United States – Wikipedia

state in North America

Coordinates :
The United States of America ( U.S.A. or USA ), normally known as the United States ( U.S. or US ) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal zone, five major unincorporated territories, 326 indian reservations, and some minor possessions. [ one ] At 3.8 million feather miles ( 9.8 million squarely kilometers ), it is the world ‘s third- or fourth-largest country by sum area. [ five hundred ] The United States shares significant down borders with Canada to the union and Mexico to the south equally well as limited maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, and Russia. [ 21 ] With a population of more than 331 million people, it is the third most populous state in the global. The national das kapital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the north american mainland at least 12,000 years ago, and european colonization began in the sixteenth century. The United States emerged from the thirteen british colonies established along the East Coast. Disputes with Great Britain over tax income and political representation led to the american Revolutionary War ( 1775–1783 ), which established the nation ‘s independence. In the deep eighteenth hundred, the U.S. began expanding across North America, gradually obtaining new territories, sometimes through war, frequently displacing native Americans, and admitting modern states ; by 1848, the United States spanned the continent. bondage was legal in the southern United States until the second half of the nineteenth hundred, when the American Civil War led to its abolition. The Spanish–American War and World War I established the U.S. as a populace office, a status confirmed by the result of World War II. During the Cold War, the United States fought the Korean War and the Vietnam War but avoided direct military conflict with the Soviet Union. The two superpowers competed in the Space Race, culminating in the 1969 spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The Soviet Union ‘s dissolution in 1991 ended the Cold War, leaving the United States as the populace ‘s exclusive world power. The United States is a federal democracy and a representative democracy with three separate branches of government, including a bicameral legislature. It is a establish member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent wave member of the United Nations Security Council. Considered a melting potentiometer of cultures and ethnicities, its population has been profoundly shaped by centuries of immigration. The U.S. ranks high in international measures of economic exemption, quality of life, department of education, and homo rights ; it has humble levels of perceive corruption. however, the country has been criticized for inequality related to subspecies, wealth, and income ; function of capital punishment ; high captivity rates ; and lack of universal health care. The United States is a highly develop country, accounts for approximately a quarter of ball-shaped GDP, and is the world ‘s largest economy by GDP at grocery store exchange rates. By value, the United States is the populace ‘s largest importer and second-largest exporter of goods. Although its population is merely 4.2 % of the earth ‘s entire, it holds 29.4 % of the total wealth in the worldly concern, the largest parcel held by any nation. Making up more than a one-third of ball-shaped military spend, it is the foremost military power in the earth and internationally a precede political, cultural, and scientific force. [ 22 ]

etymology

The first gear known use of the name “ America “ dates back to 1507, when it appeared on a earth function produced by the german cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. On his function, the name is shown in big letters on what would now be considered South America, in honor of Amerigo Vespucci. The italian explorer was the first base to postulate that the West Indies did not represent Asia ‘s easterly limit but were separate of a previously nameless landmass. [ 24 ] In 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the name “ America ” on his own universe map, applying it to the entire Western Hemisphere. [ 25 ] The inaugural objective evidence of the phrase “ United States of America ” dates from a January 2, 1776 letter written by Stephen Moylan to George Washington ‘s adjutant Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go “ with full moon and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain ” to seek aid in the revolutionary war attempt. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] The first known publication of the phrase “ United States of America ” was in an anonymous test in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, on April 6, 1776. [ 29 ] The second gulp of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed no later than June 17, 1776, declared “ The name of this Confederation shall be the ‘United States of America ‘. ” The final examination translation of the Articles, sent to the states for ratification in late 1777, stated that “ The Stile of this Confederacy shall be ‘The United States of America ‘. ” In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase “ UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ” in all capitalize letters in the headline of his “ original Rough draft ” of the Declaration of Independence. This blueprint of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is ill-defined whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the terminus in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation. The brusque imprint “ United States ” is besides standard. other common forms are the “ U.S. ”, the “ USA ”, and “ America ”. Colloquial names are the “ U.S. of A. ” and, internationally, the “ States ”. “ Columbia “, a mention popular in american poetry and songs of the former eighteenth century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus ; both “ Columbus ” and “ Columbia ” appear frequently in U.S. place-names, including Columbus, Ohio, Columbia, South Carolina, and the District of Columbia. Places and institutions throughout the Western Hemisphere bear the two names, including Colón, Panama, the area of Colombia, the Columbia River, and Columbia University. The idiom “ United States ” was primitively plural in american usage. It described a collection of states—e.g., “ the United States are. ” The singular phase became popular after the end of the Civil War and is now standard custom in the U.S. A citizen of the United States is an “ american “. “ United States ”, “ American ” and “ U.S. ” denote to the state adjectivally ( “ American values ”, “ U.S. forces ” ). In English, the discussion “ American “ rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States. [ 32 ]

history

autochthonal peoples and pre-columbian history

It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering bring bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago ; however, some testify suggests an even earlier date of arrival. The Clovis culture, which appeared around 11,000 BC, is believed to represent the beginning beckon of homo settlement of the Americas. This was likely the beginning of three major waves of migration into North America ; later waves brought the ancestors of contemporary Athabaskans, Aleuts, and Eskimos. Over time, autochthonal cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-columbian mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advance department of agriculture, architecture, and complex societies. The city state of Cahokia is the largest, most complex pre-columbian archaeological locate in the contemporary United States. In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloan acculturation developed from centuries of agricultural experiment. The Haudenosaunee, located in the southern Great Lakes region, was established at some item between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. [ 42 ] Most big along the Atlantic coast were the algonquian tribe, who practiced hunt and trap, along with limited cultivation. Estimating the native population of North America at the time of european contact is unmanageable. Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, but most academics regard this calculate as excessively low. Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting around 1.1 million along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, 2.2 million people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5.2 million in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries, and around 700,000 people in the Florida peninsula .

european settlements

Claims of very early colonization of coastal New England by the Norse are disputed and controversial. The foremost attested arrival of Europeans in the continental United States is that of spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first dispatch to Florida in 1513. even earlier, Christopher Columbus had landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage, and San Juan was settled by the spanish a ten later. [ 46 ] The spanish located up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico, such as Saint Augustine, often considered the nation ‘s oldest city, [ 47 ] and Santa Fe. The french established their own settlements along the Mississippi River, notably New Orleans. [ 48 ] Successful English colonization of the easterly coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and with the Pilgrims ‘ colony at Plymouth in 1620. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] The continent ‘s first elected legislative assembly, Virginia ‘s House of Burgesses, was founded in 1619. Documents such as the Mayflower Compact and the fundamental Orders of Connecticut established precedents for representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the american colonies. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] Many English settlers were dissenting Christians who came seeking religious exemption. In 1784, the Russians were the first base Europeans to establish a settlement in Alaska, at Three Saints Bay. Russian America once spanned a lot of the contemporary state of Alaska. [ 53 ] In the early days of colonization, many european settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from native Americans. native Americans were besides much at war with adjacent tribes and european settlers. In many cases, however, the natives and settlers came to depend on one another. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts ; natives for guns, tools and other european goods. [ 54 ] Natives taught many settlers to cultivate corn whiskey, beans, and other foodstuffs. european missionaries and others felt it was important to “ civilize ” the Native Americans and urged them to adopt european agricultural practices and lifestyles. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] however, with the increased european colonization of North America, the native Americans were displaced and often killed. The native population of America declined after european arrival for respective reasons, [ 58 ] [ 59 ] [ 60 ] chiefly diseases such as smallpox and measles. [ 61 ] [ 62 ]
european settlers besides began trafficking of african slaves into Colonial America via the transatlantic slave trade. [ 63 ] Because of a lower preponderance of tropical diseases and better treatment, slaves had a a lot higher animation anticipation in North America than in South America, leading to a rapid increase in their numbers. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] Colonial company was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of bondage, and respective colonies passed acts both against and in favor of the practice. [ 66 ] [ 67 ] however, by the bend of the eighteenth hundred, african slaves had supplanted european apprenticed servants as cash crop labor, particularly in the American South. [ 68 ] The Thirteen Colonies ( New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia ) that would become the United States of America were administered by the british as oversea dependencies. [ 69 ] All however had local governments with elections open to most exempt men. [ 70 ] With extremely high give birth rates, abject death rates, and steady colonization, the colonial population grew quickly, eclipsing native american populations. [ 71 ] The christian evangelist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious familiarity. [ 72 ] During the Seven Years ‘ War ( 1756–1763 ), known in the U.S. as the french and indian War, british forces captured Canada from the french. With the initiation of the Province of Quebec, Canada ‘s francophone population would remain isolate from the English-speaking colonial dependencies of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and the Thirteen Colonies. Excluding the native Americans who lived there, the Thirteen Colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural addition was such that by the 1770s alone a modest minority of Americans had been born overseas. [ 73 ] The colonies ‘ distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their unprecedented success motivated british monarchs to sporadically seek to reassert royal authority. [ 74 ]

