Anal gland

The anal glands or anal sacs are small glands near the anus in many mammals, including dogs [ 1 ] and cats. They are paired sauk on either slope of the anus between the external and internal sphincter muscles. greasy glands within the lining secrete a melted that is used for identification of members within a species. These sacs are found in many species of carnivorans, [ 2 ] including wolves, [ 3 ] bears, [ 4 ] [ 5 ] sea otters [ 6 ] and kinkajou. [ 7 ]

Humans [edit ]

Diagram showing anal canal, with dentate course, along which anal crypts open. anal glands drain into anal crypts via anal ducts. Note besides intersphincteric airplane where some of these glands are located. The anal glands are in the wall of the anal canal. They secrete into the anal canal via anal ducts which open into the anal crypts along the floor of the dentate telephone line. The glands are at varying depths in the anal canal wall, some between the layers of the inner and external sphincter ( the intersphincteric plane ). The cryptoglandular theory states that obstruction of these ducts, presumably by accumulation of extraneous substantial ( e.g. faecal bacterial plug ) in the crypts, may lead to perianal abscess and fistulous withers formation. [ 8 ] [ 9 ]

Dogs and cats [edit ]

anal gland abscess on a dog

Reading: Anal gland

Dogs and cats chiefly use their anal gland secretions to mark their district, and by and large will secrete belittled amounts of fluid every time they defecate. Many will frequently express these glands when anxious or frightened as well. Anal sauk fluid varies from yellow to tan or brown in color. The consistency of the fluid ranges from thin, watery secretions to thick, game spread. The inability to efficaciously express this fluid can lead to anal sacculitis. This is characterized by a build-up of fluid in the anal sauk, an uncomfortable circumstance that can lead to pain and itching. Dogs and cats of any age may be affected, but dogs are far more likely to suffer from anal sacculitis than cats. Dogs and cats with anal glands that do not express naturally may exhibit particular signs, such as scooting the rear upon the flat coat, straining to defecate, and excessive solve of the anus. Cats may besides defecate in areas outside the litter corner. [ 10 ] discomfort may besides be discernible with impingement or contagion of the anal glands. Anal pouch impaction results from obstruction of the duct leading from the gland to the open. The theca is normally non-painful and well. Anal sac infection results in pain, swelling, and sometimes abscessation and fever. initial treatment normally involves the manual expression of the anal theca, most much by a veterinary master. The frequency of this routine depends on the patient ‘s individual degree of discomfort but can range from weekly to every few months. [ 10 ] Treatment may include lance of an abscess or antibiotic infusion into the gland in the case of contagion. The most common bacterial isolates from anal gland infection are E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, and Proteus species. [ 11 ] Increasing dietary fiber is besides normally recommended. [ 10 ]

Anal sac may be removed surgically in a operation known as anal sacculectomy. This is normally done in the shell of perennial infection or because of the presence of an anal pouch adenocarcinoma, a malignant tumor. likely complications include faecal dissoluteness ( specially when both glands are removed ), tenesmus from stricture or scar formation, and haunting drain fistulous withers. [ 12 ]

Opossums [edit ]

Opossums use their anal glands when they “ play opossum “. As the opossum mimics end, the glands secrete a fetid liquid, suggesting the phalanger is rotting. Opossums are not members of the carnivora, and their anal theca disagree from those of dogs and their relatives. [ 7 ]

Skunks [edit ]

Skunks use their anal glands to spray a fetid and sticky fluid as a defense against predators.

Beavers [edit ]

An extraction of castoreum, the aroma glands from the male and female beaver are used in perfumery and as a season ingredient .

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

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