Penile Birth Defects

There are many types of congenital abnormalities occurring in male genitalia such as penile agenesis or testicular agenesis. Some deformities could be minor and may cause no harm ; whereas some others can be austere and may require treatment such as surgeries .
Penile tortuosity is a coarse parentage defect wherein the penis of the baby appears to be twisted or rotated on its axis. In males with Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome , along with normal ( male ) generative organs, female generative organs such as uterus and fallopian tubes will be award .
congenital absence of the virginia deferens refers to the condition in which the virginia deferens ( tube carrying sperms from the testes ) did not develop properly. Testes will be developed and function normally ; however, the virginia deferens will not transport the sperms resulting in sterility among the men. Although ethnicity plays a role in the duration of the penis, the lower limit of any normal adult penis would be around 9.3 curium ; however, in the condition of Micropenis, it could measure less than 2.5 centimeter during parturition.

Aposthia

A rare birth blemish, Aposthia, is where the penis will not have a prepuce. The prepuce normally starts to develop in the 3rd calendar month during the gestation period and the adaxial contribution of the prepuce will get closed in the fifth month ( of gestation period ). The growth of the prepuce depends upon androgen and of course, androgen receptors .

Webbed Penis

Webbed penis is a birth blemish in which the size of the convention penis is masked as it is obscured in the prepubic tissues that are enclosed in penis palmatus. due to this condition, the penis will have a pseudomicroscopic appearance. There are two main classifications : 1 ) primary webbed penis and 2 ) secondary coil webbed penis. There are a assortment of surgical techniques for modifying the webbed penis .

Chordee

While the child develops in the uterus, chordee happens, resulting in curved penis. In some cases, the urethra will be short-circuit or dense tissue may surround the urethra or the clamber salute on the bottom parcel of the penis may be very short. Prevention guidelines are not available as the claim cause for chordee is not known .
Though chordee will not create pain, the downward curvature is apparent during erection. The urethral open is seen at the bottom of the penis rather than at the penis tiptoe. This condition is found to be identical common among children with hypospadias or when hypospadias runs in the family .

Epispadias

An uncommon defect—epispadias presents as a short wide penis with an abnormal curvature. As the urethra is not developed amply, the individual faces difficulty during micturition. rather of the penis peak, the open of the urethra is seen at the english, on the top, or open all through the beam of the penis. While mild cases may not need treatment, severe forms need to be corrected by a surgical routine. The treatments are aimed to make the penis front and function normally. Mitchell technique and modified Cantwell technique are park surgical methods used for correcting epispadias .

Hypospadias

In the case of hypospadias, the urethral opening is seen on the bottom of the penis rather than on the penis gratuity. The position of the opening decides the asperity of hypospadias. The opening may be nearby the basis or steer of the penis, in-between of the penis rotating shaft, or even beneath the scrotum. This blemish is quite common and is treated by repositioning the meatus and straightening the penis spear. normally, operating room is done in infants at 3–18 months of senesce.

Diphallia

Diphallia, besides called penile duplicate, is quite uncommon and occurs in about 1 of 5.5 million births. Individuals may have double glans, with or without any other associated defects. Diphallia happens around the 3rd–6th week of gestation. Diagnosis is confirmed using ultrasound. The erectile function could vary significantly : one or even both the penises can erect ; in some cases, coincident erection or ejaculation is besides possible .

Testes-Related Defects

When there is only one testis, the circumstance is called monorchia .
When more than two testes are present, it is called polyorchidism. In about 75 % of the cases, the supernumerary testes are seen in the scrotum ; however, other rare locations include the inguinal duct, abdominal pit, and retroperitoneum .
In most cases, polyorchidism does not show any symptoms, although some report scrotal swelling/pain, sterility, varicocoele, hydrocoele, testicular malignancy, and epididymitis. Complications such as testicular tortuosity are most frequently reported .
Depending on the testis ’ s venous drain, polyorchidism is categorized into Types A or B.

cryptorchidy happens when the testis does not descend in the usual place in the scrotum. cryptorchidy is associated with a higher risk of testicular torsion, testicular cancer, and developing hernia in the breakwater area. The two types of cryptorchidy are isolated cryptorchidy and syndromic cryptorchidy .
An individual diagnosed with microorchidism has abnormally minor testicles with testicular volume between 12 and 20 milliliter in adults .
When testicular tissues are lacking, the condition is called anorchism .

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