Diabetes During Pregnancy: Risks to the Baby – Health Encyclopedia – University of Rochester Medical Center

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Diabetes During Pregnancy: Risks to the Baby

What types of diabetes can happen in pregnancy?

When a baby is born to a mother with diabetes, the baby is at risk for problems .
People with diabetes have high levels of boodle in their blood ( hyperglycemia ). Over time, this can lead to good health problems. Keeping your blood boodle under master lowers your risk for complications. You can manage diabetes by eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and taking medicine .
Two types of diabetes can happen in pregnancy. These are :

  • Gestational diabetes.  In this condition, you don ’ t have diabetes before pregnancy. You develop it during pregnancy. This type of diabetes goes away after your baby is born .
  • Pregestational diabetes.  In this circumstance, you have diabetes before getting fraught. You may have type 1 or type 2 diabetes .

    • People with type 1 diabetes don ’ t make insulin. Your body needs insulin to use rake sugar. You ’ ll need to take insulin shots .
    • People with type 2 diabetes can ’ triiodothyronine use the insulin they make. Or their bodies don ’ t make enough insulin. You ’ ll need blood sugar-lowering music and possibly insulin .

It ’ second authoritative to manage your rake carbohydrate during pregnancy. This can lower your baby ’ s risk for problems .

How can having diabetes during pregnancy be harmful to your baby?

In pregnancy, the placenta gives a growing child nutrients and water. It besides makes hormones you need for healthy pregnancy. Some of these hormones can block insulin. This frequently starts at 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy .
As the placenta grows, it makes more of these hormones. This means that the pancreas must make more insulin. normally, the pancreas is able to make enough insulin. If it doesn ’ triiodothyronine, gestational diabetes occurs .
pregnancy may besides change the insulin needs of a womanhood who already has diabetes. If you have type 1 diabetes, you may need more insulin. If you have type 2 diabetes, you may need to start using insulin or you may need more insulin .
When you have diabetes, your child is at risk for many problems. These issues can happen in pregnancy and after give birth. The problems happen when your rake sugar international relations and security network ’ triiodothyronine controlled well .

Who is at risk for gestational diabetes?

The follow factors increase your gamble for gestational diabetes :

  • Older than 25
  • Overweight and fleshiness
  • Gestational diabetes in past pregnancies
  • family history of diabetes
  • Have given birth to a very large baby
  • Have had a spontaneous abortion
  • be african American, American Indian, asian American, Hispanic, Latina, or Pacific Islander

What are the symptoms your baby may have?

During pregnancy, the following can happen to your baby :

  • Birth ( congenital ) defects and miscarriage. These are more probably to occur in women who had diabetes before pregnancy .
  • gamey blood boodle
  • abject oxygen levels
  • humble lineage iron levels
  • high blood pressure
  • Enlarged heart
  • Poor anxious system growth
  • Poor lung development
  • spontaneous abortion

The surveil problems may happen to your pamper after they are born :

  • big size ( macrosomia ). big babies are more probable to get hurt during manner of speaking. These include shoulder injuries .
  • low lineage sugar ( hypoglycemia )
  • moo blood calcium
  • low blood iron
  • high levels of bolshevik blood cells and thickened blood
  • high levels of bilirubin from the breakdown of red lineage cells

  • parentage defects. Most affect the heart, blood vessels, brain, and spinal anesthesia cord .
  • Premature birth
  • Enlarged affection
  • Breathing problems
  • long-run problems. Babies born to mothers with diabetes are more likely to have diabetes and be corpulent later in life .

How is diabetes during pregnancy diagnosed?

Your healthcare supplier will check you for diabetes during pregnancy .
If you have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as being corpulence, your supplier will check you early in pregnancy. Your supplier may test you during your first checkup .
Your healthcare supplier will screen you for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. This screen is done using an oral glucose allowance test ( OGTT ). An OGTT checks a woman ‘s lineage sugar levels after she has boodle ( glucose ). You may have one of these tests :

  • One-step test. After not eating ( fasting ), you ’ ll have 75 grams of glucose. Your healthcare provider will check your blood boodle after a set measure of fourth dimension .
  • Two-step test. You ’ ll have 50 grams of glucose ( you don ’ t need to fast ). Your healthcare provider will check your blood boodle after a specify come of time. If your rake carbohydrate is high, you ’ ll do another OGTT with 100 grams of glucose .

How are pregnant women with diabetes and their babies treated?

During pregnancy, your healthcare supplier will watch you and your baby close. You may be treated by a specialist who cares for meaning women with diabetes .
Controlling your blood boodle levels is a must. This is the best way to reduce your baby ’ randomness risks. You ’ ll likely need to do the pursuit to care for your diabetes :

  • Watch your rake boodle levels close. Your healthcare provider may ask you to test your blood carbohydrate at home .
  • Take insulin as order. Your dose of insulin may change during pregnancy .
  • Watch your weight. Your healthcare provider may tell you to gain less weight if you ’ rhenium fleshy or corpulent .

Your baby ’ second discussion depends on how well you controlled your lineage boodle during your pregnancy and during labor movement and delivery. treatment will besides depend on your child ’ south symptoms, long time, and general health. It will besides depend on how severe the condition is .


Your child ’ second healthcare provider may draw their rake. This will check your baby ’ s lineage carbohydrate, lineage calcium, and other levels. This may be done through a heel stand by, a needle in your baby ‘s weapon, or an umbilical catheter ( a tube placed in your baby’s umbilical cord cord ) .


Your baby may need a glucose and urine mix as an early feed. Or your pamper may need glucose given into a vein by IV ( intravenously ). Your child ’ mho healthcare supplier will close watch the child ‘s blood carbohydrate levels. This is done in case your baby ’ s blood boodle levels drop excessively depleted .

Help with breathing

Your baby may need oxygen or a breathe machine to breathe better .
Your child may need excess wish if they have birth defects or injuries. Your child may need to see a specialist. This depends on their stipulate .

Can gestational diabetes be prevented?

Caring for your diabetes well can lower your pamper ’ s risks. Eating a healthy diet, testing your blood sugar, and taking insulin can help you care for your stipulate .
Having gestational diabetes raises your risk for diabetes subsequently in life. If you had gestational diabetes, your healthcare supplier will test you for diabetes after you give birth. This is much done 6 to 12 weeks after your pamper is born. Your supplier will continue to check you for diabetes because of your gamble .
After birth, your child ’ s healthcare provider should besides regularly check the baby for diabetes. An early diagnosis and discussion can lower their risk for problems .

Key points about diabetes during pregnancy: risks to the baby

  • Two types of diabetes can happen in pregnancy. One is gestational diabetes and the early is pregestational diabetes .
  • All women are screened for gestational diabetes. This is done between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy .
  • Having diabetes during pregnancy can harm your child .
  • Your baby ’ mho treatment depends on how well you control your blood sugar in the survive depart of pregnancy and during british labour party and delivery .
  • Controlling your blood sugar is the best way to reduce your pamper ’ sulfur risks .

Next steps

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child ’ randomness healthcare supplier :

  • Know the cause for the visit and what you want to happen .
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered .
  • At the chew the fat, write down the diagnose of a fresh diagnosis, and any fresh medicines, treatments, or tests. besides write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child .
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. besides know what the side effects are .
  • Ask if your child ’ randomness condition can be treated in other ways .
  • Know why a screen or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.

  • Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the quiz or operation .
  • If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that inflict .
  • Know how you can contact your child ’ sulfur supplier after agency hours. This is crucial if your child becomes ailment and you have questions or need advice .

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