independence and expansion

The american Revolutionary War crusade by the Thirteen Colonies against the british Empire was the foremost successful war of independence by a non-European entity against a european power in modern history. Americans had developed an ideology of “ republicanism “, asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their “ rights as Englishmen “ and “ no tax without representation “. The british insisted on administering the conglomerate through Parliament, and the dispute escalated into war. [ 75 ] The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776 ; this sidereal day is celebrated annually as Independence Day. [ 76 ] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralize government that operated until 1789. [ 76 ] After its kill at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781, Britain signed a peace treaty. american english sovereignty became internationally recognized, and the area was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Tensions with Britain remained, however, leading to the War of 1812, which was fought to a draw. [ 77 ] Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in submit conventions in 1788. Going into force in 1789, this constitution reorganized the federal government into three branches, on the principle of creating good checks and balances. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president of the united states elected under the new fundamental law. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791. [ 78 ]
Although the federal government outlawed american participation in the Atlantic slave trade in 1807, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population. [ 79 ] [ 80 ] [ 81 ] The Second Great Awakening, specially in the period 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ; [ 82 ] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations. [ 83 ] Beginning in the late eighteenth hundred, American settlers began to expand westward, [ 84 ] prompting a retentive series of american amerind Wars. [ 85 ] The 1803 Louisiana Purchase about doubled the nation ‘s area, [ 86 ] Spain ceded Florida and early Gulf Coast territory in 1819, [ 87 ] the Republic of Texas was annexed in 1845 during a period of expansionism, [ 88 ] and the 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the contemporary american Northwest. [ 89 ] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and a lot of the contemporary american Southwest, making the U.S. span the celibate. [ 84 ] [ 90 ] The California Gold Rush of 1848–1849 spur migration to the Pacific slide, which led to the California Genocide [ 91 ] and the creation of extra western states. [ 92 ] The giving away of huge quantities of farming to white european settlers as part of the Homestead Acts, closely 10 % of the full area of the United States, and to secret railroad companies and colleges as part of kingdom grants spurred economic development. [ 93 ] After the Civil War, raw transcontinental railways made resettlement easier for settlers, expanded inner trade, and increased conflicts with native Americans. [ 94 ] In 1869, a newly peace Policy nominally promised to protect native Americans from abuses, avoid foster war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. however, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s .

Civil War and Reconstruction era

irreconcilable sectional conflict regarding the enslavement of Africans and african Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War. [ 95 ] With the 1860 election of Republican Abraham Lincoln, conventions in thirteen slave states declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America ( the “ South ” or the “ Confederacy ” ), while the federal government ( the “ Union “ ) maintained that secession was illegal. [ 96 ] In ordering to bring about this secession, military carry through was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in american history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers arsenic well as many civilians. [ 97 ] The Union initially simply crusade to keep the nation united. however, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union ‘s point of view became the abolition of bondage. indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the kill South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery except as penal labor. Two early amendments were besides ratified, ensuring citizenship for blacks and, at least in theory, voting rights for them angstrom well. reconstruction began in dear following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his character assassination on April 14, 1865 drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal politics made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of african Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of african Americans in the South in orderliness for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876. Southern white Democrats, calling themselves “ Redeemers “, took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction, beginning the nadir of american race relations. From 1890 to 1910, the Redeemers established alleged Jim Crow laws, disenfranchising most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks would face racial segregation nationally, particularly in the South. [ 98 ] They besides occasionally experienced vigilante ferocity, including lynching. [ 99 ]

far immigration, expansion, and industrialization

In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented inflow of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a excess of tug for the country ‘s industrialization and transformed its culture. [ 101 ] National infrastructure, including telegraph and transcontinental railroads, spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would besides affect communication and urban life. [ 102 ] The United States fought indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890. [ 103 ] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of native american english district and their confinement to indian reservations. additionally, the Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the amerind removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians. This farther expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for external markets. [ 104 ] Mainland expansion besides included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. [ 105 ] In 1893, pro-american elements in Hawaii overthrew the hawaiian monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the lapp year, following the Spanish–American War. [ 106 ] american Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War. [ 107 ] The U.S. Virgin Islands were purchased from Denmark in 1917. [ 108 ] rapid economic development during the recently 19th and early twentieth centuries fostered the rise of many outstanding industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation ‘s progress in the railway, petroleum, and steel industries. trust became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a noteworthy character. The american economy boomed, becoming the populace ‘s largest. [ 109 ] These dramatic changes were accompanied by growing inequality and sociable unrest, which prompted the ascend of organized labor along with democrat, socialistic, and anarchist movements. [ 110 ] This period finally ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms including women ‘s right to vote, alcohol prohibition, rule of consumer goods, and greater antimonopoly measures to ensure rival and attention to actor conditions. [ 111 ] [ 112 ] [ 113 ]

World War I, Great Depression, and World War II

The United States remained inert from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917 when it joined the war as an “ consociate office ” alongside the Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the cardinal Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a run diplomatic character at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated powerfully for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. however, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations. [ 114 ] In 1920, the women ‘s rights apparent motion won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women ‘s right to vote. [ 115 ] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early on television receiver. [ 116 ] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president of the united states in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal. [ 117 ] The Great Migration of millions of african Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s ; [ 118 ] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s deprive many farming communities and spurred a fresh wave of westerly migration. [ 119 ]
At beginning efficaciously inert during World War II, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers, and in the surveil class, to intern about 120,000 [ 120 ] U.S. residents ( including American citizens ) of japanese descent. [ 121 ] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. however pursued a “ Europe first “ department of defense policy. [ 122 ] The United States thus left its huge asian colony, the Philippines, isolate and fighting a losing clamber against japanese invasion and occupation. During the war, the United States was one of the “ Four Powers “ [ 123 ] who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union, and China. Although the nation lost about 400,000 military personnel, [ 126 ] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence. [ 127 ] The United States played a ahead role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences, which signed agreements on new external fiscal institutions and Europe ‘s postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international league held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war. [ 128 ] The United States and Japan then crusade each other in the largest naval struggle in history, the Battle of Leyte Gulf. [ 129 ] [ 130 ] The United States developed the inaugural nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 ; the Japanese surrendered on September 2, ending World War II. [ 131 ] [ 132 ]

Peak Cold War years and civil rights

After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for baron, charm, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological separate between capitalism and communism. [ 133 ] They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed knock-down nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided mastermind military conflict. [ 134 ] The United States much opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored and occasionally pursued direct military action for regimen change against leftist governments, occasionally supporting authoritarian rightist regimes. [ 135 ] american english troops fight communist Chinese and union korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–1953. [ 136 ] The Soviet Union ‘s 1957 establish of the foremost artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first base crewed spaceflight initiated a “ Space Race “ in which the United States became the beginning nation to land a man on the Moon in 1969. [ 136 ] The United States became increasingly involved in the Vietnam War ( 1955–1975 ), introducing battle forces in 1965. [ 137 ] At dwelling, the U.S. had experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid increase of its population and middle classify following World War II. After a billow in female tug participation, specially in the 1970s, by 1985, the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed. [ 138 ] Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the state ‘s infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inside cities to large suburban caparison developments. [ 139 ] [ 140 ] In 1959, the United States formally expanded beyond the adjacent United States when the territories of Alaska and Hawaii became, respectively, the 49th and 50th states admitted into the Union. [ 141 ] The growing Civil Rights Movement used passive resistance to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a big leader and front man. [ 142 ] A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination. [ 143 ] [ 144 ] [ 145 ] interim, a counterculture movement grew, which was fueled by resistance to the Vietnam war, the Black Power bowel movement, and the sexual rotation. [ 146 ]

