Capsicum annuum – Wikipedia

Species of flowering plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae

Capsicum annuum is a species of the establish genus Capsicum native to southerly North America, the Caribbean, and northerly South America. [ 2 ] [ 5 ] This species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated capsicums. The species encompasses a wide assortment of shapes and sizes of peppers, both mild and hot, such as bell peppers, jalapeños, New Mexico chile, and cayenne peppers. Cultivars descended from the violent american english bird pepper are still found in ardent regions of the Americas. [ 6 ] In the past, some woody forms of this species have been called C. frutescens, but the features that were used to distinguish those forms appear in many populations of C. annuum and are not systematically recognizable features in C. frutescens species. [ 7 ]

Characteristics [edit ]

Although the species name annuum means “ annual ” ( from the Latin annus “ class ” ), the implant is not an annual but is freeze offer. [ 8 ] In the absence of winter frosts it can survive several seasons and grow into a large, shrubby perennial herb. [ 9 ] The individual flowers are an whitish ( sometimes purplish ) color while the stem is densely branched and up to 60 centimeter ( 24 in ) tall. The fruits are peppers that may be green, yellow, orange or red when ripe. [ 10 ] While the species can tolerate most frost-free climates, C. annuum is specially fat in quick and dry climates. [ citation needed ]

pollination [edit ]

While by and large self-pollinating, worm visitation is known to increase the fruit size and accelerate of ripening, american samoa well as to ensure harmonious development. Pepper flowers have nectaries at the establish of the corolla, which helps to attract pollinators. The anthers do not release pollen except via buzz pollination, such as provided by bumble bees. [ 11 ]

Uses [edit ]

culinary [edit ]

Five colors of peppers in an israeli supermarket The species is a generator of popular sweet peppers and hot chiles with numerous varieties cultivated all around the world, and is the source of popular spices such as cayenne, chili, and sweet pepper powders. common appoint in English falls by and large in line with the season and size of the variant. Larger, sugared variants are called “ capsicums ” in Australia and New Zealand, “ peppers ” in the United Kingdom, [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] and “ bell peppers ” in the United States. The smaller, hotter varieties are called chiles, [ 15 ] chilies, chillies, chili, or chili peppers, or in parts of the US, “ peppers ”. Capsinoid chemicals provide the classifiable tastes in C. annuum variants. In particular, capsaicin creates a burn sensation ( “ horniness ” ), which in extreme cases can last for several hours after consumption. A measurement called the Scoville scale has been created to describe the hotness of peppers and other foods .

traditional medicine [edit ]

hot peppers are used in traditional medicate adenine well as food in Africa. [ 16 ] english botanist John Lindley described C. annuum in his 1838 Flora Medica frankincense : [ 17 ]

It is employed in medicine, in combination with Cinchona in intermittent and lethargic affections, and besides in atonic gout, indigestion accompanied by flatulence, tympanitis, paralysis etc. Its most valuable application appears however to be in cynanche maligna ( acute diphtheria ) and scarlatina maligna ( malignant Scarlet fever, used either as a gargle or administered internally. )

In Ayurveda, C. annuum is classified as follows : [ citation needed ]

  • Guna (properties) – ruksha (dry), laghu (light) and tikshna (sharp)
  • Rasa (taste) – katu (pungent)
  • Virya (potency) – ushna (hot)

ornamental [edit ]

Some cultivars grown specifically for their aesthetic value include the U.S. National Arboretum ‘s ‘Black Pearl ‘ [ 18 ] and the ‘ bolivian Rainbow ‘. cosmetic varieties tend to have unusually colored fruit and leaf with colors such as black and purple being celebrated. All are edible, and most ( like ‘Royal Black ‘ ) are hot .

host plant [edit ]

The potato tuber moth ( Phthorimaea operculella ) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the syndicate Solanaceae such as pepper plants. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larva will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf .

gallery [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

far read [edit ]

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Category : Health

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