanzibar copal stylus '' emoticons in English. They have since seen function in more mainstream venues, including on-line gambling, instant-messaging, and non-anime-related discussion forums. Emoticons such as <( ^.^ )>, <(^_^<), <(o_o<), <( -'.'- )>, <('.'-^), or (>';..;')> which include the parentheses, mouth or nose, and arms ( particularly those represented by the inequality signs < or > ) besides are often referred to as `` Kirbys '' in citation to their likeness to Nintendo 's video plot character Kirby. The parentheses are sometimes dropped when used in the english terminology context, and the underline of the mouth may be extended as an intensifier for the emoticon in interview, e.g. ^_________^ for identical happy. The emoticon t(-_-t) uses the eastern style, but incorporates a depiction of the western `` middle-finger flick-off '' using a `` t '' as the arm, hand, and finger. Using a lateral click for the nose such as in ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡° ) is believed to originate from the finnish image-based message board Ylilauta, and is called a `` Lenny face ''. [ 54 ] Another obviously western invention is the habit of emoticons like *,..,* or `;..;´ to indicate vampires or other fabulous beasts with fangs. exposure to both Western and japanese dash emoticons or kaomoji through blogs, blink of an eye message, and forums featuring a blend of western and japanese pop polish has given rise to many emoticons that have an upright wake format. The parentheses are frequently dropped, and these emoticons typically only use alphanumeric characters and the most normally secondhand English punctuation marks. Emoticons such as -O-, -3-, -w-, '_', ;_;, T_T, :>, and .V. are used to convey mix emotions that are more unmanageable to convey with traditional emoticons. Characters are sometimes added to emoticons to convey an anime- or manga-styled fret drop curtain, for example ^_^', !>_, <@>_____<@>;;, ;O;, and *u*. The equals sign can also be used for closed, anime-looking eyes, for example =0=, =3=, =w=, =A=, and =7=. The uwu face (and its variations UwU and OwO), is an emoticon of Japanese origin which denotes a cute expression or emotion felt by the user.[55][56]
In Brazil, sometimes combining characters ( accents ) are added to emoticons to represent eyebrows, as in ò_ó, ó_ò, õ_o, ù_u, o_Ô, or ( •̀ ᴗ •́ ) [ 57 ] .

2channel [edit ]

Users of the japanese discussion circuit board 2channel, in particular, have developed a wide variety of unique emoticons using characters from versatile scripts, such as Kannada, as in ಠ_ಠ ( for a look of disapproval, incredulity, or confusion ). These were quickly picked up by 4chan and spread to other western sites soon after. Some have taken on a liveliness of their own and become characters in their own right, like Monā .

korean [edit ]

In South Korea, emoticons use korean Hangul letters, and the western style is rarely used. [ 58 ] The structures of Korean and japanese emoticons are reasonably similar, but they have some differences. korean stylus contains korean jamo ( letters ) alternatively of other characters. There are countless number of emoticons that can be formed with such combinations of Korean jamo letters. Consonant jamos , or as the mouth/nose part and , or for the eyes. For case : ㅇㅅㅇ, ㅇㅂㅇ, ㅇㅁㅇ and -ㅅ-. Faces such as 'ㅅ', "ㅅ", 'ㅂ' and 'ㅇ', using quotation marks " and apostrophes ' are besides normally use combinations. Vowel jamos such as ㅜ, ㅠ depict a cry face. model : ㅜㅜ, ㅠㅠ and 뉴뉴 ( like function as T in western style ). sometimes ㅡ ( not an em-dash `` — '' but a vowel jamo ), a comma or an underscore is added, and the two character sets can be blend together, as in ㅜ.ㅜ, ㅠ.ㅜ, ㅠ.ㅡ, ㅜ_ㅠ, ㅡ^ㅜ and ㅜㅇㅡ. besides, semicolons and carets are normally used in korean emoticons ; semicolons mean sweating ( embarrassed ). If they are used with ㅡ or – they depict a bad feel. Examples : -;/, --^, ㅡㅡ;;;, -_-;; and -_^. however, ^^, ^오^ means smile ( about all people use this without eminence of sex or old age ). Others include : ~_~, --a, -6-, +0+ .