late twentieth hundred

The launch of a “ War on Poverty “ expanded entitlements and benefit spend, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the aged and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children. [ 147 ] The 1970s and early 1980s saw the attack of stagflation. The United States supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War ; in response, the country faced an oil embargo from OPEC nations, sparking the 1973 oil crisis. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter brokered a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, marking the beginning time an arab nation recognized Israeli universe. [ relevant? ] After his election, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned “ containment ” and initiated the more aggressive “ rollback “ strategy towards the Soviet Union. [ 148 ] [ 149 ] The former 1980s brought a “ dissolve “ in relations with the Soviet Union, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War. [ 150 ] [ 151 ] [ 152 ] This brought about unipolarity [ 153 ] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world ‘s dominant allele world power. [ 154 ] After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq invaded and annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing the banquet of imbalance, in August, President George H. W. Bush launched and led the Gulf War against Iraq ; waged until February 1991 by coalition forces from 34 nations, it ended in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and restoration of the monarchy. [ 155 ] Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet go around to international academic platforms and then to the populace in the 1990s, greatly affecting the ball-shaped economy, society, and culture. [ 156 ] due to the dot-com thunder, stable monetary policy, and reduced social benefit spend, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in mod U.S. history. [ 157 ] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. signed the north american Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ), causing trade among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to soar. [ 158 ]

twenty-first hundred

On September 11, 2001, al-qaeda terrorist hijackers flew passenger planes into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing closely 3,000 people. [ 159 ] Hundreds more die late from illnesses related to the attacks, and possibly thousands of first base responders, killing workers, and survivors suffer from long-run effects. [ 160 ] In response, President George W. Bush launched the War on Terror, which included a closely 20-year war in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2021 and the 2003–2011 Iraq War. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] A 2011 military operation in Pakistan led to the killing of Osama bin Laden. [ 163 ] government policy designed to promote low-cost house, [ 164 ] widespread failures in corporate and regulative administration, [ 165 ] and historically low concern rates set by the Federal Reserve [ 166 ] led to the United States housing burp in 2006, which culminated with the fiscal crisis of 2007–2008 and the Great Recession, the nation ‘s largest economic contraction since the Great Depression. [ 167 ] During the crisis, assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their rate. [ 168 ] Barack Obama, the foremost multiracial [ 169 ] president, with african-american ancestry [ 170 ] was elected in 2008 amid the crisis, [ 171 ] and subsequently passed american Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 economic stimulation and the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. republican Donald Trump was elected as the 45th president in 2016, a result viewed as one of the biggest political upsets in american english history. [ 172 ] Trump led the country through the first waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, which as of December 2021 is estimated to have killed over 900,000 Americans. [ 173 ] In 2020, in what was seen as a repudiation of Trump ‘s dissentious leadership, Democrat Joe Biden was elected as the 46th president. [ 174 ] On January 6, 2021, supporters of outgoing President Trump stormed the United States Capitol in an abortive attempt to disrupt the presidential Electoral College vote count. [ 175 ]

geography

The 48 conterminous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combine area of 3,119,885 square miles ( 8,080,470 km2 ). Of this sphere, 2,959,064 squarely miles ( 7,663,940 km2 ) is adjacent land, composing 83.65 % of sum U.S. down area. [ 176 ] [ 177 ] Hawaii, occupying an archipelago in the central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles ( 28,311 km2 ) in area. The five populated but unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands together cover 9,185 straight miles ( 23,789 km2 ). [ 178 ] Measured by only farming area, the United States is third in size behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada. [ 179 ] The United States is the global ‘s third- or fourth-largest nation by sum sphere ( land and water ), ranking behind Russia and Canada and about peer to China. The rank varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured. [ five hundred ] [ 180 ] [ 181 ] The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaside gives way far inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. [ 182 ] The appalachian Mountains divide the eastern seaside from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest. [ 183 ] The Mississippi – Missouri River, the universe ‘s fourth longest river system, runs chiefly north–south through the heart of the nation. The flat, fat prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a upland region in the southeast. [ 183 ] The Rocky Mountains, west of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the state, peaking around 14,000 feet ( 4,300 megabyte ) in Colorado. [ 184 ] Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and Mojave. [ 185 ] The Sierra Nevada and Cascade batch ranges run close up to the Pacific slide, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet ( 4,300 m ). The lowest and highest points in the conterminous United States are in the state of California, [ 186 ] and merely about 84 miles ( 135 kilometer ) apart. [ 187 ] At an elevation of 20,310 feet ( 6,190.5 thousand ), Alaska ‘s Denali is the highest acme in the country and in North America. [ 188 ] active voice volcanoes are coarse throughout Alaska ‘s Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent ‘s largest volcanic feature. [ 189 ] The United States, with its large size and geographic diverseness, includes most climate types. To the east of the hundredth prime, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. [ 190 ] The Great Plains west of the hundredth prime are semi-arid. much of the western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southerly Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southerly tip of Florida are tropical, vitamin a well as its territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. [ 191 ] States bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world ‘s tornadoes occur in the nation, chiefly in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South. [ 192 ] Overall, the United States receives more high-impact extreme weather incidents than any other state in the world. [ 193 ]

biodiversity

The U.S. is one of 17 megadiverse countries containing a bombastic amount of endemic species : about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and more than 1,800 species of unfolding plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland. [ 195 ] The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 dame species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species, [ 196 ] american samoa good as approximately 91,000 worm species. [ 197 ] There are 63 home parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas, which are managed by the National Park Service. [ 198 ] Altogether, the government owns about 28 % of the area ‘s domain area, [ 199 ] largely in the western states. [ 200 ] Most of this country is protected, though some is leased for oil and accelerator drill, mine, log, or cattle ranching, and about .86 % is used for military purposes. [ 201 ] [ 202 ] environmental issues include debates on vegetable oil and nuclear energy, dealing with air and water befoulment, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation, [ 203 ] [ 204 ] and climate change. [ 205 ] [ 206 ] The most outstanding environmental agency is the environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ), created by presidential order in 1970. [ 207 ] The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act. [ 208 ] The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threaten and endanger species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. [ 209 ] The United States is ranked twenty-fourth among nations in the Environmental Performance Index. [ 210 ] The nation joined the Paris Agreement on climate exchange in 2016 and has many early environmental commitments. [ 211 ] It left the Paris Agreement in 2020, [ 212 ] and rejoined it in 2021. [ 213 ]

Government and politics

The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal zone, five territories and several uninhabited island possessions. [ 214 ] It is the world ‘s oldest surviving federation. It is a federal democracy and a representative democracy “ in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law. ” [ 217 ] Since 2015, the U.S. has ranked 25th on the Democracy Index, and is described as a “ flaw democracy ”. [ 218 ] On Transparency International ‘s 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, its populace sector place deteriorated from a seduce of 76 in 2015 to 69 in 2019. [ 219 ] In the American federalist system, citizens are normally subject to three levels of government : federal, state, and local. The local government ‘s duties are normally split between county and municipal governments. In about all cases, administrator and legislative officials are elected by a battalion vote of citizens by district. The politics is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the area ‘s sovereign legal text file. [ 220 ] The Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its kinship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the writ of habeas principal. The Constitution has been amended 27 times ; [ 221 ] the beginning ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans ‘ individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subjugate to judicial recapitulation, and any jurisprudence can be voided if the courts determine that it violates the Constitution. The principle of judicial revue, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison ( 1803 ) [ 222 ] in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall. [ 223 ] The union politics comprises three branches :
The House of Representatives has 435 vote members, each representing a congressional zone for a biennial term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population. Each department of state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census allotment. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories each have one extremity of Congress —these members are not allowed to vote. [ 228 ] The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms ; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every two years. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories do not have senators. [ 228 ] The president of the united states serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than doubly. The president of the united states is not elected by direct vote, but by an collateral electoral college system in which the determine votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia. [ 229 ] The Supreme Court, led by the foreman justice of the United States, has nine members, who serve for life sentence. [ 230 ]

political divisions

The 50 states are the chief political divisions in the country. Each state holds jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, where it shares sovereignty with the federal government. They are subdivided into counties or county equivalents and further divided into municipalities. The District of Columbia is a union district that contains the capital of the United States, the city of Washington. [ 231 ] The states and the District of Columbia choose the president of the united states of the United States. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their representatives and senators in Congress ; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment. [ 232 ] Territories of the United States such as Puerto Rico do not have presidential electors, and so people in those territories can not vote for the president of the united states. [ 228 ] The United States besides observes tribal reign of the american amerind nations to a limit degree, as it does with the states ‘ sovereignty. american english Indians are U.S. citizens and tribal lands are subject to the legal power of the U.S. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a bang-up deal of autonomy, but besides like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, hire in their own foreign relations, or print and exit currency. [ 233 ] Reservations are normally separate of a single submit, though 12 reservations cross state boundaries. [ 234 ] indian state legal power over civil and criminal matters is shared by tribes, states, and the federal politics. citizenship is granted at parturition in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U.S. territories except american Samoa. [ j ] [ 238 ] [ 235 ]

