Pregnancy and diet – Better Health Channel

dependable nutrition during pregnancy can help to keep you and your developing baby healthy. Your motivation for certain nutrients ( such as cast-iron, iodine and vitamin bc ) increases when you are meaning.

A varied diet that includes the right total of healthy foods from the 5 food groups broadly provides our bodies with the vitamins and minerals it needs each day. however, pregnant women may need to take vitamin or mineral supplements during pregnancy ( such as vitamin bc and vitamin D ). Consult your doctor before taking any supplements. They may recommend that you have a lineage test or see a dietician to review your need to take a supplement.

Healthy weight gain during pregnancy

brace weight advance during pregnancy is normal and authoritative for the health of you and your baby. however, it is besides important not to gain excessively much system of weights. excess weight gain during pregnancy can increase your hazard of certain health issues including gestational diabetes.

If you are meaning, a good approach path is to eat to satisfy your appetite, and continue to monitor your weight.

Depending on your soundbox mass index ( BMI ) at the start of your pregnancy, the following system of weights profit is recommended during pregnancy :

BMI at start of pregnancy (kg/m2) Recommended weight gain during pregnancy (kg)
< 18.5 (underweight)  12.5–18.0
 18.5–24.9 (healthy)  11.5–16.0
 25.0–29.9 (overweight)   7.0–11.5
 > 30 (overweight)   5.0–9.0

If you are corpulence, pregnancy is not the time to start dieting or trying to lose slant. Weight advance within these ranges is important to support the growth and development of your baby. To maintain an appropriate weight gain during pregnancy, it is important to :

  • Choose healthy foods from the 5 food groups.
  • Limit discretionary foods and drinks high in saturated fat, added sugars and added salt (such as cakes, biscuits and sugary drinks).
  • Remain


    during your pregnancy.

Healthy eating for pregnant women

What you eat during pregnancy affects not lone your own health and wellbeing and the development of your baby, but there is besides solid testify that it can have a last impact on the health and wellbeing of your child later in life. Choose a wide diverseness of healthy foods from the 5 food groups to make sure your and your baby ’ s nutritional needs are met to support the health and increase of your baby. You may find that you need to eat more of some foods to ensure samara nutrients are obtained, but there is no necessitate to ‘ eat for two ’.

What to include in your pregnancy diet :

  • A variety of

    fruits and vegetables

    of different types and colours. Ideally 2 serves of fruit and 5 serves of vegetables every day.

  • Increase your intake of

    grain and cereal foods

    to 8½ serves a day. Choose mostly wholegrain and

    high fibre


  • Select

    foods high in iron

     (such as lean red meat or tofu). Iron-rich foods are important for pregnant women. 3½ serves of meat or meat alternatives are recommended.

  • Make a habit of drinking milk, eating hard cheese and yoghurt, or calcium-enriched alternatives. Reduced-fat varieties are best. 2½ serves per day are recommended.
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Limit your intake of foods and drinks high in saturated fat, added sugar and salt to small amounts.

Australian Dietary Guidelines for pregnancy

The australian Dietary Guidelines recommend these daily servings for pregnant women from the 5 food groups :

 Food group Serves per day  Example serving size 
Vegetables and legumes/beans  18 years or under: 5

19–50 years: 5

  • ½ cup cooked vegetables 
  • ½ cup cooked or canned* beans, peas or lentils
  • 1 cup green leafy or raw salad vegetables
  • ½ cup sweet corn
  • ½ medium potato or other starchy vegetables 
  • 1 medium tomato
 Fruit 18 years or under: 2

19–50 years: 2

  • 1 medium fruit, such as apple, banana, orange
  • 2 small fruits, such as apricots, kiwi fruits or plums
  • 1 cup diced or canned fruit (no added sugar) 

Or only occasionally

  • 125 ml (½ cup) fruit juice (no added sugar)
  • 30 g dried fruit (such as 4 apricot halves, 1 ½ tablespoons sultanas)
Grain (cereal) foods, mostly wholegrain and/or high-fibre varieties 18 years or under: 8