chinese ideographic [edit ]

The character 囧 ( U+56E7 ), which means `` bright '', may be combined with carriage emoticon Orz, such as 囧rz. The quality existed in Oracle bone script, but its use as emoticon was documented adenine early as January 20, 2005. [ 59 ] other ideographic variants for 囧 include 崮 ( king 囧 ), 莔 ( queen 囧 ), 商 ( 囧 with hat ), 囧興 ( capsize ), 卣 ( Bomberman ). The character 槑 ( U+69D1 ), which sounds like the password for `` plum '' ( 梅 ( U+FA44 ) ), is used to represent double of 呆 ( boring ), or far magnitude of dullness. In chinese, normally full characters ( as opposed to the stylistic consumption of 槑 ) might be duplicated to express vehemence .

model emoticons [edit ]

Orz [edit ]

dogeza The japanese custom of Orz ( other forms include : Or2, on_, OTZ, OTL, STO, JTO, [ 60 ] _no, _冂○, [ 61 ] 囧 ​rz, [ 59 ] ) is an emoticon representing a kneel or bowing person ( the Japanese version of which is called dogeza ) with the `` o '' being the mind, the `` r '' being the arms and part of the body, and the `` omega '' being function of the body and the peg. This stick trope can represent regard or kowtowing, but normally appears along a range of responses, including `` frustration, despair, sarcasm, or grudging respect ''. [ 62 ] It was inaugural used in late 2002 at the forum on Techside, a japanese personal web site. At the `` Techside FAQ Forum '' ( TECHSIDE教えて君BBS ( 教えてBBS ) ), a bill poster asked about a cable cover, typing `` _| ̄|○ '' to show a cable television and its cover. Others commented that it looked like a kneeling person, and the symbol became popular. [ 63 ] These comments were soon deleted as they were considered off-topic. By 2005, Orz spawned a subculture : blogs have been devoted to the emoticon, and URL shortening services have been named after it. In Taiwan, Orz is associated with the phrase `` dainty guy `` – that is, the concept of males being rejected for a date by females, with a phrase like `` You are a nice guy. '' [ 60 ] Orz should not be confused with m(_ _)m, which means `` Thank you '' or an apology ( つ ͡ꈍ ͜ʖ̫ ͡ꈍ ). [ 64 ]

Multimedia variations [edit ]

A blend of emotion and sound, an emotisound is a brief phone transmitted and played back during the see of a message, typically an IM message or electronic mail message. The strait is intended to communicate an emotional subtext. [ citation needed ] [ 65 ] Many instant messaging clients mechanically trigger sound effects in response to specific emoticons. [ citation needed ] Some services, such as MuzIcons, aggregate emoticons and music musician in an Adobe Flash -based doodad. [ 66 ] In 2004, the Trillian old world chat application introduced a feature called `` emotiblips '', which allows Trillian users to stream files to their moment message recipients `` as the spokesperson and television equivalent of an emoticon ''. [ 67 ] In 2007, MTV and Paramount Home Entertainment promoted the `` emoticlip '' as a mannequin of viral selling for the second season of the express The Hills. The emoticlips were twelve short snippets of dialogue from the display, uploaded to YouTube, which the advertisers hoped would be distributed between network users as a direction of expressing feelings in a similar manner to emoticons. The emoticlip concept is credited to the Bradley & Montgomery advertise firm, which hopes they would be wide adopted as `` greeting cards that precisely happen to be selling something ''. [ 68 ] In 2008, an emotion-sequence animation creature, called FunIcons was created. The Adobe Flash and Java -based application allows users to create a short animation. Users can then email or save their own animations to use them on similar social utility applications. [ 69 ] During the inaugural one-half of the 2010s, there have been different forms of small audiovisual pieces to be sent through clamant messaging systems to express one 's emotion. These video miss an established name, and there are several ways to designate them : `` emoticlips '' ( named above ), `` emotivideos '' or more recently `` emoticon video recording ''. These are bantam videos that can be well transferred from one mobile phone to another. Current video compression codecs such as H.264 allow these pieces of television to be light in terms of file size and very portable. The democratic computer and mobile app Skype use these in a separate keyboard or by typing the code of the `` emoticon video '' between parentheses .