Parties and elections

The United States has operated under a bipartisan system for most of its history. [ 239 ] For elective course offices at most levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 1856, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and the Republican Party, founded in 1854. Since the Civil War, alone one third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore Roosevelt, running as a Progressive in 1912 —has won a much as 20 % of the popular vote, though the self-financed Reform party campaign of Ross Perot took 18.9 % in 1992. [ 240 ] The president and frailty president are elected by the Electoral College. [ 241 ] In american political culture, the center-right Republican Party is considered “ conservative “ and the center-left Democratic Party is considered “ free “. [ 242 ] [ 243 ] The states of the Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as “ blue states “, are relatively liberal. The “ red states “ of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively cautious. Democrat Joe Biden, the winner of the 2020 presidential election and former vice president, is serving as the 46th president of the United States. Leadership in the Senate includes Vice President Kamala Harris, President pro tempore Patrick Leahy, Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, and Minority Leader Mitch McConnell. [ 244 ] Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, and Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy. [ 245 ] In the 117th United States Congress, the House of Representatives and the Senate are narrowly controlled by the democratic Party. The Senate consists of 50 Republicans and 48 Democrats with two Independents who caucus with the Democrats, with Vice President Harris, a Democrat, able to break ties. The House consists of 222 Democrats and 211 Republicans. [ 246 ] Of state governors, there are 27 Republicans and 23 Democrats. Among the D.C. mayor and the five territorial governors, there are three Democrats, one Republican, and one New Progressive. [ 247 ]

foreign relations

Map depicting the U.S. having diplomatic relations with nearly every country in the world

 

United States

 

Countries that have diplomatic relations with the United States

 

Countries that do not have diplomatic relations with the United States

 

Disputed territories

 

Antarctica diplomatic relations of the United States The United States has an established structure of extraneous relations. It is a permanent wave extremity of the United Nations Security Council. New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the area. Likewise, about all nations host american english diplomatic missions. however, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States ( although the U.S. still maintains unofficial relations with Bhutan and Taiwan ). [ 248 ] It is a extremity of the G7, [ 249 ] G20, and OECD. The United States has a “ special Relationship “ with the United Kingdom [ 250 ] and strong ties with Canada, [ 251 ] India, Australia, [ 252 ] New Zealand, [ 253 ] the Philippines, [ 254 ] Japan, [ 255 ] South Korea, [ 256 ] Israel, [ 257 ] and several European Union countries, including France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Poland. [ 258 ] It works closely with chap NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the triangle United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement. Colombia is traditionally considered by the United States as its most patriotic ally in South America. [ 259 ] [ 260 ] The U.S. exercises full external defense authority and province for Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau through the Compact of Free Association. [ 261 ]

government finance

Chart depicting an increase in U.S. government spending as a percentage of GDP over time, particularly since World War I U.S. Government spend and gross from 1792 to 2018 taxation in the United States is progressive, [ 262 ] [ 263 ] and is levied at the federal, country, and local anesthetic government levels. This includes taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates, and gifts, equally well as diverse fees. taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency. [ 264 ] Both non-resident citizens and Green Card holders living abroad are taxed on their income regardless of where they live or where their income is earned. The United States is one of the few countries in the populace to do so. [ 265 ] In 2010, taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8 % of GDP. [ 266 ] For 2018, the effective tax pace for the wealthiest 400 households was 23 %, compared to 24.2 % for the bottom half of U.S. households. [ 267 ] During fiscal year 2012, the federal government spent $ 3.54 trillion on a budget or cash footing. major categories of fiscal year 2012 outgo included : Medicare & Medicaid ( 23 % ), Social Security ( 22 % ), Defense Department ( 19 % ), non-defense discretionary ( 17 % ), other compulsory ( 13 % ) and interest ( 6 % ). [ 268 ] In 2018, the United States had the largest external debt in the world. [ 269 ] As a percentage of GDP, it had the 34th largest government debt in the world in 2017 ; however, more late estimates vary. [ 270 ] The total national debt of the United States was $ 23.201 trillion, or 107 % of GDP, in the one-fourth quarter of 2019. [ 271 ] By 2012, sum federal debt had surpassed 100 % of U.S. GDP. [ 272 ] The U.S. has a citation evaluation of AA+ from Standard & Poor ‘s, AAA from Fitch, and AAA from Moody ‘s. [ 273 ]

military

The president is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Department of Defense administers five of the six service branches, which are made up of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force. The Coast Guard, besides a arm of the arm forces, is normally administered by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy in wartime. [ 274 ] In 2019, all six branches of the U.S. Armed Forces reported 1.4 million personnel on active voice duty. [ 275 ] The Reserves and National Guard brought the total phone number of troops to 2.3 million. [ 275 ] The Department of Defense besides employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors. [ 276 ]
military service in the United States is voluntary, although conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. [ 277 ] From 1940 until 1973, conscription was mandatary even during peacetime. [ 278 ] nowadays, American forces can be quickly deployed by the Air Force ‘s large flit of transmit aircraft, the Navy ‘s 11 active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy, and Army ‘s XVIII Airborne Corps and 75th Ranger Regiment deployed by Air Force ecstasy aircraft. The Air Force can strike targets across the ball through its fleet of strategic bombers, maintains the air defense across the United States, and provides close air support to Army and Marine Corps grind forces. [ 279 ] [ 280 ] [ 281 ] The Space Force operates the Global Positioning System, operates the Eastern and Western Ranges for all quad launches, and operates the United States ‘ Space Surveillance and Missile Warning networks. [ 282 ] [ 283 ] [ 284 ] The military operates about 800 bases and facilities overseas, [ 285 ] and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 extraneous countries. [ 286 ] The United States spent $ 649 billion on its military in 2019, 36 % of global military outgo. [ 287 ] At 4.7 % of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia. [ 287 ] Defense spending plays a major function in skill and technology investment, with roughly half of U.S. federal research and development funded by the Department of Defense. [ 288 ] Defense ‘s share of the overall U.S. economy has generally declined in recent decades, from early Cold War peaks of 14.2 % of GDP in 1953 and 69.5 % of federal spend in 1954 to 4.7 % of GDP and 18.8 % of federal outgo in 2011. [ 289 ] In total numeral of personnel, the United States has the third-largest combined armed forces in the world, behind the chinese People ‘s Liberation Army and Indian Armed Forces. [ 290 ] The United States is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states, and one of nine countries to posses nuclear weapons. It has the worldly concern ‘s second-largest reserve of nuclear weapons, after that of Russia. The United States besides owns more than 40 % of the universe ‘s 14,000 nuclear weapons. [ 291 ]

