Crohn’s disease – Symptoms and causes


Colon and rectum

Colon and rectum

Colon and rectum

The colon, besides called the large intestine, is a long, tube-like organ in your abdomen. The colon carries neutralize to be expelled from the body .

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Crohn ‘s disease is a type of inflammatory intestine disease ( IBD ). It causes ignition of your digestive nerve pathway, which can lead to abdominal pain, dangerous diarrhea, tire, weight loss and malnutrition.

ignition caused by Crohn ‘s disease can involve different areas of the digestive tract in different people. This inflammation often spreads into the deeper layers of the intestine .
Crohn ‘s disease can be both atrocious and debilitating, and sometimes may lead to dangerous complications .
While there ‘s no know cure for Crohn ‘s disease, therapies can greatly reduce its signs and symptoms and even bring about long-run absolution and healing of ignition. With treatment, many people with Crohn ‘s disease are able to function well .

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Digestive system

Digestive system

Digestive system

Crohn ‘s disease and ulcerative colitis are both forms of incendiary intestine disease. Crohn ‘s disease most normally affects the colon and the final part of the little intestine ( ileum ). ulcerative colitis affects only the colon .
In Crohn ‘s disease, any region of your little or large intestine can be involved, and it may be continuous or may involve multiple segments. In some people, the disease is confined to the colon, which is character of the large intestine .
Signs and symptoms of Crohn ‘s disease can range from mild to severe. They normally develop gradually, but sometimes will come on on the spur of the moment, without warning. You may besides have periods of prison term when you have no signs or symptoms ( remission ) .
When the disease is active, signs and symptoms may include :

  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Blood in your stool
  • Mouth sores
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss
  • Pain or drainage near or around the anus due to inflammation from a tunnel into the skin (fistula)

Other signs and symptoms

People with severe Crohn ‘s disease may besides experience :

  • Inflammation of skin, eyes and joints
  • Inflammation of the liver or bile ducts
  • Kidney stones
  • Iron deficiency (anemia)
  • Delayed growth or sexual development, in children

When to see a doctor

See your doctor of the church if you have persistent changes in your intestine habits or if you have any of the signs and symptoms of Crohn ‘s disease, such as :

  • Abdominal pain
  • Blood in your stool
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Ongoing bouts of diarrhea that don’t respond to over-the-counter (OTC) medications
  • Unexplained fever lasting more than a day or two
  • Unexplained weight loss

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The demand cause of Crohn ‘s disease remains unknown. previously, diet and stress were suspected, but now doctors know that these factors may aggravate, but do n’t cause, Crohn ‘s disease. several factors, such as heredity and a malfunctioning immune arrangement, likely play a function in its development .

  • Immune system. It’s possible that a virus or bacterium may trigger Crohn’s disease; however, scientists have yet to identify such a trigger. When your immune system tries to fight off the invading microorganism, an abnormal immune response causes the immune system to attack the cells in the digestive tract, too.
  • Heredity. Crohn’s is more common in people who have family members with the disease, so genes may play a role in making people more susceptible. However, most people with Crohn’s disease don’t have a family history of the disease.

Risk factors

risk factors for Crohn ‘s disease may include :

  • Age. Crohn’s disease can occur at any age, but you’re likely to develop the condition when you’re young. Most people who develop Crohn’s disease are diagnosed before they’re around 30 years old.
  • Ethnicity. Although Crohn’s disease can affect any ethnic group, whites have the highest risk, especially people of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish descent. However, the incidence of Crohn’s disease is increasing among Black people who live in North America and the United Kingdom.
  • Family history. You’re at higher risk if you have a first-degree relative, such as a parent, sibling or child, with the disease. As many as 1 in 5 people with Crohn’s disease has a family member with the disease.
  • Cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is the most important controllable risk factor for developing Crohn’s disease. Smoking also leads to more-severe disease and a greater risk of having surgery. If you smoke, it’s important to stop.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. These include ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve), diclofenac sodium and others. While they do not cause Crohn’s disease, they can lead to inflammation of the bowel that makes Crohn’s disease worse.


Crohn ‘s disease may lead to one or more of the follow complications :

  • Bowel obstruction. Crohn’s disease can affect the entire thickness of the intestinal wall. Over time, parts of the bowel can scar and narrow, which may block the flow of digestive contents. You may require surgery to remove the diseased portion of your bowel.
  • Ulcers. Chronic inflammation can lead to open sores (ulcers) anywhere in your digestive tract, including your mouth and anus, and in the genital area (perineum).
  • Fistulas. Sometimes ulcers can extend completely through the intestinal rampart, creating a fistulous withers — an abnormal connection between different body parts. Fistulas can develop between your intestine and your skin, or between your intestine and another organ. Fistulas near or around the anal area ( perianal ) are the most common kind .
    When fistulas develop in the abdomen, food may bypass areas of the intestine that are necessary for assimilation. Fistulas may form between loops of intestine, in the bladder or vagina, or through the hide, causing continuous drain of intestine contents to your skin .
    In some cases, a fistula may become septic and form an abscess, which can be dangerous if not treated .
  • Anal fissure. This is a small tear in the tissue that lines the anus or in the skin around the anus where infections can occur. It’s often associated with painful bowel movements and may lead to a perianal fistula.
  • Malnutrition. Diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping may make it difficult for you to eat or for your intestine to absorb enough nutrients to keep you nourished. It’s also common to develop anemia due to low iron or vitamin B-12 caused by the disease.
  • Colon cancer. Having Crohn’s disease that affects your colon increases your risk of colon cancer. General colon cancer screening guidelines for people without Crohn’s disease call for a colonoscopy every 10 years beginning at age 50. Ask your doctor whether you need to have this test done sooner and more frequently.
  • Other health problems. Crohn’s disease can cause problems in other parts of the body. Among these problems are anemia, skin disorders, osteoporosis, arthritis, and gallbladder or liver disease.
  • Medication risks. Certain Crohn ‘s disease drugs that act by blocking functions of the immune organization are associated with a belittled risk of developing cancers such as lymphoma and skin cancers. They besides increase gamble of contagion.

    Corticosteroids can be associated with a risk of osteoporosis, bone fractures, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetes and high blood pressure, among early conditions. bring with your doctor to determine risks and benefits of medications .

  • Blood clots. Crohn’s disease increases the risk of blood clots in veins and arteries.

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