Celiac disease – Symptoms and causes

Overview

Celiac disease

Celiac disease

Celiac disease

Your small intestine is lined with bantam capillary projections called villus, which absorb vitamins, minerals and other nutrients from the food you eat. Celiac disease damages the villus, leaving your body unable to absorb nutrients necessity for health and growth .
Celiac disease, sometimes called celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye .
If you have coeliac disease, eating gluten triggers an immune response in your modest intestine. Over time, this reaction damages your little intestine ‘s lining and prevents it from absorbing some nutrients ( malabsorption ). The intestinal price often causes diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, bloating and anemia, and can lead to unplayful complications.

In children, malabsorption can affect growth and development, besides causing the symptoms seen in adults .
There ‘s no cure for coeliac disease — but for most people, following a rigorous gluten-free diet can help manage symptoms and promote intestinal mend .

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of coeliac disease can vary greatly and differ in children and adults. digestive signs and symptoms for adults include :

  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Bloating and gas
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation

however, more than half the adults with celiac disease have signs and symptoms unrelated to the digestive system, including :

  • Anemia, usually from iron deficiency
  • Loss of bone density (osteoporosis) or softening of bone (osteomalacia)
  • Itchy, blistery skin rash (dermatitis herpetiformis)
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Headaches and fatigue
  • Nervous system injury, including numbness and tingling in the feet and hands, possible problems with balance, and cognitive impairment
  • Joint pain
  • Reduced functioning of the spleen (hyposplenism)

Children

Children with coeliac disease are more likely than adults to have digestive problems, including :

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Swollen belly
  • Constipation
  • Gas
  • Pale, foul-smelling stools

The inability to absorb nutrients might result in :

  • Failure to thrive for infants
  • Damage to tooth enamel
  • Weight loss
  • Anemia
  • Irritability
  • Short stature
  • Delayed puberty
  • Neurological symptoms, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, headaches, lack of muscle coordination and seizures

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Gluten intolerance can cause this itchy, blistering skin disease. The rash normally occurs on the elbows, knees, torso, scalp and buttocks. This condition is much associated with changes to the line of the little intestine identical to those of celiac disease, but the peel condition might not cause digestive symptoms .
Doctors treat dermatitis herpetiformis with a gluten-free diet or medicine, or both, to control the rash .

When to see a doctor

Consult your doctor of the church if you have diarrhea or digestive discomfort that lasts for more than two weeks. Consult your child ‘s doctor if your child is pale, irritable or failing to grow or has a pot and fetid, bulky stools .
Be surely to consult your doctor before trying a gluten-free diet. If you stop or evening reduce the total of gluten you eat before you ‘re tested for celiac disease, you can change the test results .
Celiac disease tends to run in families. If person in your family has the stipulate, ask your doctor if you should be tested. besides ask your doctor about testing if you or person in your family has a hazard factor for coeliac disease, such as type 1 diabetes .

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Causes

Your genes combined with eating foods with gluten and early factors can contribute to celiac disease, but the precise causal agent is n’t known. Infant-feeding practices, gastrointestinal infections and gut bacteria might contribute, as well. Sometimes celiac disease becomes active after surgery, pregnancy, childbirth, viral infection or severe emotional stress .
When the body ‘s immune system overreacts to gluten in food, the reaction damages the bantam, capillary projections ( villus ) that line the minor intestine. Villi absorb vitamins, minerals and other nutrients from the food you eat. If your villus are damaged, you ca n’t get enough nutrients, no matter how much you eat .

Risk factors

Celiac disease tends to be more common in people who have :

  • A family member with celiac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Down syndrome or Turner syndrome
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease
  • Microscopic colitis (lymphocytic or collagenous colitis)
  • Addison’s disease

Complications

Untreated, coeliac disease can cause :

Read more: ED

  • Malnutrition. This occurs if your small intestine can’t absorb enough nutrients. Malnutrition can lead to anemia and weight loss. In children, malnutrition can cause slow growth and short stature.
  • Bone weakening. Malabsorption of calcium and vitamin D can lead to a softening of the bone (osteomalacia or rickets) in children and a loss of bone density (osteopenia or osteoporosis) in adults.
  • Infertility and miscarriage. Malabsorption of calcium and vitamin D can contribute to reproductive issues.
  • Lactose intolerance. Damage to your small intestine might cause you abdominal pain and diarrhea after eating or drinking dairy products that contain lactose. Once your intestine has healed, you might be able to tolerate dairy products again.
  • Cancer. People with celiac disease who don’t maintain a gluten-free diet have a greater risk of developing several forms of cancer, including intestinal lymphoma and small bowel cancer.
  • Nervous system problems. Some people with celiac disease can develop problems such as seizures or a disease of the nerves to the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy).

Nonresponsive celiac disease

Some people with coeliac disease do n’t respond to what they consider to be a gluten-free diet. Nonresponsive celiac disease is often due to contamination of the diet with gluten. Working with a dietician can help you learn how to avoid all gluten .
People with nonresponsive celiac disease might have :

  • Bacteria in the small intestine (bacterial overgrowth)
  • Microscopic colitis
  • Poor pancreas function (pancreatic insufficiency)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Difficulty digesting sugar found in dairy products (lactose), table sugar (sucrose), or a type of sugar found in honey and fruits (fructose)
  • Refractory celiac disease

Refractory celiac disease

In rare instances, the intestinal injury of coeliac disease does n’t respond to a hard-and-fast gluten-free diet. This is known as refractory celiac disease. If you still have signs and symptoms after following a gluten-free diet for six months to one year, you might need further testing to look for early explanations for your symptoms .

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