Law enforcement and crime

Law enforcement in the United States is chiefly the duty of local anesthetic patrol departments and sheriff ‘s offices, with state police providing broad services. federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation ( FBI ) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts ‘ rulings and federal laws. [ 292 ] According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and Charles H. Ramsey, former Philadelphia, Pennsylvania patrol head, appearing on Meet the Press, there are about 18,000 U.S. patrol agencies in the United States. That count includes city patrol departments, county sheriff ‘s offices, state police/ highway patrol and federal law enforcement agencies. [ 293 ] State courts conduct most criminal trials while federal courts handle sealed delegate crimes adenine well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. A cross-section analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 showed that United States homicide rates “ were 7.0 times higher than in early high-income countries, driven by a accelerator homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher. ” [ 294 ] In 2016, the U.S. mangle rate was 5.4 per 100,000. [ 295 ] Chart depicting a steep increase in the number of incarcerated Americans from the 1980s to the 2000s total captivity in the United States by year ( 1920–2014 ) The United States has the highest documented captivity rate and largest prison population in the world. [ 296 ] The Department of Justice said that the imprisonment pace for all prisoners sentenced to more than a class in state or federal facilities in 2019 stand at 419 per 100,000 residents which was at its lowest charge since 1995 and that the entire prison population for the like year stood at 1,430,800 which represented an 11 % decrease in the population size from a decade earlier. [ 297 ] other sources such as the Prison Policy Initiative had put the sum act of prisoners in 2020 at 2.3 million. [ 298 ] According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the majority of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug offenses. [ 299 ] Efforts to reduce the prison population include government policies and grassroots initiatives that promote decarceration — late examples include laws at the federal and state level such as the Fair Sentencing Act, First Step Act, Maryland ‘s Justice Reinvestment Act and California ’ s Money Bail Reform Act. About 9 % of prisoners are held in privatize prisons, [ 298 ] a exercise begin in the 1980s and a subjugate of competition. [ 300 ] On January 26, 2021 the Biden Administration signed an executive order that halted the refilling of federal government contracts with individual prisons, [ 301 ] [ 302 ] but it did not apply to detention centers that held undocumented immigrants. [ 303 ] Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, [ 304 ] it is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and at the state of matter level in 28 states, though three states have moratoriums on carrying out the punishment imposed by their governors. [ 305 ] [ 306 ] [ 307 ] In 2019, the nation had the sixth-highest count of executions in the world, following China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Egypt. [ 308 ] No executions took station from 1967 to 1977, owing in partially to the 1972 U.S. Supreme Court rule in Furman v. Georgia that struck down the former commit. Since the decision, however, there have been more than 1,500 executions, although 186 of those convicted and sentenced since Furman have been exonerated, as tabulated by the Death Penalty Information Center. [ 309 ] In late years the act of executions and presence of capital punishment codified on hale has trended down nationally, with respective states recently abolishing the penalty. [ 307 ] [ 310 ]

economy

According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $ 22.7 trillion constitutes 24 % of the gross earth product at market exchange rates and over 16 % of the crying universe product at purchasing power parity. [ 313 ] [ 14 ] In October 2021 the United States had a national debt of $ 28.8 trillion. [ 314 ] The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter, [ 315 ] though exports per caput are relatively broken. In 2010, the sum U.S. trade deficit was $ 635 billion. [ 316 ] Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and the European Union are its top trade partners. [ 317 ] [ 318 ] From 1983 to 2008, U.S. real compounded annual GDP increase was 3.3 %, compared to a 2.3 % leaden average for the pillow of the G7. [ 319 ] The country ranks fifth in the world in nominative GDP per head [ 320 ] and seventh in GDP per head at PPP. [ 14 ] The U.S. dollar is the global ‘s primary coil reserve currentness. [ 321 ] In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4 % of the economy. [ 322 ] While its economy has reached a post-industrial level of development, the United States remains an industrial power. [ 323 ] In August 2010, the american labor storm consisted of 154.1 million people ( 50 % ). With 21.2 million people, the populace sector is the leading battlefield of use. The largest private use sector is health caution and social aid, with 16.4 million people. It has a smaller social welfare country and redistributes less income through government carry through than most other high-income countries. [ 324 ] The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation [ 325 ] and is one of a few countries in the worldly concern without paid class leave as a legal properly. [ 326 ] Some 74 % of full-time american workers get paid brainsick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, although only 24 % of part-time workers get the same benefits. [ 327 ]

science and engineering

The United States has been a drawing card in technical invention since the late nineteenth century and scientific inquiry since the mid-20th century. Methods for producing exchangeable parts were developed by the U.S. War Department by the Federal Armories during the inaugural half of the nineteenth hundred. This technology, along with the administration of a machine tool industry, enabled the U.S. to have large-scale manufacture of sewing machines, bicycles, and early items in the late nineteenth century and became known as the american english system of manufacture. factory electrification in the early twentieth century and presentation of the assembly note and early labor-saving techniques created the arrangement of mass production. [ 328 ] In the twenty-first hundred, approximately two-thirds of research and development fund comes from the private sector. [ 329 ] The United States leads the earth in scientific inquiry papers and impact divisor. [ 330 ] [ 331 ] In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the inaugural U.S. patent for the telephone. Thomas Edison ‘s research lab, one of the first of its kind, developed the record player, the first durable ignite bulb, and the first feasible movie camera. [ 332 ] The latter led to emergence of the cosmopolitan entertainment diligence. In the early twentieth hundred, the car companies of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford popularized the assembly trace. The Wright brothers, in 1903, made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air power flight. [ 333 ] The arise of fascism and Nazism in the 1920s and 30s led many european scientists, including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and John von Neumann, to immigrate to the United States. [ 334 ] During World War II, the Manhattan Project developed nuclear weapons, ushering in the Atomic Age, while the Space Race produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science, and aeronautics. [ 335 ] [ 336 ] The invention of the transistor in the 1950s, a key active component in practically all modern electronics, led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U.S. technology industry. [ 337 ] This, in turn, led to the establishment of many new technology companies and regions around the nation such as Silicon Valley in California. Advancements by American microprocessor companies such as Advanced Micro Devices ( AMD ) and Intel, along with both calculator software and hardware companies such as Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems, created and popularized the personal computer. The ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department requirements, and became the first gear of a series of networks which evolved into the Internet. [ 338 ] The United States ranked third in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, after Switzerland and Sweden. [ 339 ]

Income, wealth, and poverty

account for 4.24 % of the global population, Americans jointly possess 29.4 % of the universe ‘s sum wealth, the largest share of any area. [ 340 ] [ 341 ] The U.S. besides ranks inaugural in the number of billionaires and millionaires in the world, with 724 billionaires and 10.5 million millionaires as of 2020. [ 342 ] [ 343 ] Prior to the 2019–2021 ball-shaped SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Credit Suisse listed some 18.6 million U.S. citizens as having a net worth in excess of $ 1 million. [ 344 ] In 2020, the Food Security Index ranked the United States 11th in food security, giving the state a score of 77.5/100. [ 345 ] Americans on average have more than doubly as much exist space per dwell and per person as EU residents. [ 346 ] For 2019, the United Nations Development Programme ranked the United States 17th among 189 countries in its Human Development Index ( HDI ) and 28th among 151 countries in its inequality-adjusted HDI ( IHDI ). [ 347 ]
Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated ; the richest 10 % of the adult population possess 72 % of the state ‘s family wealth, while the bottomland half posse only 2 %. [ 349 ] According to the Federal Reserve, the top 1 % controlled 38.6 % of the country ‘s wealth in 2016. [ 350 ] According to a 2018 study by the OECD, the United States has a larger share of low-income workers than about any other develop state, largely because of a weak collective dicker system and miss of government support for at-risk workers. [ 351 ] After years of stagnation, median family income reached a record high in 2016 following two straight years of record emergence. Income inequality remains at read highs however, with the circus tent one-fifth of earners taking home more than one-half of all overall income. [ 352 ] The wax in the contribution of sum annual income received by the top one percentage, which has more than doubled from nine percentage in 1976 to 20 percentage in 2011, has importantly affected income inequality, [ 353 ] leaving the United States with one of the widest income distributions among OECD members. [ 354 ] The circus tent one percentage of income-earners accounted for 52 percentage of the income gains from 2009 to 2015, where income is defined as market income excluding politics transfers. [ 355 ] The extent and relevance of income inequality is a matter of debate. [ 357 ] [ 358 ] There were about 567,715 sheltered and unsheltered dispossessed persons in the U.S. in January 2019, with about two-thirds staying in an emergency shelter or transitional caparison program. [ 359 ] Attempts to combat homelessness include the section 8 caparison voucher program and execution of the Housing First scheme across all levels of government. [ 360 ] [ 361 ] [ 362 ] [ 363 ] [ 364 ] [ 365 ] [ 366 ] In 2011, 16.7 million children lived in food-insecure households, approximately 35 % more than 2007 levels, though only 845,000 U.S. children ( 1.1 % ) saw reduced food intake or disrupted eating patterns at some point during the year, and most cases were not chronic. [ 367 ] As of June 2018, 40 million people, roughly 12.7 % of the U.S. population, were living in poverty, including 13.3 million children. Of those impoverished, 18.5 million populate in thick poverty ( family income below one-half of the poverty doorsill ) and over five million live “ in ‘ Third World ‘ conditions ”. [ 368 ] In 2017, the U.S. states or territories with the lowest and highest poverty rates were New Hampshire ( 7.6 % ) and american Samoa ( 65 % ), respectively. [ 369 ] [ 370 ] [ 371 ] The economic impact and mass unemployment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic raised fears of a mass eviction crisis, [ 372 ] with an analysis by the Aspen Institute indicating that between 30 and 40 million people were at gamble for eviction by the end of 2020. [ 373 ] While the CDC and the Biden government issued a federal eviction moratorium, the Supreme Court invalidated the club, ruling they lacked the authority under union law to do therefore. [ 374 ]