Emoticons and intellectual property rights [edit ]

[70] Patented dangle down menu for composing phone mail text message with emoticons. In 2000, Despair, Inc. obtained a U.S. trademark registration for the `` frowny '' emoticon :-( when used on `` greet cards, posters and art prints ''. In 2001, they issued a satirical press release, announcing that they would sue Internet users who typed the frowny ; the joke backfired and the company received a ramp of protest when its mock unblock was posted on engineering news web site Slashdot. [ 71 ] A count of patent applications have been filed on inventions that assist in communicating with emoticons. A few of these have been issued as uracil patents. US 6987991, [ 70 ] for exercise, discloses a method developed in 2001 to send emoticons over a cell earphone using a drop-down menu. The express advantage over the anterior art was that the user saved on the count of keystrokes though this may not address the obviousness criteria. The emoticon :-) was besides filed in 2006 and registered in 2008 as a European Community Trademark ( CTM ). In Finland, the Supreme Administrative Court ruled in 2012 that the emoticon can not be trademarked, [ 72 ] frankincense repealing a 2006 administrative decision trademarking the emoticons :-), =), =(, :) and :(. [ 73 ] In 2005, a russian court rejected a legal title against Siemens by a man who claimed to hold a brand on the ;-) emoticon. [ 74 ] In 2008, russian entrepreneur Oleg Teterin claimed to have been granted the trademark on the ;-) emoticon. A license would not `` cost that much – tens of thousands of dollars '' for companies, but would be spare of blame for individuals. [ 74 ]

Unicode [edit ]

A unlike, but refer, use of the term `` emoticon '' is found in the Unicode Standard, referring to a subset of emoji which display facial expressions. [ 75 ] The standard explains this usage with address to existing systems, which provided functionality for substituting certain textual emoticons with images or emoji of the expressions in wonder. [ 76 ] Some smiley faces were show in Unicode since 1.1, including a white frown face, a white beamish font, and a blacken smile face. ( `` Black '' refers to a glyph which is filled, `` egg white '' refers to a glyph which is unfilled ). [ 77 ]
The Emoticons block was introduced in Unicode Standard version 6.0 ( published in October 2010 ) and extended by 7.0. It covers Unicode range from U+1F600 to U+1F64F in full. [ 78 ]
After that block had been filled, Unicode 8.0 ( 2015 ), 9.0 ( 2016 ) and 10.0 ( 2017 ) added extra emoticons in the crop from U+1F910 to U+1F9FF. Currently, U+1F90C – U+1F90F, U+1F93F, U+1F94D – U+1F94F, U+1F96C – U+1F97F, U+1F998 – U+1F9CF ( excluding U+1F9C0 which contains the 🧀 emoji ) and U+1F9E7 – U+1F9FF do not contain any emoticons since Unicode 10.0 .
For historic and compatibility reasons, some other heads, and figures, which largely represent different aspects like genders, activities, and professions rather of emotions, are besides found in Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs ( particularly U+1F466 – U+1F487 ) and Transport and Map Symbols. body parts, by and large hands, are besides encoded in the Dingbat and Miscellaneous Symbols blocks .

See besides [edit ]

Notes [edit ]

  1. ^[27] was believed lost before it was recovered 20 years later from old backup tapes.[11] The transcript of the conversation, between several computer scientists including David Touretzky Guy Steele, and Jaime Carbonell was believed lost before it was recovered 20 years former from old stand-in tapes .

References [edit ]

further read [edit ]

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