19–50 years: 8½

  • 1 slice bread, ½ medium roll or flat bread (40 g)
  • ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, noodles, barley, buckwheat, semolina, polenta, burghul or quinoa
  • ½ cup cooked porridge, 2/3 cup wheat cereal flakes, ¼ cup muesli
  • 3 crispbreads
  • 1 crumpet, small English muffin or scone
Lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds and legumes/beans 18 years or under: 3½

19–50 years: 3½

  • 65 g cooked lean meats, such as beef, lamb, veal, pork, goat or kangaroo 
  • (90–100 g raw)
  • 80 g cooked lean poultry, such as chicken, turkey (100 g raw)
  • 100 g cooked fish fillet (115 g raw) or one small can of fish
  • 2 large eggs
  • 1 cup cooked or canned* legumes/beans, such as lentils, chickpeas or split peas
  • 170 g tofu
  • 30 g nuts or seeds, nut/seed paste*
Milk, yoghurt, cheese and/or alternatives, mostly reduced fat 18 years or under: 3½

19–50 years: 2½ 

  • 1 cup (250 ml) fresh, UHT long-life, reconstituted powdered milk or buttermilk
  • ½ cup (120 ml) evaporated milk
  • 2 slices (40 g) hard cheese, such as cheddar
  • ¾ cup (200 g) yoghurt
  • 1 cup (250 ml) soy, rice or other cereal drink, with at least 100 mg of added calcium per 100 ml

*Choose canned foods with no add salt.

Folic acid (folate) and pregnancy

Folate ( known as folic acerb when added to foods ) is a B-group vitamin found in a assortment of foods. Folic acid helps protect against neural pipe defects in the develop fetus. It is authoritative for meaning women to make sure they are receiving adequate of this important vitamin.

For women who are planning a pregnancy, and during the first 3 months of pregnancy, a daily folic acerb supplement of 500 micrograms is recommended, american samoa well as eating foods that are naturally rich in vitamin bc or are fortified with folic acid.

Folate in your diet

excellent food sources of vitamin bc admit :

  • asparagus
  • bran flakes
  • broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • chickpeas
  • dried beans
  • lentils
  • spinach.

very full food sources of vitamin bc include :

  • cabbage
  • cauliflower
  • leeks
  • oranges
  • orange juice
  • parsley
  • peas
  • wheat germ 
  • wholegrain bread.

dependable food sources of vitamin bc admit :

  • hazelnuts
  • vegemite
  • parsnips
  • potato
  • salmon
  • strawberries
  • tomato
  • unsalted peanuts
  • walnuts. 

Although liver-colored is eminent in vitamin bc, it is not recommended for women who are, or could be fraught, because of its high vitamin A capacity.

Read more: ED

Iron and pregnancy

During pregnancy, a woman ’ mho prerequisite for iron increases. This is because the developing fetus draw iron from the mother to survive it through the first 5 or 6 months after parentage.

Iron losses are reduced during pregnancy, because the woman is no longer menstruate. however, this is not adequate to offset the needs of the developing fetus. It is authoritative for meaning women to eat iron-rich foods every day, such as kernel, wimp, seafood, dried beans and lentils, and green leafy vegetables.

Animal sources of iron are promptly absorbed by the consistency. Iron from plant sources is not absorbed as well, but assimilation is helped when these foods are eaten together with foods that contain vitamin C ( such as oranges ). This is authoritative for women who follow a vegetarian diet.

The recommend daily intake ( RDI ) of iron during pregnancy is 27 milligram a day ( 9 milligram a day more than for non-pregnant women ). Iron lack during pregnancy is common in Australia, and iron supplements may be needed by some women. It is crucial to discuss your need for supplements with your doctor, as iron can be toxic ( poisonous ) in big amounts.

Iodine and pregnancy

Iodine is an important mineral needed for the production of thyroid hormone, which is important for emergence and development. If you don ’ t have enough tincture of iodine intake during pregnancy, it increases your pamper ’ south risk of mental disability and congenital hypothyroidism ( previously known as cretinism ).