exile

All-road transportation

personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 4 million miles ( 6.4 million kilometers ) of public roads. [ 376 ] The United States has the earth ‘s second-largest automobile market, [ 377 ] and has the highest vehicle possession per caput in the earth, with 816.4 vehicles per 1,000 Americans ( 2014 ). [ 378 ] In 2017, there were 255,009,283 non-two wheel motor vehicles, or about 910 vehicles per 1,000 people. [ 379 ]

air travel

The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1978, while most major airports are publicly owned. [ 380 ] The three largest airlines in the earth by passengers carried are U.S.-based ; American Airlines is number one after its 2013 learning by US Airways. [ 381 ] Of the universe ‘s 50 busiest passenger airports, 16 are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport. [ 382 ]

rail

The United States has the longest rail network in the populace, closely all standard gauge. The network handles largely freight, with intercity passenger service provided by the government-subsidized Amtrak to all but four states. [ 383 ]

environmental concerns

transportation is the largest unmarried source of greenhouse boast emissions in the United States. The state now ranks as the earth ‘s second-highest emitter of greenhouse gases, exceeded only by China. [ 384 ] The United States had been the world ‘s largest manufacturer of greenhouse gases, and greenhouse gas emissions per head remain gamey. [ 385 ]

Energy

The United States energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per year. [ 386 ] In 2018, 37 % of this energy came from petroleum, 31 % from natural gas, and 13 % from coal. The remainder was supplied by nuclear and renewable department of energy sources. [ 387 ] With about 4 % of the universe ‘s population, the U.S. consumes about 17 % of the earth ‘s energy. [ 388 ]

Demographics

population

The U.S. Census Bureau reported 331,449,281 residents as of April 1, 2020. [ 390 ] This figure, like most official data for the United States as a unharmed, excludes the five unincorporated territories ( Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands ) and minor island possessions. According to the Bureau ‘s U.S. Population Clock, on January 28, 2021, the U.S. population had a net gain of one person every 100 seconds, or about 864 people per day. [ 391 ] The United States is the one-third most populous nation in the world, after China and India. In 2020, the median age of the United States population was 38.5 years. [ 392 ] In 2018, there were about 90 million immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants in the United States, accounting for 28 % of the overall U.S. population. [ 393 ] The United States has a diverse population ; 37 lineage groups have more than one million members. [ 394 ] White Americans of european ancestry, by and large german, Irish, English, Italian, Polish and French, [ 395 ] including White Hispanic and Latino Americans from Latin America, form the largest racial group, at 73.1 % of the population. african Americans constitute the nation ‘s largest racial minority and third-largest lineage group, and are about 13 % of the entire U.S. population. [ 394 ] asian Americans are the state ‘s second-largest racial minority ( the three largest asian ethnic groups are taiwanese, Filipino, and indian ). [ 394 ] In 2017, out of the U.S. foreign-born population, some 45 % ( 20.7 million ) were naturalized citizens, 27 % ( 12.3 million ) were true permanent residents, 6 % ( 2.2 million ) were irregular lawful residents, and 23 % ( 10.5 million ) were unauthorized immigrants. [ 396 ] Among stream live immigrants to the U.S., the top five countries of give birth are Mexico, China, India, the Philippines and El Salvador. Until 2017, the United States led the global in refugee resettlement for decades, admitting more refugees than the rest of the worldly concern combined. [ 397 ] about 82 % of Americans live in urban areas, including suburbs ; [ 181 ] about half of those rest in cities with populations over 50,000. [ 398 ] In 2008, 273 incorporate municipalities had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four cities had over two million ( namely New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston ). [ 399 ] Many U.S. metropolitan populations are growing quickly, particularly in the South and West. [ 400 ] As of 2018, 52 % of Americans senesce 15 and complete were married, 6 % were widowed, 10 % were divorced, and 32 % had never been married. [ 401 ] As of 2020, the entire richness pace stood at 1.64 children per womanhood. [ 402 ] In 2013, the average old age at first give birth was 26, and 41 % of births were to unmarried women. [ 403 ] In 2019, the U.S. had the global ‘s highest rate ( 23 % ) of children living in single-parent households ; the rates in Canada and Mexico were 15 % and 7 %, respectively. [ 404 ]

terminology

English ( specifically, American English ) is the de facto national terminology of the United States. Although there is no official language at the union flat, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements —standardize english, and most states have declared English as the official linguistic process. [ 405 ] Three states and four U.S. territories have recognized local anesthetic or autochthonal languages in summation to English, including Hawaii ( Hawaiian ), [ 406 ] Alaska ( twenty Native languages ), [ kelvin ] [ 407 ] South Dakota ( Sioux ), [ 408 ] american Samoa ( Samoan ), Puerto Rico ( spanish ), Guam ( Chamorro ), and the Northern Mariana Islands ( carolinian and Chamorro ). In Puerto Rico, Spanish is more widely spoken than English. [ 409 ] According to the American Community Survey, in 2010 some 229 million people ( out of the full U.S. population of 308 million ) spoke merely English at home plate. More than 37 million spoke Spanish at home, making it the second base most normally use terminology in the United States. other languages spoken at home by one million people or more include Chinese ( 2.8 million ), Tagalog ( 1.6 million ), Vietnamese ( 1.4 million ), French ( 1.3 million ), Korean ( 1.1 million ), and German ( 1 million ). [ 410 ] The most wide teach extraneous languages in the United States, in terms of registration numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate education, are spanish ( around 7.2 million students ), French ( 1.5 million ), and German ( 500,000 ). other normally teach languages include Latin, japanese, american Sign Language, Italian, and Chinese. [ 411 ] [ 412 ] About 18 % of all Americans call to speak both English and another speech. [ 413 ]

religion

Map of the U.S. depicting greater religiosity in the Southern United States [414] percentage of respondents in the United States saying that religion is “ very significant ” or “ slightly significant ” in their lives ( 2014 ) The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees the spare drill of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment. The United States has the world ‘s largest christian population. [ 415 ] In a 2014 survey, 70.6 % of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians ; [ 416 ] Protestants accounted for 46.5 %, while Catholics, at 20.8 %, formed the largest single christian denomination. [ 417 ] In 2014, 5.9 % of the U.S. adult population claimed a non-Christian religion. [ 418 ] These include Judaism ( 1.9 % ), Islam ( 0.9 % ), Hinduism ( 0.7 % ), and Buddhism ( 0.7 % ). [ 418 ] The survey besides reported that 22.8 % of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or plainly having no religion —up from 8.2 % in 1990. [ 417 ] [ 419 ] [ 420 ] Membership in a house of worship fell from 70 % in 1999 to 47 % in 2020, much of the refuse related to the total of Americans expressing no religious predilection. however, membership besides fell among those who identified with a specific religious group. [ 421 ] [ 422 ] protestantism is the largest christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for about half of all Americans. Baptists jointly form the largest branch of Protestantism at 15.4 %, [ 423 ] and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination at 5.3 % of the U.S. population. [ 423 ] Apart from Baptists, other Protestant categories include nondenominational Protestants, Methodists, Pentecostals, unspecified Protestants, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Episcopalians / Anglicans, Quakers, Adventists, Holiness, Christian fundamentalists, Anabaptists, Pietists, and multiple others. [ 423 ] The Bible Belt is an informal term for a area in the Southern United States in which socially bourgeois evangelical protestantism is a significant part of the acculturation and christian church attendance across the denominations is broadly higher than the nation ‘s average. By contrast, religion plays the least significant function in New England and in the Western United States. [ 424 ]