Foods that are good sources of iodine include :

  • seafood 
  • seaweed (including nori and kelp)
  • eggs
  • meat 
  • dairy products. 

Iodised strategic arms limitation talks besides includes tincture of iodine. It is important to avoid adding salt at the mesa or in cook, but if you do, make certain it is labelled iodize.

Due to the re-emergence of iodine insufficiency in Australia, iodinated salt is immediately added to all commercially sold boodle in Australia and New Zealand, with the exception of organic and unleavened bread.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women have increased iodine requirements. Iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms per day is recommended for women planning a pregnancy, throughout pregnancy and while breastfeeding.

Vitamin D and pregnancy

Vitamin D is essential for your pamper ’ s growth and development and your own health during pregnancy. We get most of our vitamin D from the sun. Ultraviolet ( UV ) radiotherapy from the sunday produces vitamin D in the skin and is the best lifelike source of vitamin D. only a little measure of our vitamin D intake comes from our diet – from foods such as eggs, oily fish, margarine and milks fortified with vitamin D. Women who are at most risk of vitamin D insufficiency :

  • have dark coloured skin
  • wear covering or concealing clothing for religious or other reasons 
  • spend much time indoors. 

You may need a blood test at the begin of your pregnancy to assess your vitamin D levels. If thus, your repair ( GP ) will arrange this. Depending on your results, you might need to take vitamin D supplements. If you are considering taking vitamin D or any early supplements during pregnancy, constantly discuss it with your GP first.

Multivitamin supplements and pregnancy

Multivitamin supplements may be recommended for some groups of pregnant women, including :

  • vegans and vegetarians
  • teenagers who may have an inadequate food intake
  • substance misusers (of drugs, tobacco and alcohol)
  • pregnant women who are already very overweight and who are trying to prevent excessive weight gain.

Always be advised by your GP before taking vitamin or mineral supplements.

No need for extra calcium during pregnancy

Until 2006, australian dietary recommendations advised increase calcium intake during pregnancy and breastfeed. This advice has since been revised. Although the baby has a high prerequisite for calcium during the one-third spare of pregnancy ( as it starts to develop and strengthen its bones ), the mother ’ mho increased capacity to absorb dietary calcium means that there is no need for extra consumption.

The recommend dietary intake for non-pregnant women ( 1,000 milligram a day for women aged 19 to 50 years and 1,300 mg a day for adolescents or those aged over 51 ) remains unchanged during pregnancy and breastfeed. Dairy foods ( such as milk, cheese and yogurt ) and calcium-fortified soy milk are excellent dietary sources of calcium.

The dangers of dieting while pregnant

Some women fear the extra weight reach of pregnancy and may decide to eat meagerly to avoid putting on soundbox adipose tissue. Restricted eat or crash diet in any form while pregnant can badly compromise your health and that of your baby, and is not recommended during pregnancy.

Pregnancy in adolescence

meaning adolescents need more of some nutrients than adult women, because they are still growing themselves. Adolescents may give give birth to smaller infants, because they are competing with the growing fetus for nutrients.

It is important for pregnant adolescents to make sure they are getting adequate iron.

Calcium consumption is besides important, because young women have not so far reached their bill bone mass, and inadequate calcium inhalation may increase the risk of osteoporosis developing later in life.

meaning adolescents should eat around 3½ serves of milk, yogurt, cheese or calcium-fortified alternatives each day to make sure they are meeting their calcium needs.

Constipation during pregnancy

stultification is a common happening during pregnancy. To help with constipation, enjoy a wide variety of foods that are high gear in fiber, such as vegetables, legumes, fruit and wholegrains and drink batch of body of water. Being physically active can besides help with reducing constipation.

Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

nausea and vomit, particularly ‘ morning illness ’, are common during pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester.