Health

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) reported that the United States had an median life anticipation at birth of 77.3 years in 2020 ( 74.5 years for men and 80.2 years for women ), down 1.5 years from 2019. According to probationary figures, this was the lowest average U.S. life anticipation recorded by the CDC since 2003, the first gear overall decline since 2018, and “ the largest annual descent since World War II. ” Some three-quarters of the decrease was attributed to deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic, with most of the rest due to accidents and drug overdoses. [ 425 ] The area besides has one of the highest suicide rates among affluent countries. [ 426 ] [ 427 ] Starting in 1998, the average life anticipation in the U.S. fell behind that of other affluent industrialized countries, and Americans ‘ “ health disadvantage ” gap has been increasing ever since. [ 428 ] From 1999 to 2019, more than 770,000 Americans died from drug overdoses. [ 429 ] Life anticipation was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks. [ 430 ] [ 431 ] Increasing fleshiness in the United States and improvements in health and longevity outside the U.S. contributed to lowering the area ‘s rank in life anticipation from 11th in the world in 1987 to 42nd in 2007. In 2017, the United States had the lowest life anticipation among Japan, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and seven nations in western Europe. [ 432 ] [ 433 ] Obesity rates have more than doubled in the last 30 years and are the highest in the industrialize global. [ 434 ] [ 435 ] approximately one-third of the adult population is corpulent and an extra third is corpulence. [ 436 ] Obesity-related type 2 diabetes is considered epidemic by health care professionals. [ 437 ] In 2010, coronary thrombosis artery disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic clogging pneumonic diseases, and traffic collisions caused the most years of life lost in the U.S. Low back pain, depression, musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most harmful risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoke, fleshiness, gamey lineage atmospheric pressure, high blood carbohydrate, physical inactivity, and alcohol habit. Alzheimer ‘s disease, meaning habit disorders, kidney disease, cancer, and falls caused the most extra years of animation lost over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita rates. [ 438 ] U.S. adolescent pregnancy and abortion rates are substantially higher than in early western nations, particularly among blacks and Hispanics. [ 439 ] Government-funded health manage coverage for the inadequate ( Medicaid, established in 1965 ) and for those age 65 and older ( Medicare, begun in 1966 ) is available to Americans who meet the programs ‘ income or age qualifications. The United States is the only developed state without a system of cosmopolitan health care and the reasons for this and extent to which it is a problem is a matter of debate. similarly a significant proportion of the population does not carry health indemnity and the reasons for and extent to which it is a problem is besides a topic of debate. In 2010, former President Obama passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ( besides known as the Affordable Care Act or ACA ) which ushered in the most sweep sic of reforms to America ’ s health care organization in about five decades since the creation of Medicare and Medicaid. [ 440 ] The CDC said that the law approximately halved the uninsured share of the population [ 441 ] and multiple studies have concluded that ACA had reduced the deathrate of enrollees [ 442 ] [ 443 ] [ 444 ] but its bequest remains controversial. President Biden ’ s Build Back Better Act contains provisions that would allow more federal subsidies for indemnity plans purchased on ACA healthcare exchanges and an expansion of services offered under Medicare. The U.S. health care system far outspends that of any early nation, measured both in per caput spend and as a percentage of GDP but attains worse healthcare outcomes when compared to peer nations. [ 445 ] however, the U.S. is a global drawing card in medical initiation. [ 446 ]

department of education

American public education is operated by country and local governments and regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of five or six ( beginning with kindergarten or first grade ) until they turn 18 ( broadly bringing them through twelfth degree, the end of high school ) ; some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17. [ 447 ] about 12 % of children are enrolled in insular or nonsectarian private schools. 3.4 % of children are homeschooled as of 2012. [ 448 ] The U.S. spends more on education per student than any nation in the universe, [ 449 ] spending an average of $ 12,794 per class on public elementary and secondary school students in the 2016–2017 school year. [ 450 ] Some 80 % of U.S. college students attend public universities. [ 451 ] Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6 % graduated from high school, 52.6 % attended some college, 27.2 % earned a bachelor ‘s degree, and 9.6 % earned graduate degrees. [ 452 ] The basic literacy rate is approximately 99 %. [ 181 ] [ 453 ] The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world. [ 454 ] The United States has many private and populace institutions of higher education. The majority of the global ‘s top universities, as listed by respective ranking organizations, are in the U.S. [ 455 ] [ 456 ] [ 457 ] There are besides local community colleges with broadly more open entree policies, shorter academician programs, and lower tuition. In 2018, U21, a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the United States beginning in the worldly concern for breadth and timbre of higher education, and 15th when GDP was a factor. [ 458 ] As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. trails some other OECD ( Organization for Cooperation and Development ) nations but spends more per scholar than the OECD average, and more than all nations in blend populace and individual spend. [ 459 ] [ 460 ] As of 2018, student loan debt exceeded 1.5 trillion dollars. [ 461 ] [ 462 ]

acculturation

The Statue of Liberty, a large teal bronze sculpture on a stone pedestal [463] For many immigrants, the Statue of Liberty was their first view of the United States. It signified newfangled opportunities in biography, and thus the statue is an iconic symbol of the american Dream deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as its ideals. The United States is home to many cultures and a wide assortment of heathen groups, traditions, and values. [ 464 ] [ 465 ] digression from the native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan populations, closely all Americans or their ancestors immigrated or were imported as slaves within the past five centuries. [ 466 ] Mainstream american english culture is a western polish largely derived from the traditions of european immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from Africa. [ 464 ] [ 467 ] More holocene immigration from Asia and particularly Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenize melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad roll in which immigrants and their descendants retain classifiable cultural characteristics. [ 464 ] Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism, [ 468 ] equally well as a unite impression in an “ American religious doctrine “ emphasizing shore leave, equality, individual property, majority rule, principle of law, and a preference for limited politics. [ 469 ] Americans are highly charitable by global standards : according to a 2006 british study, Americans gave 1.67 % of GDP to charity, more than any other nation studied. [ 470 ] [ 471 ] [ 472 ] The american english Dream, or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility, plays a key function in attracting immigrants. [ 473 ] Whether this percept is accurate has been a subject of argument. [ 474 ] [ 475 ] [ 476 ] While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless club, [ 477 ] scholars identify significant differences between the country ‘s social classes, affecting socialization, linguistic process, and values. [ 478 ] Americans tend to greatly value socioeconomic accomplishment, but being ordinary or modal is besides by and large seen as a positive assign. [ 479 ]

literature, philosophy, and ocular art

In the 18th and early on 19th centuries, American artwork and literature took most of its cues from Europe, contributing to western culture. Writers such as Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a classifiable american literary voice by the middle of the nineteenth hundred. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century ‘s moment half ; Emily Dickinson, about unknown during her life, is nowadays recognized as an necessity american poet. [ 480 ] A exercise seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national have and character—such as Herman Melville ‘s Moby-Dick ( 1851 ), Twain ‘s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn ( 1885 ), F. Scott Fitzgerald ‘s The Great Gatsby ( 1925 ) and Harper Lee ‘s To Kill a Mockingbird ( 1960 ) —may be dubbed the “ big american Novel. ” [ 481 ] Thirteen U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature. William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are much named among the most influential writers of the twentieth century. [ 482 ] Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. The Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as get postmodernist authors such as John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Don DeLillo. [ 483 ] The transcendentalists, led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, established the first major american philosophical movement. After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce and then William James and John Dewey were leaders in the development of realism. In the twentieth century, the bring of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty, and by and by Noam Chomsky, brought analytic doctrine to the bow of american philosophic academia. John Rawls and Robert Nozick besides led a revival of political philosophy. In the ocular arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of european naturalism. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of european modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art setting. [ 484 ] Georgia O’Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new, individualistic styles. Major aesthetic movements such as the pilfer expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop music art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernity and then postmodernism has brought fame to american architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry. [ 485 ] Americans have long been authoritative in the mod aesthetic medium of photography, with major photographers including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, Edward Weston, and Ansel Adams. [ 486 ]

food

A roasted turkey [487] Roasted turkey is a traditional menu item of an american Thanksgiving dinner. early settlers were introduced by native Americans to such autochthonal, non-European foods as turkey, dessert potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup. They and later immigrants combined these with foods they had known, such as wheat flour, [ 488 ] beef, and milk to create a distinctive american cuisine. [ 489 ] [ 490 ] Homegrown foods are character of a shared national menu on one of America ‘s most popular holidays, Thanksgiving, when many Americans make or purchase traditional foods to celebrate the occasion. [ 491 ] The american fast food industry, the world ‘s largest, [ 492 ] pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s. [ 493 ] characteristic american dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, doughnuts, french fries, macaroni and cheese, internal-combustion engine cream, pizza, hamburgers, and blistering dogs derive from the recipes of versatile immigrants. [ 494 ] [ 495 ] Mexican dishes such as burritos and taco and pasta dishes freely adapted from italian sources are wide consumed. [ 496 ] Americans drink three times angstrom much coffee bean as tea. [ 497 ] market by U.S. industries is largely creditworthy for making orange juice and milk standard breakfast beverages. [ 498 ] [ 499 ]