Some suggestions that may help include :

  • Eat some dry bread, biscuits or cereal before getting up in the morning. Get up slowly, avoiding sudden movements.
  • Drink liquids between, rather than with, meals to avoid bloating, as this can trigger vomiting.
  • Avoid large meals and greasy, highly spiced foods.
  • Suck on something sour like a lemon.
  • Relax, rest and get into the fresh air as much as possible. Keep rooms well ventilated and odour free.
  • Try food and drinks containing ginger, such as ginger tea, as these sometimes relieve nausea.

Heartburn and pregnancy

heartburn is common in pregnancy because, as the child grows, there is more press on the abdomen. Small, frequent meals may help, compared to larger meals.

Try to avoid :

  • eating late at night 
  • bending, lifting or lying down after meals
  • excessive consumption of tea or coffee.

You may besides like to try sleeping with your bedhead raised a little. You can do this by putting a fold across-the-board or pillow under your mattress.

Alcohol during pregnancy

There is no know safe flat of alcohol consumption for women who are fraught. Consuming alcohol during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, low parentage system of weights, congenital deformities and effects on the baby ’ south intelligence.

The australian guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol recommend that the safest option for pregnant women is not to drink alcohol at all.

If you find it difficult to decrease or stop drink in alcohol during pregnancy talk to :

  • your doctor or midwife
  • your local community health service
  • an alcohol and other drug helpline in your state or territory.

The australian guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol leave more information.

Listeria infection and pregnancy

Listeria infection, or listeriosis, is an illness normally caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria known as Listeria monocytogenes. healthy people may experience no ill-effects from listeria infection at all, but the risks are significant for pregnant women. The greatest danger is to the unborn child, with increased hazard of miscarriage, spontaneous abortion or premature tug. A listeria infection is easily treated with antibiotics, but prevention is best.

Some foods are more prone to contaminant with listeria than others and should be avoided if you are fraught. They include :

  • soft cheeses, such as brie, camembert and ricotta

    – these are safe if served cooked and hot

  • precooked or pre-prepared cold foods that will not be reheated – for example, pre-prepared salads, pâté, quiches and delicatessen meats like ham and salami
  • undercooked meat

    , chilled pre-cooked meats, pâté, meat spread

  • raw seafood, such as oysters and sashimi or smoked seafood, such as salmon (canned varieties are safe)
  • unpasteurised foods
  • pre-prepared or pre-packaged cut fruit and vegetables
  • soft-serve ice cream.

The organism that causes listeria infection is destroyed by heat, thus by rights cooked foods are not a hazard.

Salmonella and pregnancy

salmonella is a induce of food poison that can trigger miscarriage. The most probably sources of salmonella are raw eggs and undercooked kernel and poultry.

Good food hygiene reduces the risk of infection

good food hygiene is the best means to reduce the risk of salmonella and listeria infections. Suggestions include :

  • Always wash your hands before and after preparing food.
  • Keep your kitchen surfaces clean.
  • Do not let uncooked food contaminate cooked food. 
  • Wash fruit, vegetables and salad before eating.
  • Cook food thoroughly.
  • Keep pets away from kitchen surfaces.
  • Wear rubber gloves when handling cat litter trays or gardening.
  • Store food at correct temperatures.

Mercury in fish

It is suggested that fraught women eat 2 to 3 serves of fish every workweek for their own effective health and that of their originate baby. however, fraught women or women intending to become meaning within the following 6 months should be careful about which pisces they eat. Some types of pisces contain high levels of mercury, which can be harmful to the developing fetus.

When choosing fish, meaning women should :

  • limit to one serve (150 g) per fortnight – billfish (swordfish, broadbill and marlin) and shark (flake), with no other fish eaten in that fortnight
  • limit to one serve (150 g) per week – orange roughy (deep sea perch) or catfish, with no other fish eaten that week
  • eat 2 to 3 serves per week – of any other fish or seafood (for example, salmon or tuna).

note : 150 g is equivalent to approximately 2 freeze crumbed pisces portions.

Don ’ thymine worry if you ’ ve had the periodic meal of fish with high levels of mercury. Mercury build-up in the mother ’ sulfur blood is lone a electric potential problem when that type of fish is eaten regularly.

Where to get help

reference :
Category : Health

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