music

Among America ‘s earliest composers was a man named William Billings who, born in Boston, composed patriotic hymn in the 1770s ; [ 500 ] Billings was a separate of the First New England School, who dominated american music during its earliest stages. Anthony Heinrich was the most big composer before the Civil War. From the mid-late 1800s John Philip Sousa of the belated Romantic era, composed numerous military songs— peculiarly marches —and is regarded as one of America ‘s greatest composers. [ 501 ] By the deep nineteenth century, the Second New England School ( sometimes referred to specifically as the “ Boston Six ” ) became outstanding representatives of the classical music tradition, of whom John Knowles Paine was the moderate figure. Although little known at the time, Charles Ives ‘s employment of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the authoritative custom, while experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created a distinctive american approach to classical composing. Aaron Copland and George Gershwin —eventually furthered by Leonard Bernstein —developed a raw deduction of popular and classical music .
The rhythmical and lyrical styles of african-american music have profoundly influenced american music at large, distinguishing it from european and african traditions. Elements from folk music idioms such as the blues and what is now known as old-time music were adopted and transformed into democratic genres with global audiences. Jazz was developed by innovators such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington early in the twentieth hundred. Country music developed in the 1920s, and rhythm and blues in the 1940s. [ 502 ] Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry were among the mid-1950s pioneers of rock and coil. Rock bands such as Metallica, the Eagles, and Aerosmith are among the highest gross in global sales. [ 503 ] [ 504 ] [ 505 ] In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of America ‘s most celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the development of funk. More holocene american creations include hip hop, salsa, techno, and house music. Mid-20th-century american english pop stars such as Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, [ 506 ] and Elvis Presley became global celebrities, [ 502 ] as have artists of the late twentieth century such as Michael Jackson, Prince, Madonna and Whitney Houston. [ 507 ] [ 508 ] Popular artists from the mid-1990s to late 2000s include Mariah Carey, Britney Spears, Justin Timberlake, Christina Aguilera and Beyoncé. long-familiar american singers of the 2010s include Katy Perry, Bruno Mars, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift and Ariana Grande. [ 509 ] [ 510 ]

film

Hollywood, a northern zone of Los Angeles, California, is one of the leaders in apparent motion photograph production. [ 511 ] The worldly concern ‘s first commercial motion video exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison ‘s Kinetoscope. [ 512 ] Since the early twentieth century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the twenty-first hundred an increasing count of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization. [ 513 ] Director D. W. Griffith, an american film maker during the dumb film time period, was cardinal to the development of film grammar, and producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both enliven film and movie selling. [ 514 ] Directors such as John Ford redefined the image of the American Old West, and, like others such as John Huston, broadened the possibilities of film with localization shooting. The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is normally referred to as the “ Golden Age of Hollywood “, from the early sound menstruation until the early 1960s, [ 515 ] with sieve actors such as John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe becoming iconic figures. [ 516 ] [ 517 ] In the 1970s, “ New Hollywood “ or the “ Hollywood Renaissance ” [ 518 ] was defined by grittier films influenced by french and italian realist pictures of the post-war menstruation. [ 519 ] In more late times, directors such as Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and James Cameron have gained renown for their blockbuster films, much characterized by gamey production costs and earnings. luminary films topping the american english Film Institute ‘s AFI 100 list include Orson Welles ‘s Citizen Kane ( 1941 ), which is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time, [ 520 ] [ 521 ] Casablanca ( 1942 ), The Godfather ( 1972 ), Gone with the Wind ( 1939 ), Lawrence of Arabia ( 1962 ), The Wizard of Oz ( 1939 ), The Graduate ( 1967 ), On the Waterfront ( 1954 ), Schindler’s List ( 1993 ), Singin’ in the Rain ( 1952 ), It’s a Wonderful Life ( 1946 ) and Sunset Boulevard ( 1950 ). [ 522 ] The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, have been held annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929, [ 523 ] and the Golden Globe Awards have been held per annum since January 1944. [ 524 ]

Sports

American football is by several measures the most democratic spectator pump sport in the United States ; [ 526 ] the National Football League ( NFL ) has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the Super Bowl is watched by tens of millions globally. [ 527 ] flush on the collegiate charge, college football games receive millions of viewers per television receiver broadcast ; most notably the College Football Playoff, which averages 25 million viewers. [ 528 ] Baseball has been regarded as the U.S. national mutant since the late nineteenth century, with Major League Baseball ( MLB ) being the top league. basketball and ice rink field hockey are the country ‘s future two moderate professional team sports, with the acme leagues being the National Basketball Association ( NBA ) [ 529 ] and the National Hockey League ( NHL ). College football and basketball attract large audiences. The NCAA Final Four is one of the most determine dissipated events. [ 530 ] In soccer ( a fun that has gained a foothold in the United States since the mid-1990s ), the area hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the men ‘s national soccer team qualified for ten-spot World Cups and the women ‘s team has won the FIFA Women ‘s World Cup four times ; Major League Soccer is the sport ‘s highest league in the United States ( featuring 23 american and three canadian teams ). [ 531 ] The grocery store for professional sports in the United States is approximately $ 69 billion, roughly 50 % larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined. [ 532 ] Eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States. The 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri, were the first-ever Olympic Games held outside of Europe. [ 533 ] As of 2017, the United States has won 2,522 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, more than any other nation, and 305 in the Winter Olympic Games, the second most behind Norway. [ 534 ] While most major U.S. sports such as baseball and American football have evolved out of european practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboard, and snowboarding are american inventions, some of which have become democratic cosmopolitan. [ 535 ] Lacrosse and surfing get up from native american english and native hawaiian activities that predate western contact. [ 536 ] The most-watched individual sports are golf and car racing, particularly NASCAR and IndyCar. [ 537 ] [ 538 ]

Mass media

The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company ( NBC ), Columbia Broadcasting System ( CBS ), American Broadcasting Company ( ABC ), and Fox Broadcasting Company ( FOX ). The four major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. cable television television offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches. [ 539 ] Americans listen to radio program, besides largely commercial, on average just over two and a half hours a day. [ 540 ] In 1998, the number of U.S. commercial radio stations had grown to 4,793 AM stations and 5,662 FM stations. In addition, there are 1,460 public radio receiver stations. Most of these stations are run by universities and public authorities for educational purposes and are financed by public or private funds, subscriptions, and corporate cover. a lot public radio broadcasting is supplied by NPR. [ 541 ] NPR was incorporated in February 1970 under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 ; its television receiver counterpart, PBS, was created by the like legislation. As of September 30, 2014, there are 15,433 accredited full-power radio stations in the U.S. according to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission ( FCC ). [ 542 ] long-familiar newspapers include The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and USA Today. [ 543 ] Although the cost of publish has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has by and large remained abject, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertise gross and on articles provided by a major wire servicing, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and earth coverage. [ 544 ] With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by big chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers ; by small chains that own a handful of papers ; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families. major cities often have “ alternative weeklies ” to complement the mainstream daily papers, such as New York City ‘s The Village Voice or Los Angeles ‘ LA Weekly. major cities may besides support a local business daybook, barter papers relating to local anesthetic industries, and papers for local heathen and sociable groups. The five most popular websites used in the U.S. are Google, YouTube, Amazon, Yahoo, and Facebook. [ 545 ] More than 800 publications are produced in spanish, the second most normally practice lyric in the United States behind English. [ 546 ] [ 547 ]

See besides

Notes

References

farther read

Internet sources

Government
  • Official U.S. Government Web Portal Gateway to government sites
  • House Official site of the United States House of Representatives
  • Senate Official site of the United States Senate
  • White House Official site of the president of the United States
  • Supreme Court Official site of the Supreme Court of the United States
History
  • Historical Documents Collected by the National Center for Public Policy Research
  • U.S. National Mottos: History and Constitutionality Analysis by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
  • USA Collected links to historical data
Maps
Photos
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